Postby Gautam Shah 

Organizations receive and generate lots of data, which have TWO sets of relevance. Information with distant use is strategic, and will be used for planning and forecasting. Strategic information is more general than any tactical information. Information with immediate use is tactical, and is used for decision making and problem solving. Operational uses of information are very occasion or situation-specific.


Information has FIVE qualities:

Brevity (specific to the context),

Accuracy (of the right context or sensible),

Timeliness or up to date,

Purposiveness (capable of causing desired actions),

Rarity (original, novel).


For organizations prime Internal Information Resources (IIR) are: experience and knowledge that comes with owners, employees, consultants, etc., and data generated from the routine activities. For organizations External information resources (EIR) are: media based such as books, periodicals, internet, CDs, tapes, etc., and input and feedback from consultants, suppliers, contractors and clients. These resources once procured by the organization, and if properly stored, can be a great internal asset.


External information is inter-organizational, fraternity level, society, community, national, or of a universal domain. External information is acquired for a payment of compensation in proportion to its quality, quantity and acuteness of need. Organizations, as a result, end up paying a stiff price for sourcing external information.


Internal information is personal, departmental or organizational. Internal information resources are nearly free, require only processing at a negligible cost, but are ignored. Organizations thrive and proliferate on the quality and quantity of data within their reach. Organizations by continuously processing their data generate synergies that in turn sharpen their data processing capacity.


Cost of information: Information as a commodity can have an ordinary cost, if it is universally available and not urgently needed. However, information of rare or proprietary nature and that requiring immediate access can have a high price. Information is also available in many free domains without any obligations. Cost of information is also formed by absolute factors like the cost of acquisition, processing, storing, retrieval and transmission.




 Post -by Gautam Shah




Old buildings often have so well preserved structures, that the shell continues to be valuable as a place of inhabitation or occupation. With some changes such buildings can be made suitable for new uses. Conversion of buildings for new functions becomes easier when such buildings do not carry emotional or other symbolic values. There is no obsession to trace the antiquity and restore the past image of such buildings. As a result, owners, designers and builders, have unbounded scope, for affecting changes in such buildings.

Repurposed space Annes Theatre Under Brooklyn Bridge NYC

Reformations and Conversions exploit the current assets of the building. Reformation of a building can happen, if only the surroundings can support the new occupation. A building is considered fit for reformation, when it represents a saving of physical resources and time, compared to the cost and time required in putting up a fresh building of equivalent size.


Selection of functions or activities, to be established is primarily determined by the

1 – Location advantage the building offers,

2 – Spatial characteristics of the structure,

3 – Empathy its external form now presents or will create after the processes of reformation,

4 – Structural qualities such as equilibrium – stability and longevity of the building.


Commercial activities that exclusively offer economic viability due to the technical functioning of the building, such as the departmental stores, multi storey parks, industrial plants, etc. generally require modern structures. Whereas other occupational activities that provide economic or other levels of validity, from the nature of allowable activities (happenings) rather than the core or programmed functions can be accommodated in reformed or converted building.



Reformations are achieved through processes like Alterations, Extension, Renovation etc. of the building. Expectations for the ‘post reformation’ results are often very basic and without any preconceptions yet of of unprecedented nature. Success of reformation is measured in either the immediate economic gain like rent, or appreciation in the value of the building.


Notions of conversion as opposed to new construction, depends on the scale at which it is viewed. To the city planner the pulling down of a block and the construction of a new one to replace it is a conversion of the city locality, but for the architect it is just a project. For the interior designer furnishing a space in an old building is a new job. Conversion designers operate between two extremes, one within the realm of social relevance and acceptability, and other of utter professionalism to create an entity. Reformations or Conversions rehabilitate buildings. The rehabilitation of a building is very perplexing, Is one trying to re-establish the original functions into a structure that has become dysfunctional, due to structural reasons, malfunctioning of important utilities, or been abused by the social or political upheaval, Or, Is one trying to achieve the functional modifications to sustain viability, acceptability in the changed circumstances?


In Europe many old factories and shore front buildings like warehouses have been reformed. Old palaces have been rehabilitated into resorts. Churches converted into temples of other faith.



IRON or STEEL -technologies through history

Post —by Gautam Shah



       Iron or Steel is one of the most complex of all metals used by man. In spite of its very large volume of use, it still remains a very enigmatic material.


