Post 315 – by Gautam Shah 


tempera brackets

Tempera is style of painting, relying on pigment binding property of materials like gum, eggs, starch etc. The binder also help in fixing the pigments onto surfaces such as, fabrics, masonry plasters, canvas and wood. It is one of the oldest method of colour coating application and has been practised in various civilizations. It is as much an art painting process as it is an architectural surface coating system.

The word tempera derives from the verb temperare – to temper. It carries the meaning, to mix properly or regulate or change in a controlled manner. Tempera as a painting style either developed concurrently with STUCCO or followed it to ‘temper’ it. Stucco paintings were application (impregnation) of colour pigments into wet (green) plasters. It was not possible to create micro zones of varied colours or diffuse the colours across at the boundaries. This was corrected by tempering the painting with overdrawing the shading effects. When the shading effects were applied, the stucco plaster had hardened. Tempera, a coating consisting of binder, water and colour pigments was used as a paste.


Leonardo da Vinci >>> Tempera + oil mix medium

Tempera was touching coating application. It was possible to apply it in very small sections, with very fine line strokes and in desired intensities to create the effect of miscibility or transparency. Tempera colours have a slight sheen compared to a dull-flat surface of stucco paint. In later periods, little additional gloss was achieved by applying neat binder (with water but without the colourants). For the same purpose, at places wax or ENCAUSTIC, oils etc. were also applied. Tempera cannot be applied in thick layers, as it has a tendency to crack and peel, rarely could have the deep colour saturation that oil paintings of later days offered. Tempera colours have not darkened whereas later day oil paintings have darkened, turned yellowish and transparent with age.


Tempera has been used for murals of Egypt, Babylonia, Mycenaean period in Greece, China and early Christian catacombs. It was also used for painting interiors, mummy cases, decorative storage boxes, furniture items, papyrus rolls, altarpieces, and for illustrating manuscripts. Indian Cave (Bagh caves) paintings and interiors of architecture such as ceilings have been coated in Tempera style.


Chola Fresco of Dancing girls. Brihadisvara Temple c. 1100

Tempera painting as art-medium was susceptible to moisture and biological degradation. It was widely used in Europe with Italy as the chief centre. Post middle ages development of oil painting system reduced its usage. Tempera system of painting as the architectural coating showed many improvements. CALCIMINE and OIL BOUND DISTEMPER are examples of such systems.

There are many recipes for making Tempera as there are methods of base surface preparations. Egg tempera is considered the most-durable form of the medium, generally, and less affected by humidity. Binders like egg yolk and white, casein, gum, or glycerine, are used, with additives like vinegar, vegetable oils. These are mixed with pigment powders or ground pastes of it.

The ground or base surface preparation was very important for Tempera painting. Plaster of Paris or gesso was applied in one or more coats. In case of wood planks after such base coats, was covered with a piece of linen cloth fixed with size (starch). This surface was coated with a gesso-grasso (heavy gesso) followed by a gesso-sotile (lighter gesso).


Tempera –Illuminated manuscript





Post 314 – by Gautam Shah 


Buttresses Flying Buttresses Cathedral Gothic

Systems are purposive entities qualifying the togetherness of parts or components and smaller systems. It is a qualification by which the whole is recognized along with its constituents. Systems have sub units that are well orchestrated in time and appropriately placed in space. For every change in the constitution, composition and positional value of any of the sub unit, there is a corresponding change in the system. Some changes, though, are insignificant, and can be ignored.

MicroAirVehicleIn a designed (intentional) system nearly all sub units have a purpose of their in being with the others. In designed system the sub units are selected, prepared, modified, manufactured, for being together in a particular format. In a complex system only a few sub units are relevant to other units. Some sub units occasionally and due to their position remain latent. In a very large system such as of nature, the sub units do not reveal themselves, unless their order is probed. A system composed of apparently irrelevant or latent parts can still continue to be relevant as a whole.


Simple systems have strong edges, and are like buildings, newspaper or a computer programme. Complex systems can have diffused boundaries due to convergence of other systems such as our own body, city administration or internet. Nature’s systems are very extensive spread reaching to infinity, and include atmosphere, planetary or food chain.



A system’s sub units are classifiable as parts, components and subsystems. The components by themselves function as a simple system, and are replaceable entities, though have connection formalities. Subsystems manifest through their order. Order is an inherent characteristic of systems. It is the system organization.

