Specifications are required for following purposes:

to create objects

            to procure entities

to provide services

to verify the fulfilment of a purpose,

            to operate a system, and also

to structure a set of specifications.

Specifications serve one or more of the following conditions.

  • If the needed object is available in the Market or Nature, one can define the conditions of procurement, including terms of purchase, delivery, quality parameters, etc.


  • A Routine object can be produced by prescribing the constituents and a process for production or fabrication. The process details, may exclude (for brevity) the particulars of the quality of raw materials (commonly known or available), and characteristics of the resultant product or service.


  • Custom designed object will be produced with specific quality of raw materials, through set procedures. And the resultant product is expected to have the peculiar sensorial qualities and functionality.


  • A product or service to be delivered / procured with the assurance of quality (guarantee / warrantee) may have only performance parameters prescribed. The quality of raw materials and process become less relevant.


  • Operation of large and complex systems is an undertaking by itself. Here the specifications are operational strategies defining the duties of different system operators (traffic, risks management, emergencies, security, etc.). The scheme exploits the built-in capabilities, and is also sustained by planned external interventions.


  • Composite systems that have very dependent sub systems flourish only under Specific Environment. Specifications here detail the contextual conditions for the subsystem to flourish effectively.


  • Critical and Hazardous systems cannot come into being unless appropriate routines for handling, storage, disposal, demolition, etc. are predefined.