2   Iron changes the properties during manufacture, post processing, aging and usage. Many of the changes are known to man for years, but ignored. Some of these effects became apparent very late in the life span of the structure, or functional entities. Such realizations, though late have not affected us very severely, because superior technologies of later dates provided better guaranteed and efficient solutions.


       Many of the Industrial revolution period steel structures, such as large span buildings, bridges and ships were formed of very inferior materials and fastening techniques (hind sight realizations). But ‘change solutions’ that became available 30 / 50 years later were better enough to have no regrets for replacement. In few cases there have been losses of life, such as Titanic or Liberty series of ships. The only regrets were that often such structures collapsed suddenly.


4        The technological deficiencies that affected the structures and entities were due to ignorance and lack of inadequate knowledge, but similar problems have continued even today due to insincere applications.



5       However, birth of steel fabrication was with cast shapes like parts of columns, capitals, brackets and sections of arches. These were components of compression. Tensile capacity was untested. Hollowed out brackets and arch forming sections had few subsections that were tensile stressed. Tensile behaviour of steel was not completely unknown quality. As the integrity of castings improved, through constitution and methods of cooling, the tensile reliability increased.


6        One of the most widely used form of ferrous metal has been the sheets. Sheets are re-rolled, cut into strips and folded or formed into various sections.


7        Compared to cast steels, drawn steels had better grain alignment and tensile strength was known. Mild steels produced through use of Bessemer process provided the much needed ductility and tensile stress capacity.


       Steels were re-rolled into sheets, but in the manufacturing number of annealing, tempering, hardening processes were perfected.

9        Annealing and Hardening, are nominally considered two extreme processes, former a softening and the later its opposite method. But Tempering that is readjusting the quality of steel is now considered even more important. It is chiefly used in forming various sections, automobile bodies and cages for white-goods. Companies producing furniture, automobiles and white-goods have a selfish interest in replacement markets, and so design their product for 10 years life cycle. After that no one is bothered about the product.




Postby Gautam Shah


Drilling is a very old craft practised by various civilizations. Historically materials like shell, ivory, antler, bones, tooth and baked ceramics, have been pierced through to make adornments. Means and methods for drilling of hard materials like stones, glasses, metals, nodules and beads were developed by ancient people. Soft materials like skins (hides, leather) were punched for stitching or tying.


Deep-set teeth like wisdom (third molar) of live patients were drilled during 7000 and 5500 BC. Skulls with signs of trepanation have been found in prehistoric human remains from Neolithic times onward. Trepanning, (trephination, trephining) or making a burr hole is probably the oldest surgical procedure, dating 40,000 years. It is a surgical intervention in which a hole is drilled or scraped into the human skull to cure epileptic seizures, migraines, and mental disorders. It was also done to remove shattered bits of bone from a fractured skull and clean out the blood that often pools under the skull after a head injury.


Drills have been used for producing new holes, enlarging existing holes and also for shaping cavities to various forms of sections. Drills with special attachments are also used for creating threads inside cylindrical forms. Shallow depth drilling has been used for etching, engraving and carving on very hard surfaces like obsidian and for material removing and surface polishing.


About 110,000 years back Neanderthal man began to use many different types of handled tools like axes, borers, knives and spears. In all these tools, the edges were heavily notched (due to chipping of the stone) but a toothed edge helped in carving, cutting and boring processes for materials like horn, bone, skins, wood, stones, etc. Wood, natural fibres and bones complimented the edge stones for handling and gripping. Approximately 35 000 years back, Cro-Magnon man devised newer tools. Burin, an engraving tool, was made from a sharp narrow flint blade, for incising and burrowing. This made it possible to work the horn and bone into combs, needles, beads and such other small items. Tools similar to a burin were used for cleaning and shaving hides.

Flint blades slimmed to a sharp point were used for piercing holes. Another method could have been to grind a hole with abrasive sand under the point of a stick. Diamond points (‘jeweled’) were used as drilling bits.

The Egyptians invented the circular trephine, made by of a tube with serrated borders (similar to the country tool used for punching a large size hole in masonry structure). It gives a round disk like cut called ‘crown’. The crown cut was worn by the patient to ward off evil.


An awl and the needle were the first hole making tools. These create a hole by shifting or compressing the material to sides rather than removing it. Small, shallow holes in stone, concrete, brick, and similar materials are usually drilled by a hand star punch, (a steel rod with an X-shaped cutting point, which was held against the object to be holed and struck with a hammer or sledge while revolving slightly after each stroke). A hardened metal punch is used even today to push a hole in fragile materials like plaster, bricks. Paper leather, etc. Punch is also used to mark a small indentation, so that drilling bit has a homing mark. Metal sheets cannot be drilled properly so are holed by a pointed punch or a punching die.




