In the human body THREE types of heat generating processes are operative.


1            Conversion of food matter into useful energy is a continuous heat generating process.


2            Muscular activities like even sedentary work or sleeping, are heat generating processes.


3            Lastly, certain infections and dysfunctions within the body, elevate or lower the body temperature by extra ordinary rate of heat generation or weakened heat dissipation mechanism.


Of all the energy produced in the body only 20 % is utilized, rest 80 % is surplus heat. The body must not only release all the excess heat that is generated from within the body, but all the excess heat as gained from the environment. Heat is lost from the body by


              Radiation (60 %),

           Evaporation (25 %),

           Convection and Conduction (15 %).

1            Heat loss through Radiation: Radiation mainly occurs when there is a difference in temperature of opposing surfaces. As long as temperature of the opposite surface or object (sun, fire, radiator) is below skin temperature, the body can lose heat by radiation. But once it reaches an equilibrium occurs, body will rather gain heat by radiation.

2            Heat loss through Evaporation is controlled by the level of humidity in the air. Level of humidity is in turn affected by temperature of the air and human body, rate of air movement and the existing proportion of humidity . Body dissipates heat through evaporation by perspiration, sweat and exhalation of air. Dryer air encourages faster evaporation. Evaporation can occur if air has velocity and appropriate humidity (low). Even in case of very high humidity conditions a high velocity air can remove the humidity.

3            Heat loss through Convection occurs when the air in the vicinity of skin becomes hot, expands, decreases in density, and elevates to allow cooler air in its place. Rate of heat convection from body depends on the difference in temperatures (skin & surrounding air) and rate of air movement. When the convective process is inoperative and radiation heat gain is positive, the body can maintain the thermal balance by evaporation.

4            Heat loss through Conduction depends on the difference between the body temperature and the contact object.

Normal skin temperature is between 31° and 34°C. As the air temperature approaches the skin temperature heat loss from the body gradually decreases. In the circumstances the vasomotor regulation increases the body temperature to 34°C to maintain the heat loss, However if air temperature is higher (such as under the sun or very warm climates, the convective heat loss may not work.



Post by –Gautam Shah

Door Casings : Extrados : Intrados

Door, windows and other gaps are often too deep, and a wood (or other materials) frame cannot cover the entire width. To economize the use of wood, door frames have to be of functional size (depth). The sides of the gaps are covered by a Casing. Casing is a widened frame, or additional panelling that is placed on the remaining area of sides. Treatments on external sides of the openings are also called Extrados and similar ones on interior sides are called Intrados. Extrados and Intrados are often used as decorative carved elements in plaster-work or as stone or brick masonry design, as integrated treatments. The words are also used for exterior-interior curve or surface of an arch or vault.

Altamura Central Doorway deeply undercut to leave sides for full relief treatment

The casing usually is placed on the interior face of the door frame, but for interior space doors it can occur on any face. There are many types of casings:

1       a casing that covers the entire depth of the gap, and the door frame is mounted over it or is formed by placing a thin architrave that creates a door stop butt;

2       a casing is formed between two sets of frames (outer + inner door frames) that marks the edge;

3       a casing, or two sets of it are placed over the remaining portion, not occupied by a centrally placed frame.

4       a casing, is a different entity from an Architrave so far its placement and functions are considered. Architrave a door frame frontal masking border.

Casings are single panel constructions, multi division panels, or in the form of stripes or flutes. Casings are often confused with Architrave, Mouldings and other Trims used with opening systems.


Deep door portals are used for accommodating a set of doors, with an interim space. In case of double shutter set such as the set of shutters ‘solid + glazed’, ‘glazed + louvered’, ‘glazed + mosquito net’, etc. are hung on the inside and outside edges. In a multi shutter system the casings are often hollowed out to accommodate (third set) of sliding shutters.

630 -1024px-Niesky_-_Zinzendorfplatz_-_Raschkehaus_02_ies

Door Casing > Wikipedia Image by Frank Vincentz

Extra wide casings are created by having deeper door portals. Deep portals create a zone between the two shutters, to dampen the noise, provide insulation, create an air lock. To avoid deep casings the sides are architecturally or panelling wise chamfered or stepped (serrated as in Gothic doors).


Casings become termination points for the skirting, wainscotting, dado or wall panelling system. The chief tools for such termination or integration of two elements is architraves. (An architrave is a border that surrounds a door frame or door way. Often it covers the junction of a door frame and masonry wall, casing, panelling, etc. It is often a part of the moulding.)





