Post 163   by Gautam Shah ➔

Yarns for special textural effects

Fabric manufacturing involves texturizing processes at several stages, like, Fibre production, Spinning, Post spinning, Weaving, and Post weaving treatments. These entirely dissimilar processes, at different stages, are designed to achieve specific results. The processes are temporary as well as permanent are mechanical, heat setting, chemical and radiation treatments. Few processes are also used to relax the material and recover from texturizing effects. Some of the texturizing processes are very ancient, used since prehistoric times. Many of the texturizing processes are universal and are used with other materials such as leather, wood, paper, paints, hairdressing and foods.

Texturizing of YARN creates products of many different characteristics from same basic raw materials. Texturizing processes make yarns increase elasticity, surface textures, cross section features, warmth and absorbency; while reducing the transparency, slipperiness, and the possibility of piling (formation of small fibre tangles on a fabric surface). The texturizing includes selective or spot stretching or shrinking, heat setting, chemical fixing, napping, sue-ding, singeing, spot fusing, spot burning, spot dissolving, flocking, embroidery, pile forming, etc.


Corduroy fabric

Texturized yarn is the formation of crimp, loops, coils, or crinkles in filaments. Such changes in the physical form of a fibre affect the behaviour and hand of fabrics made from them. Hand, or handle, is a general term for the characteristics perceived by the sense of touch when a fabric is held in the hand, such as drapability, softness, elasticity, coolness or warmth, stiffness, roughness, and resilience. For continuous yarns the fibre producer may provide primary texturing treatments, followed by a secondary treatment by an intermediate processor. The textile producer treats it further, before or after the weaving. Textured yarns are synthetic filament yarns that are made bulky or stretchy by heating or other techniques. In yarns used for weaving, the warp, or lengthwise, yarns are usually made stronger, more tightly twisted, smoother, and more even, than the filling, or crosswise, weft yarns. For abraded yarns, the surfaces are roughened or cut at various intervals and given added twist, producing a hairy effect. These create air spaces in the yarns, imparting absorbency and improving ventilation. Crimping imparts waviness similar to the natural crimp of wool fibre. Curling, produces curls or loops at various intervals. Coiling adds sections that become stretchable. Such changes are set mainly set by heat application, but occasionally with chemicals. Bulk yarns are often produced by the false twist method, a continuous process in which the filament yarn is twisted and set, and then untwisted and heated again to either stabilize or destroy the twist. The stuffing box technique is often applied to materials like Nylon, where the filament is compressed in a heated tube, imparting a zigzag crimp. In the knit-de-knit process, a synthetic yarn is knitted, heat is applied to set the loops formed by knitting, and the yarn is then unravelled and lightly twisted, thus producing the desired texture in the completed fabric.

Stretchable fabrics

Texturizing of FABRICS endows the textile new physical properties, such as bulk, feel, absorbency, and patterns. Texturizing processes which were once designed for man-made fibres, are now also applied to natural and mix fibres.

Singeing is a process to produce a smooth surface finish on fabrics made from staple fibres. The fabrics are rapidly passed over a heated copper plate or above a gas flame to burn ends of protruding fibres. Filament yarns do not require singeing, as there are no short fiber ends to project onto the surface of the fabric. A process similar to this but lighter in effect is Ironing, which removes creases from a fabric or garment.

Felt sheets

Napped and Sueded fabrics have fiber ends brushed-up onto the surface of the fabric. Napping and sueding are applied to woven or knitted goods. Term pile is often used to refer to the fiber ends that appear on the surface of the cloth. Sueding develops a very low pile on the surface of the fabric that looks and feels like a suede leather. An abrasive material like a sandpaper, is rubbed over a fabric surface to achieve the finish. Napped fabrics are used for clothing and household textiles in which warmth is desired. Fabrics that have some component of thermoplastics or are resin treated are napped to emboss various types of textures. Embossed designs provide surface texture at a lower cost than do woven designs. Blankets, sleep wear, coating fabrics, sweaters etc. are from napped fabrics. Flocking has short fibres with glue printed on the fabric, wholly or selectively (to form patterns).

Beetling is a finish used on linen and fabrics that resemble linen. The fabric revolves slowly over a wooden drum and is pounded with wooden block hammers. The pounding flattens the fabric to make the weave appear more closely woven. The process increases the lustre, smoothness, and absorbency of the fabric.