The bow drill is an ancient form of drilling tools. It was commonly used to make fire, and was also called a fire drill. However, the same principle also was used widely in drilling for wood and teeth. Bow drills were used since 4th C. BC to drill holes into lapis lazuli and cornelian.




Augers are large size hole making tools. Initially in the Iron Age it was a simple cutting bar or plate joined at a right angle to an axle which could be rotated. Later it was like a short length split pipe. The auger was used for boring softer materials. It removed large quantity of material due to its wide size capacity, so had to be taken out to remove the cut material. Middle age Augers with spiral or helical flutes helped the evacuation of the cut material to the surface. Augurs are now used for pile foundation boring work, tree planting etc.


Chinese, 2,250 years ago, used Augur based drilling device to drill shallow wells to tap brine aquifers for salt production. The rig was constructed from bamboos. The pile pipe with drill bit was allowed to drop by about one mt pulverizing the rock. By the beginning of the 3rd C. AD. wells were drilled up to 140 mts depth. In 1835 the Shanghai well was the first in the world to exceed a depth of 1000 mts in comparison, the deepest wells in the USA were about 500 mts deep.


The other hand boring tools include the brace, a crank shaped device that can be held by one hand and rotated by another (action similar to car lifting jack), the push drill has a spiral flute along which a trunk moves down creating rotations but bounces back, on release of the compressed spring.


The rotary hammer drill (masonry drill) combines a primary dedicated hammer mechanism with a separate rotation mechanism, and is used for more substantial material such as masonry or concrete.


Table or platform drills are used in workshops for cutting holes in wood, metal, rock, or other hard materials. Table mounting is required where jobs are heavy, repetitive and precise. Platform mounting is used for simultaneous or multi drill operations. Tools for drilling holes in wood are commonly known as bits. A number of special forms of bits are also employed, including the expanding bit, which has a central guide screw and a radial cutting arm that can be adjusted to widen already drilled holes. For drilling metal, twist drills rotated by motor-drives are employed.


Chucks are holding devices to drills of various sizes. Rock drills are hammered by pneumatic devices for creating holes to place explosive charges in mining and quarrying. A rotary drill consists of a single auger-like bit, or three inclined positioned circular sets of multiple bits moved by a toothed gear, and the gear rotated by a series of connected steel pipes. Rotary drills are used in drilling oil wells.

Taipei_MRT_Xinyi_Line_Tunnel_boring_machine (2)

Drilling and Boring Machines: Motorized drill machines not only drill new holes, and alter the existing holes by boring or reaming to enlarge it, cut screw threads by tapping it, or lap or hone a hole for accurate sizing (tolerances) and to provide a smooth finish. Drilling machines vary in size and function, ranging from portable to very large radial drilling machines, multi-spindle units, automats or automatic production machines, and deep-hole-drilling machines.


Routers are machines with drilling spindles that move sideways to cut shallow to deep grooves with square or rounded sections to create engraved patterns in materials like wood, plastics and metals. Drilling machines are also operated with pressurized gas -pneumatically, to achieve very high speeds.

Common drills have a single cutting tip of steel made of hardened, carbon steel or tipped with cemented carbide or diamond. A carpenter’s hand held wooden drill takes forward and backward motion from the thong or bow-thread. The dual movement helps in drilling as well as evacuation of dust. Dual movement require double edged drilling bit, compared to a single direction movement bit, which are easy to make and re-sharpen. Drilling bits with spirally fluted columns came into practice much later, in 19th C.


Drilling is done with a small diameter-axial movement so requires high speed and low torque. Drilling removes very little material per rotation. Boring is done with a large diameter so requires low speed but high torque. For finishing large bores grinding wheels are used. Grinding-wheel cutters have a planetary motion, rotating rapidly on their own axes, which in turn rotates on the internal face of the bore.





 Post -by Gautam Shah



Openings are specifically intention-ed and architecturally well detailed systems. Yet such architectural entities need to be customized and personalized according to the location, orientation, interior use and the user. Openings also need to be multi purpose systems with various mechanisms and appendages. The mechanisms endow wide range of functionality, whereas the appendages as appliqué treatments make an opening a personal entity.