Star system

In designed systems when elements are gathered, an order can be recognized. A budding system can have order that is alogical and loosely definable, and not apparent to others. Just the same as soon as the systems begins to function the order becomes obvious, logical and definable. Recognition of order in a system helps in many ways:

  • It helps the definition of a system.
  • It endows self sufficiency, so that the system can become an ever replaceable component.
  • It provides nodes for dependency so that the system becomes integrated whole.

Paul Klee > Revolution des Viadukts -Abstract system

In all designed systems the primary order is that of assembly or sequence of manufacture. However, in complex systems there are many orders. A system is the web of relationships that creates emergent properties of the whole. These properties of the whole may not be found in any analysis the sub-units.




Post 313 – by Gautam Shah


An estimate is a numerical assessment of a project, done on many different scales. A primary estimate is in numbers, showing the quantity of recurrences within a specified range. Secondary estimates are in spatial quantities such as Lengths, Areas or Volumes (and weight). At third level the estimates are about ratings in time such as speed, change, movement, etc.

Spatial measures

The numbers are ranged by defining the inclusion and exclusion characteristics. These are easiest to quantify requiring no or simple tools, once the range definitions are recognised. Spatial quantities, by themselves are numbers, but each type is a range. The sub divisions and mutual relationships for conversion are comparatively simpler in ISO measure system. Ratings in time scale are mutually un-comparable.

Temporal measures

All quantity estimates, can be equated by attaching monetary values. The monetary values are derived with an exercise of costing or valuation. An estimate schedule represents a comprehensive reportage of the entire process. The estimate schedule also mentions (as a side or foot note) the rationale, means, methods of taking measurements, manipulations done with the information, and presumptions made for thinning out the data.


Format of an estimate schedule depends on for what purpose these are accessed, and by whom. A customary format is evolved by every design organization to suit its own nature of practice and needs. For commercial use like tenders or quotations etc. a style confirming to a local market is required. For Government and corporate entities, designers have to adjust the estimate schedule format to their accounting procedures requirements.

excavation estimates of very large sites (2)

Estimate reports once created are used by many different people, and for nominally never perceived uses. A person preparing the estimate must foresee that, someone else in another time span will deal with the estimate, not only to interpret, but also to revise it.

The format of presentation, logic and mode of documentation should allow easy revisions. In other words all estimates must be liquid or revisable and dynamic. This was very difficult in manual documents, but with spreadsheet-based system, every single change can be recorded and if necessary back-tracked.


Manual form of Estimate schedule


Spread sheet estimate schedule

Estimate schedules record all the contextual information and their sources. Procedures for accommodating various parameters like: fitments sizes, tolerances, mode of measurements, modules of measurements, rounding off, average, means, etc. should be of standard type, or well explained.

Accuracy of estimate on cost, quantity, repetitions, unitization, etc.

Accuracy of an estimate depends on how well the job has been conceived, categorised and detailed. Estimates that create liabilities due to their ability to cause secondary changes elsewhere (such as: item selection or elimination), or have hazardous consequences, are prepared with due care.

Budget estimates prepared, before or during the design and execution stages are approximate only, because the cost base is presumed, or of a current date. By the time actual execution occurs, the costs may go up or down, or the components may get altered. Whereas, historic estimates prepared after the item has been executed and paid for, are very exact, as the cost base is real and accomplished one.


Estimate Reports become part of finance related procedures of the client. Typically financial institutions would like to sanction a loan on things that are physical, fixed, long lasting and with resale value. As a result, soft furnishings, polishing, painting and such other expenditures are not favoured for borrowing. A designer and the client (or the financial expert) together can, to an extent, redefine some of the items, or divide and regroup the items so that these can be classified as worthy of an appropriate category of disbursement, expenditure or depreciation. By re-framing the specifications, such items can be made integral part of the hard furnishings.

Exposure of estimate reports is a very sensitive issue. Its exposure to outsiders, including the client, automatically makes it an open document with a lot of liabilities. A premature exposure conveys a hidden guarantee that items with such specifications will cost so much. A client may perceive the provisional estimate details (of a mid project appraisal, etc.) to be a promise. Where it is necessary to expose an estimate report prematurely, it should be conditional. All data, specifications, assumptions, forming the estimate base must be preserved.