Post 162by Gautam Shah



A surface, is often the reason, why an object is being preferred or rejected for a use, and continues to survive in a particular setting. A user perceives the surface of a material-object in many different conditions. A surface is the most proximate and tangible part of an object. The proximity to a surface defines its visual experience whereas the tangibility refers to the mainly tactile sensorial characteristics. Texture is an important qualitative parameter of a surface definition. Textures are intimately linked to specific objects, and deviation from that is immediately registered.

Texture by Modification

Textures are part of naturally occurring objects. We also fashion new finishes by varying the textural qualities. An object acquires a specific colour ‘tinge’ as the texture affects the angle of reflection of light. The angle of perception also has similar effect. The quality of light (the spectral range) and its brightness affect the perception of texture.


  • There are more than 20 mathematical parameters applied to surface description, and some of the terms are: roughness, irregular features of wave, height, width, lay, and direction on the surface; camber, deviation from straightness; out of flat, measure of macroscopic deviations from flatness of a surface.




Structure background wallart, backgrounds textures.

We perceive textures through Two basic manners. Visual textures occur through variations in grades of monochrome or coloured surfaces, aided by the shape, size, direction of objects. Contour variations cause tactile textures. But without going closer to the object we perceive the textures through play of shadows and illumination. At this remote perception the texture is visual happening.


Surface texture is a roughness that can be quantified by the vertical deviations from its “ideal form”. Surface roughness is a very subjective term what is rough for some context may be perceived to be smoother for other conditions. Surface textures are perceived for their extent. Surface texture is also sensed in terms of its proximity as well as its tangibility. A brick wall may be very rough to touch but a very extensive surface may not be perceived to be so rough.


Textured surfaces have larger area, so greater reactivity with the environment. Roughness of the surfaces and have higher friction coefficient so susceptible higher wear. Surface irregularities are nucleation nodes for trapping of moisture and promote corrosion. Surface texture allows better adhesion.



Textures are created by several methods, such as:

  • Removal of material >> Etching, Scraping, Roughening, Filing, Grinding, Engraving, Notching, Sculpting, Machining, Blasting, Shearing, Shaving, Singeing, Spluttering, etc.


  • Addition of material >> Painting, Printing, Dyeing, Metalizing, Material deposition, Plastering, Coating, Nitriding, Carburising, Galvanizing, Gilding, etc.

Diamond Polishing

  • By displacement processes like contraction and expansion >> Brushing, Rubbing, Ironing, Chasing, Repousse, Forming, Hammering, Forging, Beating, Levelling, Rolling, Buffing, Washing, Bleaching, Enamelling, Surface Alloying, Denting, Forming, Re-rolling, Peening, Spinning, Twisting, Weaving, Knitting, etc.

Road Paving-Rolling -surface creation



Post 161   by Gautam Shah ➔

These few images show How to indicate Dimensions on Drawings following ISO recommendations.



19 > SI Measurements



20 > SI Measurements and Architectural Drawings 1



21 > SI Measurements and Architectural Drawings 2



22 > SI Measurements and Architectural Drawings 3



Post 160   by Gautam Shah ➔

Finishes are inherent on natural objects or fashioned out of such objects. Objects are also produced with required finishes, or the manufactured objects are finished with desired quality of surfaces. A surface finish nominally represents the nature of the material, however, many finishes are pseudo or make-believe effects. These are imposed on the objects. The relationship between the ‘nature of the material’ and its surface quality, some times it becomes a restrictive condition.

Roofs of Old Town Lijiang

Processes for Natural Surface Finishes: Natural Finishes result due to many different factors, such as: Elemental conditions of formation, subsequent responses like weathering, cognitive affectations, and later, natural or man-made interventions (angle of cut, tools and techniques used, etc.).

stone Inlay -Pietra Dura Taj Mahal, Agra, India

Natural surface finishes have three main cognitive affectations: Colour, Pattern and Texture. The colours are of original formation, subsequent weathering, readjustment of stresses, or induced by physical and chemical changes. The patterns result from the stresses, mixing of constituents, weathering, and the varied reactivity of different parts and constituents. Patterns also result from granular or fibrous orientation, method of cut, cyclic nature of growth, formation of residual products, deposition of contaminants, and tools-techniques of handling and processing. Textures primarily result from the degree of homogeneity, angle of cut, differential weathering, and various formative processes.