401px-Patwon_ki_haveli_18Openings are masked, framed, sized, scaled, camouflaged, concealed, sequenced and unitized.These treatments are mainly architectural conditioning systems, to integrate the openings as subset of larger composition -the building. The nature of individual details, relate to the larger entity, confirm to local traditions or impose some perceived style. Openings’ treatments occur with the conception of the main entity, but more often than not these are brought in later in time. The later period initiator has often greater budget, sharper conceptual definitions, finer comprehension of compositional values, better assessment of shortcomings, access to new technologies, and greater sincerity to interior related needs of the occupants.


Openings have several categories like: for physical access such as doors, gates,  for view out or in such as windows and shop-fronts, for environmental exchange such as vents, holes, chimneys, and for emergency egress. Openings occur as contrasting elements against the wall, highlighted by the  varied textures, colours, shadows or light seeping in-out from the gaps.

Door Sequencing

Location: Openings’ treatments are dependent on the location of the opening. The factors are: ground floor, upper floor levels, attic, cellar, etc., road touch faces, side and back side faces, public or private spaces, open vista or cut-out spaces.


Orientation:    Openings’ treatments are orientation specific.   The variables : directions like North, South, East, West, sun’s angel of incidence, breeze direction, degree of privacy, orientation value in terms of landmarks, natural features, etc.


Environmental conditions: Environmental effects are very directional, diurnal and seasonal. The environmental constituents are: time of the day or night, seasons, solar incidences, and breeze directions.


Functional units: Openings’ treatments serve a space units’ interior functions: such as bedroom, drawing room, kitchen, toilets, offices, store rooms, etc.


Utilitarian purposes:   Openings serve utilitarian purposes  such as: ventilation, illumination, breeze catching, vision or vista, security, identification, emergency egress delivery of goods, communication, restricted animal or bird access.

Tappered sill flickr 1397903264

Height situations: Openings are placed at various height positions such as ground floors, upper floors, cellars, roofs and in terms of height positions such as low, middle, high, etc. For each such reference, the opening’s treatments vary.


Profile positions: Openings are profiled as horizontal, vertical, inclined,  skyward, downward, etc. The nature of exposure to various elements determines the type of treatment that are required.


User abilities: Some openings are designed to serve specific physiological needs of the users such as: young, adults, infirm, aged, senile, prisoners, mentally retarded etc. Openings’ treatments are designed to suit their abilities, ergonomic and anthropometric requirements.


Cultural and Social relevance: Openings’ treatments at exterior as well as interior level reflect the beliefs of the user, which emerges from the religion, customs and nature of privacy or social interaction desired.

House Facade Architecture Art Nouveau Facade

Users’ personality: It is a cumulative effect showing interests and involvement of many people. Individually a user continuously evolves and varies the choices, and one of the crucial aspect of it is subjective need for change with reference to past colonnades.


Choices and Variations: Need for a change is one of the key determinants for openings’ treatments. A user wants something different from the current state, which may not necessarily be a new theme or entity. Historical styling is one such mode for a change. The change is also caused by alteration of key elements forming the openings’ treatment, such as colour, texture, size, form, illumination, etc.







Post -by Gautam Shah



Sensorial perception is finite, as limited by our body capacities. Body capacities vary from person to person and also depending on many other personal factors such as age, sex, moods, past experiences, sequences of happenings, etc.Perception is cumulative and to an extent mutually compensative process. It also occurs as congregation of several effects. We may not be able to isolate few parts of it. As for example, Smell and Taste often occur together.


Van Gogh

The sensory nodes have FOUR important characteristics that they have specific Location, Capacity and Multiplicity and the Duration. The Locations of the sensorial nodes provide information about the directionality, and encourages discrimination. The Capacity of the perceptive nodes is range bound which permit selections while providing comfort, sense of survival. Beyond the range bound capacity of the perception faculty, the perception process gets transmitted to other modes allowing a different facilitation. The Multiplicity of nodes gives a sense of scale and referential e positions. The Duration gives a temporal scale. In other words The Location, Body capacities, Multiplicity and duration, all together and individually endow a Geo-Spatial identity.



There are abnormal sensorial perceptions also. These arise from the Location related misinterpretations, Physiological deficiencies, differentiated perception of multiple nodes and time related intensifications and diffusions.


Perception of a space happens in an environment where both the space and perceiver exist. Perception of space is also becoming aware of the environment, organisms and objects. Perception nominally means sensorial recognition, but could also be realization through other means. Understanding of a situation, acceptance or confirmation is also part of the process of perception.