Post -by Gautam Shah




In an open-ended system, components designed or manufactured by different vendors are used. The success of such a system depends on the adaptation of measures, standards for materials and codes for procedures. Open-ended systems are wasteful because of the built in, reserve or additional capacities. The built in capacities in the open-ended systems do facilitate future replacements, improvisations and up-gradations. Open-ended systems generally result from mature and multi trial endeavours. Where large number of people are involved in design and execution and where these processes are likely to take place in different time spans, the system automatically becomes open ended. Open ended systems are also called ‘open architecture entities’.




In a closed ended system the components are not interchangeable. Components designed for a particular situation ,are neither usable nor adoptable in another situation. Closed systems are very wholesome or compact compared with open systems, which usually have a skeleton type frame structure (infrastructure) and are loosely held. Closed systems are rigid and not easily improvisable, whereas open systems allow up-gradation. Closed ended system being compact have no redundancy. Closed ended system become totally useless with even minor changes in their environment or working. Close ended systems generally result from first ever (prime) or unique creative effort. Spontaneous and one man creations tend to be closed systems, unless a conscious effort is made to make it an open system. Closed ended systems are also called ‘proprietary systems’.






Temperature related Comfort parameters for Interior Design

Post -by Gautam Shah


An effective climate (actual feel) of a place emerges from the comprehensive mix of three basic factors: Temperature, Humidity and Air movement. To create an equitable environment, we need to hasten, delay, curtail, terminate, enhance or dilute the effects of these factors. The equitable environment is also achieved by siting, size, shape and form (openings and other architectural features) of the building. These are static and strategic means of comfort. Dynamic and tactical comfort solutions, however, are achieved through a persistent time and space management of tasks, reorientation of lifestyle settings, by adjusting the food and clothing. An Interior Designer as a building engineer may not enforce the lifestyles, food or clothing solutions, but awareness about these aspects helps generate a better design.


Siting of a Building and the internal components: Interior design solutions rarely create new places (sites) for buildings, but a designer must know how to take advantage of the existing site conditions for relocating the internal components. It includes siting and scheduling the activities, providing surface treatments (texture, colour, insulation and latent heat capacities), redesigning the openings, and establishing architectonic elements (such as the shading devices) for controlling the solar gain.


Size of the building, and its blocks: Unitary buildings are more compact in mass and show ‘single space thermal behaviour’. Compartmentalized or blocked buildings on the other hand have separated zones with distinguishing thresholds and intermediate buffer portions offer many different types of thermal profiles. Such variegated sections are easy to manage and exploit for appropriate activities. A compact building has lesser external surface area and so lesser heat gain, but also reduced heat loss. Pol houses (Ahmedabad, India) are raw houses with common walls and for the hot arid climate have lesser heat gain.


garage_color_game_grey_concrete_structure_stone_pattern_cement-630036.jpg!dShape of the building: The shape of a building has three major relevance: surface area, perimeter and orientation to sun and wind. A simple shape (cubical) has lesser surface area compared to a zigzag shaped or ‘winged’ building. A building with larger surface (i.e. foot-print with greater perimeter) has larger heat gain (summers) and loss (winters). A zigzag or winged building creates many shaded area which are thermal and wind pressure differentiated zones and used for thermal and air movements.




Most societies have repertoire of matured customs and traditions for climatic adoption. These knowledge get passed on from one to another generation. In a stable society the ethnic scene is full of fail-safe climate related strategies. However, in rapidly changing societies there is substantial infusion of new ideas, where migrants bring in new house forms and lifestyles. The Young migrants who possibly have had no opportunity to imbibe the accumulated knowledge of climate adoption from the place of their origin, find it very difficult to establish in an alien situation.





Mikveh (Mikvah, mikve, or mikva) is a Pool or Bath of clear water in which full immersion is required to regain ritual purity, after specific impure incidents. The Mikveh is a Jewish tradition, and several biblical texts spiritually associate it with the natural source of water.


No specific architectural form is specified or has emerged over the years. However, several conditions based on classical rabbinical literature define the nature of the immersion ritual and its place.

According to these rules, a Mikveh must be connected to naturally occurring water or collection of living water. It requires groundwater wells, springs or rivers. It is believed that living water is able to purify with the flow as opposed to the rainwater which must be stationary in order to purify. A cistern filled by the rain is also permitted to act as a Mikveh’s water supply. Similarly snow, ice and hail are allowed to act as the supply of water to a Mikveh, as long as it melts and flows. Ocean is considered proper for immersion where there is no Mikveh available.