Water Pots varieties of materials, colours, finishes



Processes for Manufactured Surface Finishes: Manufactured Surface Finishes result at three levels: Raw material stage, Product formation stage, and later, through Application of surface finish on Completion of the system. In an integrated production set-up all three could be a single stage or plant process, but in most other fabrication shops only the last two processes are combined. For a site fabricated systems like buildings, the last process, i.e. surface finish application, is a distinct process as it is carried out at a site. Manufactured surface finishes as a result are of two categories: Plant based and Site-based systems. Though lot of preparatory work may occur in the industrial plant for the site-based surface finish application. Products fully surface finished in industrial plants require very careful handling (transportation, loading, storage, delivery and positioning), and so may carry protective but removable coatings or shields.

Synthetic -leather feel a like material for furnishing


Make-believe or pseudo finishes: These finishes are of two basic types:

● Surface finishes that duplicate the natural materials, such as: wood figure (pattern) or texture effects in polymers, stone like effects in ceramics, cotton like fabrics made out of polyester, or synthetic gems and diamonds.

● Surface finishes that copy the effects of other manufactured finishes, such as: chrome polymers for metals, white metal ornaments for silver, or acrylic for glass. Future possibilities include flexible glass, elastomeric metals, polymers with programmable colouring or texture forming system, metals lighter than ceramics or polymers, biodegradable ceramics, etc.


Astro Turf -Grass look-feel a like product








Post 159by Gautam Shah



Space is a vast extent where one needs a placement. Placement for the self manifests in the sense of ownership, feeling of belonging, and familiarity. The ownership bestows freedom to develop it freely, the sense of belonging derives from security and safety whereas the familiarity develops with exploration. The exploration of surroundings helps in knowing sites related advantages and location of resources. The exploration is also about keeping the past alive to be able to revert to the original position. Orienting ones self to the features of the space and its environment, and where necessary establish new ones, is very important part of space occupation. A domesticated space is an easily identifiable personal asset. It is also acknowledged by other members of the society.

Faza Kenya Territorial markings and Space identity

A domesticated place carries markings of the person who establishes it. The markings are in the arrangements of task modules, their interrelationships, sizes, scaling and crafting. The built-form represents such totality. It has been the prime expression of identity.


In a street there are many built-forms with similar features. All street dwellers pass through nearly similar process of space domestication and their approach to space occupation is the same. Here in this world of consistency one needs to create markings that are distinguished from others. At the same time there is an effort to do something as good as others. The contradiction of doing different and doing as good as others leads to innovation and consistency. What one attempts with the built forms, is also replicated with the lifestyle and behaviour.

Need for personalization for Individual units –Tietgenkollegiet student housing in Copenhagen, Denmark by Lundgaard & Tranberg Architects

A Dwelling is a personal domain and must be so declared. Children at very young age begin to associate the spatial configuration as the home. The image is further reinforced by the pride that family bestows on it. The home has an architectonic meaning. Opening systems on the street or entrance foyer are the prime places for such personalization. These are straight forward or direct declarations as much as they are subtle identifications.

Row houses -clueless identity

Yaowarat Road, the centre of Bangkok's Chinatown

The Direct Expressions highlight the building number, street name, postal distribution code, and name of the owner. They also show timings and conditions of visitations. Identifiers mark the status of the owner, as well as the nature and antiquity of the ownership. The occupier’s name, caste, educational qualifications, honours, nationality, titles, are marked over the door.

Door symbols Jewish

The Indirect Expressions are little more abstract or implied. These somehow suggest the ethnicity, social standing, political and other allegiances, religion or faith. It also shows the nature of building use like place of residence, worship, or commerce, etc. Often the abstracted forms are placed as continuation of traditions without being aware of the purpose or significance.

Famous Door Mark -10 Downing St London

Identification elements differentiate a building within a group, or associate the building to a category such as class or colony. In a mass housing colony, people treat their doors, windows, or curtains, extravagantly different from their neighbours. Opposite to this, identical doors and windows conjoin several, even differently styled buildings into a cohesive entity, a colony.

Door God -Orients

Entrance Identity



Post 158 by Gautam Shah

Gateway of India, Mumbai (Bombay) India

A Gateway is an inclusive definition of a gate. A gateway is a gate, but has the sense of passage in it, giving an idea of depth. The depth is created by the deeper section of the gate structure, or by dual or multiple gates with an intermediate passage.