The causative factors of the environment manifest as a change in the space. We perceive the changes through the sensory nodes of the body. For a given event in the environment, thousands nerve impulses are generated and conducted to the central nervous system. Since these impulses travel along a path where many different nerve fibres pass at slightly different times, they form a pattern of input to the central nervous system. No matter how finely tuned, our sense organs are we cannot pay equal attention to all the stimulation at the same time. This is the basis of our sensory experience of the event. Sensory qualities are generally comprehensible on the basis of mechanisms within the receptor organ, whereas realization of object and event perception entails higher activity of the brain.



Differentiating COST from VALUE -Interior Design Practice


Interior Design practice involves dealing with works of art, artefacts, craft pieces, and many other precious things. It not only involves identifying objects, judging their true worth, for acquiring, and sometimes even disposing off such articles.

1 640px-Paris_-_Vintage_travel_gear_seller_at_the_marche_Dauphine_-_5212

At another level interior designers also help create entities of such merit. The benefits accruing to the client could be several times more than the real cost of creation or acquisition. It is very important for a design professional to be able to differentiate between the cost and value.

Routine jobs have a determinable cost (and by adding a customary margin of profit, etc. one can derive the price). However, jobs with substantial intellectual effort accomplish more than the cost of implementation. So, dilemmas occur, should one charge a professional fee on the total cost of the job, or value accruing out of the job? Authors of creative efforts must know how to value their accomplishments, and thereby demand a fair compensation for it. Designers need to know both the cost and value of their professional services.


The understanding of Cost versus Value of an entity helps a designer at TWO distinct levels:

1 Determination of Fees

2 Helping a client for the value-assessment of their possessions.


1a.       Determination of Cost-based Fees

Interior Design practice follows age-old traditions of Architectural practice. Jobs are generally executed by appointed contractors or selected vendors. These third party (away from the Architect and the Client) entities present an invoice, which reflects the nearly true cost of the job. Architects base their fees on this foundation after adding certain percentage amount to account for miscellaneous expenses, (such as on power, water, etc.). Substantial part of Interior Designer’s work follows a similar path.


1b.       Determination of Value-based Fees

Jobs like renovation, extension, addition, conservation, etc. make substantial change to the existing environment, upgrading the commercial value, or advantages deriving out of it. A unique concept that costs very little to implement, provides a substantial benefit to the client. Should one charge a fee on the cost of a job or on the value of the completed job? Here determining an appropriate cost base for fees is very difficult.


2.         Value assessment of possessions

In design field valuation is made for all types of properties to assess their wealth. Designers help their clients acquire or dispose off entities. Value is specific, there cannot be a general fall or rise in value of all the things. Value of a thing goes up, when we can acquire or aspire for more or superior things in exchange, and goes down, when we can acquire or hope for less or inferior things in exchange. Value is relative, referred in terms of something else.

Value of a thing, cannot be always measured in money. Value has many different connotations, and it has relevance in terms of, emotions, remembrances, associations, ageing, maturity. heritage, rarity, ecological, environmental, social, etc.




Post  -by Gautam Shah



Each Design Project is set in a different context. In each of the case, Clients, Location, Conditions of work, Design professionals’ Needs and Compulsions are different. A new project by seasoned professional will be handled with wider experience and maturity then the past one, so charged with slightly a higher fee. Whereas a young professional, on the other hand brings in freshness of new and modern ideas, and for that reason may demand a higher price.


Yet a professional seeks following answers while determining a Right Fees:

# Is one aiming at a reasonable profit?

# Is one striving for a high return to manage a high risk situation?

# Is one striving for a high return for the rare contribution?

# Is one trying to break-even -no loss no profit situation?

# Is one seeking to avoid or provide for residual liabilities?

# Is one looking for hypothetical – future benefit?

# Is one bartering an advantage?



Professional always face such dilemmas. The reasons could be many: Unknown project, too familiar (repeat) a project, too busy, unsuitable location, lack of resources (staff, equipment, finance), too small or too large a project, non profitable, a doubtful client, etc.

A professional first raises following questions:

          a.       If the project is taken, then. What would be the gains / loses?

          b.       If the project is not taken,then. What would be the gains / loses?


Design fees

The second question may seem absurd, how can one make a profit or loss, by not doing a job?

For a busy professional an odd project will require reorientation of the firm’s working, additional investments in plant, equipment, retraining or hiring of extra employees, slowing down some current assignments, etc. In such a situation, not taking on an additional project is advisable, unless gains are unusual in quality and quantity.


