To perceive is to experience, accept, acknowledge or behold objects and happenings before us. Perception nominally means sensorial recognition, but could also be realization through other means. An understanding of a situation, acceptance or confirmation is also part of the process of perception.
Generally we consider Vision (ophthalmoception), Hearing (audioception), Taste, (gustaoception), Smell (olfacception), and Touch (tactioception), as the five traditionally recognized senses. But in reality there are nearly ten senses. In addition to touch the skin can perceive Warmth and Cold (thermoception), and ‘feel’ the Pain (nociception). Sense organs in the muscles, tendons and joints tell us about the position of our limbs and the state of tension in the muscles, providing sense of kinesthetic or proprioception, balance or equilibrioception, and acceleration or kinesthesioception.
Each sensory system is a kind of a channel, consisting of a sensitive element -the receptor, nerves fibres leading from this receptor to the brain or spinal cord, and the various relay stations and processing areas within the brain. What exactly a sense is a matter of some debate and so difficult to define it. But the ultimate or end nodes are different chemoreceptors for detecting salt and carbon dioxide concentrations in the blood. However, only a very small number of these can be called as separate senses.
Sensorial perception is finite, as limited by our body capacities. Body capacities vary from person to person and also depending on many other personal factors such as age, sex, mood, past experiences, sequences of happenings, etc. Perception is cumulative and to an extent mutually compensative process. It also occurs as congregation of several effects. We may not be able to isolate few parts of it. Smell and taste often occur together.
The sensory nodes have Four important characteristics that are they have specific Location, Capacity and Multiplicity and Duration. The Location provides directionality and encourages discrimination. The Capacity of body nodes to perceive is range bound which provides comfort, sense of survival. Beyond the range bound capacity the perception process gets transmitted to other modes allowing greater facilitation. The Multiplicities of nodes give a sense of scale and reference positions. The Duration gives a temporal scale. In other words The Location, Body capacities, Multiplicity and duration all together and individually endow a Geo-Spatial identity.
There are abnormal sensorial perceptions also. These arise from the Location related misinterpretations, Physiological deficiencies, differentiated perception of multiple nodes and time related intensifications and diffusions.