Bhadra Fort, Ahmedabad, India, -Multiple gates

The depth due to the elongated structure or the passage enforces the discipline and place for intervening changes. Gates are nominally two-way structures that are have single passage across it, but some gateways are four-way structures with crossing passages. Gateways have one, three or five passages, if more it expresses a colonnade or arcade.

Two way structure gate / Dura-Europus, a Hellenistic structure on the bank of Euphrates river (Syria)

Char Minar Hyderabad India – Four-way gate

Agra Fort Gate Inside view, India

A gateway stands alone or is part of a wall structure of a fort, but in both the cases as a very significant entity due its scale and proportions. Formal gates function as controller entry or exit and so have shutters. Such gates are usually in fortified or bounded areas. These gates need functional shutters. A gateway structure, however, could be so large that no gate of such a size (doorway) is technologically feasible, and even if feasible, it is difficult to operate it frequently. Such gateways have doors of manageable size, or the large doors are inset with small doors just sufficient for one person entry.

Shaniwar Wada Gate with smaller inset gate -Pune (Poona), Maharashtra, India

Gateways structures denote a change in the environment. Such structures are real, or indicative metaphysical entities. Gates have been a symbol of power, protection, and prosperity. A gateway is a point of transition into a world that is civilized, peaceful and ordered, unlike the chaos, fear and uncertainty outside it.

Gates of the Nations, Persepolis Iran

Muscat Road Gate -a symbolic structure

Gates are conceived to be very significant, and naturally receive all the due patronage. The functional importance and patronage of the society for the gate are often so overwhelming that it becomes a superlative entity with more grandiose than the king’s palace or temple of God.

Thirukovilur Temple Tower -Gopuram (South India) -a gate structure as a superlative entity then the building (Temple)

Golden Gate Kiev – a superlative structure



De Waag, Amsterdam, 1904 Giclee Print by Nico Jungman Art com



Post 157   by Gautam Shah ➔

There are basic TWO classes of openings. Openings that touch the floor on one or both sides to facilitate floor level movement goods, people and animals. Openings placed at higher sill level -away from the nominal floor level, and chiefly used for seeking illumination, view and ventilation.

Revolving doors for humans and side doors for carrying luggage

At other level gates and gateways besides serving the basic functions of door are used for grandiose. Micro size openings such as cracks or crevices of joints are casual openings that serve need for minor ventilation. Openings are nominally designed as multi function systems, but some openings are exclusive systems serving one or few purposes, such as terrace level wind catchers, pip holes, delivery slots or hoppers, etc.

Door Gap Inca Machu Picchu Peru

Door gaps Machu Picchu Peru

Openings are gaps and shuttered. For gap-openings the view across is very important aspect. Gap-openings are designed as well as casual entities. Nominally an opening entity has four sides, of these the sides and top are omni present. The fourth one the bottom is however, is often completely floored and its identity is missed. Gap openings with deeper setting frame a view at the silhouette or the ‘other edge’. Shuttered openings have visible leaves, closed or open, have a stand-alone presence. The stand-alone presence is result of differentiated colour, texture, singular pattern, and in many instances repeated geometric divisions. Shuttered openings scale the architecture.

Gorge -Narrow gap Samaria, Crete, Greece

Narrow Gap Alley Washington DC

Openings with fixed glazing serve the function of a picture window, framing a scenery or like a shop front window to display items. Fixed openings also become space dividers as partitions or are cover element like a curtain wall.

Narrow gap -Brasilia National Congress Oscar Niyemeyer

Computer gateways and ports (air, sea, land) are like opening systems that serve as a hub for transit, termination and re-connection. At this point one can have choice how, where, when a connection could be made. To provide such choices, the hubs are endowed with protocols, converters or translators.

Ludwig Mies Van der Rohe Lake Shore drive Apartments -Standardized window architecture

As opening is a very universal architectural system. Openings are often mass produced with standard range of options. The openings follow a very strict exterior architectural regimen without consideration of the interior use related specific needs. For the above two reasons openings of same size, shape and design are used on all orientations, floor levels, neighbourhood conditions and geographic locations. Users however strive to mark the openings’ system with individual personality, cultural ethos, beliefs, affinities etc. These occur as appendages, add-ons or treatments.