On the other hand a normal project with reasonable gain prospects can be carried through the firm, if it fits within the working style, specialization, employees’ capacity etc.







Facilities are unattached entities within a habitable space, and so are demountable and relocatable. The word facility is often used synonymously with an amenity. A space owner always rearranges the facilities, designed and sited by an expert. Such personal manipulations are intentional or experimental either of temporary or permanent nature. Changes in form and location of various amenities, is also occasional and seasonal. A space grows with age and reflects not only the taste but turmoils and compulsions of the user. The size, shape, locations of different facilities are as important as the Interrelationships. The siting of a facility in reference to the spatial quality and architectural ambience reflects the concerns for environmental conditions.


Facilities have ergonomic characteristics to enhance the human capabilities. A facility is conceived to satisfy the largest section of users via the ‘percentile method’, but that leaves the most vulnerable lot of users, at the top and bottom ends, highly dissatisfied. This causes behavioural problems that are very acutely displayed in public expressions.


Largest section of facilities consists of various devices for carrying out tasks. These task devices support the body or its parts, facilitate and extend the reach, and aid the body movements and motions. Support devices provide a base for utilities like chopping and ironing boards. Posture taking devices like seating and resting devices are created with anthropometrics, but their styling affects the human behaviour. Storage systems are work organisers and do not affect the human behaviour.




Utilities are tools and equipments that are handy, though some require a base support for efficient working. Support dependent utilities are often nearly fixed devices. Sourced utilities are tied, require linkages for input-output like power or effluents. These are relocatable within a range. Hand-free utilities require very little manual manipulation for operations. Utilities become multi-purpose because every variation in its support system gives it a new purpose. So it is, said creativity comes through the crafts-person or technician and not from the utilities. Majority of the utilities and facilities are preferential to right-handed people in terms controls and operations.

The word utility is also used for various types of source nodes for services, such as Electricity, Gas, water, Garbage etc. But these are not relocatable. The word utility here implies its utilitarian nature.




Post -by Gautam Shah


To facilitate living and conduct various tasks we need Amenities and Facilities. Amenities also endow a personal value, a sense of belonging to a space. Amenities in this sense are space enrichments.architectural-architectural-design-brickwall-463935

Amenities are attached (such as the kitchen platform, toilets) to a building shell. The linkage is for structural support through a wall, floor or roof. Amenities also get functional support for sourcing a ‘supply or disposal utility’.

One of the largest sections of amenities is for environmental control, such as projections, wind towers, air ducts, sun shades, pergolas, grills, etc. Some of the amenities are conceived to be architectonic elements for enhancing the architectural language.


Amenities are, on one hand, structurally integrated solutions which are difficult to remove without damage to the building shell. On the other hand, amenities are also mounted entities that may perhaps be replaced, but require an identical or matching solution for the sake of design integrity and fitments.

Relocatable amenities are sometimes considered facilities. Amenities are also designed as a subsystem that is part of a larger system -the building. Such subsystem amenities have well-defined relationships or connectivity and so can be manipulated.

Balcony laundry mediterranean..jpg

The structural elements of a building also serve the function of an amenity. An amenity nominally is static, but could also be a mobile, which then is called a utility. A static amenity can have some degree of internal variability like a louvre in a window, or an elevator in building. The static amenities are designed to take advantage of the location, orientation, connections, etc. Static amenities use their mass for their relevance and so are heavy. Static amenities do not consume power and in most cases have no outputs except for disposal or on extinction. Non static, dynamic or mobile amenities are difficult in terms of managing their inputs (power, etc.) and outputs (residues, effluents and disposal or extinction).


An amenity that relates to variations like a climate (Sun, Wind) is operational only for a part of the season, day or hour. Such amenities are also designed to be architectonic elements. Connections (power, water supply, entry) to fixed amenities, once set are difficult to reestablish elsewhere or everywhere. So one is forced to customize the living around the amenities or accept the inherent deficiencies.

Behaviour in habitable spaces often revolves around the amenities. Areas near the attached amenities attract all the activities. Due to these users seem to move from one amenity to another. All the intermediate space patches and time interludes become sections for secondary behaviour.


In buildings such attached amenities are the platforms for cooking, fireplaces, window ledges, door thresholds, otalas, steps, open to sky chowks, cut-outs, seats along the walls, etc. These are areas with very focussed behaviour, surrounded by a loosely defined zone but worthy of many free activities.