The Mikveh must comply with a number of precise halakhic [Jewish legal] qualifications. The Mikveh must be built into the ground or the structure of the building. It must hold a minimum of 24 cubic feet of water–200 gallons. The depth must be such as to enable an average adult to stand upright and have the water reach at least 11 inches above the waist, so that immersion can be performed without backbreaking contortions.

Ancient Mikvehs dating from 1st C are found throughout Israel as well as in historic settlements of Jewish communities. ‘In the days of the ancient Temple in Jerusalem, the Mikveh was used by all Jews who wanted to enter the precincts of the Sanctuary’. In modern times, Mikvehs can be found in most communities in Orthodox Judaism. Jewish funeral homes have a Mikveh for immersing a body during the purification procedure (Tahara) before burial.


A convert to Judaism is required to immerse in a Mikveh as part of his/her conversion. A woman is required to immerse in a Mikveh after her menstrual period or childbirth before she and her husband can resume marital relations. Often newly acquired utensils used in serving and eating food are immersed in Mikveh. Today, Mikveh is ceremonially used by women prior to the marriage.


 Post  –by Gautam Shah


Quilting is a method of stitching together two layers of fabrics with or without an interlining of some material to form a textile sandwich. The stitching holds the fabrics and the interlining material in place and also serves as the basis for decorative designs.

Quilted fabric or quilt constructed fabrics are used for blankets, mattress covers, and also clothing, upholstery, and decoration. The quilt fabrics and the interlining material provide substance (mass), insulation, stiffness and textured effect. The quilting fabrics are cotton, artificial silks, rayon and polyesters. The interlining materials are fluffed cotton or polyester, rayon staples, shoddy wools and animal hairs, bird-feathers, polypropylene woven and non-woven sheets, coir, etc. Poor in India use discarded clothing pieces to form quilts.


The Quilting or joining the fabric and the interlining is done by continuous machine or hand stitches as well as continuous or spot knotting. Modern quilting is done by heat fusion setting or chemical bonding. The Stitch-lines and knots create regular or irregular patterns like squares, diamonds, spirals, etc.


The Quilting fabric could be same on both sides or plain one on the bottom side. The top fabric is often plain so that the quilting stitches form the design. The top fabric is printed or created by joining small pieces of fabrics to create an appliqué or patch work.


Quilting is very ancient craft. Quilted garments were extensively used In China, Russia, and Pre-Columbian Meso-America for warmth. Quilted fabrics were used as armour. Crusaders from western Europe were introduced to quilting when they encountered Saracens in the Holy Land. Saracen foot soldiers wore straw-filled, quilted canvas shirts as a form of armour, and horsemen used quilted silk under-shirts to prevent their armour from chafing. Dutch and English colonists brought quilting to America in the 17th C. The first American quilts were made by the appliqué method. Archaeologists discovered a quilted floor covering in Mongolia, estimated to be of between 100 BC to 200 AD.


Molas are handmade using a reverse appliqué technique. Several layers (usually two to seven) of different-coloured cloth (usually cotton) are sewn together; the design is then formed by cutting away parts of each layer. The edges of the layers are then turned under and sewn down. Often, the stitches are nearly invisible. This is achieved by using a thread the same color as the layer being sewn, sewing blind stitches, and sewing tiny stitches. The finest molas have extremely fine stitching, made using tiny needles.

The largest pattern is typically cut from the top layer, and progressively smaller patterns from each subsequent layer, thus revealing the colours beneath in successive layers. This basic scheme can be varied by cutting through multiple layers at once, hence varying the sequence of colours; some molas also incorporate patches of contrasting colours, included in the design at certain points to introduce additional variations of colour. –from Wikipedia



Interior Design Assist

 (This article is 4th in the series. 1st= Standards Levels of Relevance, 2nd= Types of Standards, 3rd= Emergence of National and International Standards).

Standards may be written descriptions (or conveyed through other media), mathematical formulations, graphical presentations or drawings, all setting forth the important features of objects to be produced, services to be performed, or results to be achieved and verified.

Standards for industry may be Qualitative Parameters for constituent raw materials, which can provide a reasonable output. It could be Capabilities of machines and other equipments, which combined with specific human skills help efficient handling of tasks. Standards also specify Tactics and Strategies of securing assured results. It could be devices, instruments and methodologies to verify the performance. Standards could also include mechanisms to connect, operate, maintain and replace systems.

Standards invariably incorporate Time as a disciplining factor. Time management through scheduling, sequencing, acceleration…

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