Estimate reports provided to outside agencies, though prepared for their specific needs, must not create undue liability for the designer. Government and other agencies demand Estimate Reports for sanctioning grants, loans, subsidies, etc. But due to large scale design + build practice prevalent in interior design, more often than not, estimate reports are interpreted to be an advance or pro-forma-invoice for supply of goods or services, and money is accordingly issued to the author of the report (the designer), rather than to the contractor-vendor of the scheme. This could involve a designer into a huge tax liability.



Post 312 –  by Gautam Shah 


Kitchens have been wall dependent facilities in all climates. The kitchen hearths were walled to protect the fire from winds. In warm climates the exterior shading walls were of small height, but in colder regions the interior walls were used. The wall and the chimney provided the latent heat storage capacity, to conserve heat and release it in off hours. The colder region kitchens began to open out (de-walled) when efficient fuels and compact hearths were available. The warm region climate kitchens began to move inside the house for the same reason.

1 Bread baking ART by Anders Zorn (1860–1920)

Kitchens were wall dependent as nearly all the utilities, such as vents, water supply, drainage and storage were wall-mounted. The only facility, to remain free or stand-alone for a long time, was the central preparation platform or table. The table in the centre of a kitchen provided a work surface, where one could sit or stand to knead, chop, mix or serve food. This began to change with improved supply chain offering substantially cleaned, prepared and partly cooked foods. The work on the central platform or table was transferred to cooking area. The compact and cooler (from outside) hearth offered sufficient adjacent space for food preparation.

2 Kitchen range at Canons Ashby House Wikipedia Image by Wehha

3 Restored version of Kitchen, Benjamin Stephenson House, Edwardsville, Illinois Wikipedia Image by Rklawton

The wall adjunct kitchen platform now had smaller but multi facility cooking range and a food preparation area. The cooking range was a ground-based apparatus, fed with coal. The face of the cooking zone was mostly an opaque wall, occasionally carrying an open or concealed chimney stack. The wall was without any opening for view out, illumination, or ventilation. The piped water supply or drainage system, both were casual appendages. The cooking zone was a straight wall aligned arrangement of loosely placed entities, food preparation table or platform, the cooking range, the water supply basin. The storage was on placed on the floor, hung on the walls, or shelved in assigned rooms. The assigned rooms were facilities in larger mansions, to store specific things such as crockery, silver, linen, milk products, meat and poultry items, etc. This was the aspiration everyone had for even the small dwelling. It, however, was translated into compartmentalization of storeroom or pantry. It later became provision of cabinets. Fancy crockery and silver were placed in dining room as show-pieces. The kitchen was wall-full of cabinets.

4 Pantry -geograph-3630614-by-Kenneth--Allen

5 Frying Range Wikipedia image by Rathfelder at English Wikipedia

Restaurants, ships, and commercial or industrial kitchens began to adopt scientific gadgets’ and kitchen systems. The emphasis here was clean-ability, hygiene, maintenance, streamlined layout, ergonomics faster output or efficiency. This was readily adopted in home kitchens. Ladies journals also encouraged two concepts, the efficiency triangle (the limitative distance a housewife should cover between the freeze, hearth and sink) and the view out from cooking or preparation area.

6 Front window in Kitchen

The view out, meant not just breaking open the wall that was abutting the kitchen utilities, but selecting a good view. In the first case it meant rearranging the cabinets, and for second case the house layout had to be redefined. The Kitchen was backyard-connected affair, now had to be relocated for the front street view.

The need for store room diminished for two different reasons, the walled cabinets provided sufficient storage space and the supplies in most of the urban areas were easy to procure, reliable in delivery and partially processed. There was no need to fill up the home with year-long requirements.

8 Cutlery Pantry cabinet

The kitchen was a place for the family, but not yet for formal dinners. A dining room was a ceremonial space, close to the kitchen. The kitchen and dining area were two distinct spatial entities. Very wide twin glass doors between the two virtually merged them. Over the years the need for formal dining area is met by outdoor eating.

9 Julia Child's kitchen at Smithsonian National Museum of American History -Attribution Matthew G



Post 311 – by Gautam Shah 


colour in architecture 1

Colours of Buildings affect many spatial qualities of a built space on both, the interior and exterior faces. Colours used in buildings once were mostly of the natural material surfaces or as applied on it. On exterior face the colour distinguishes a building among many other nearly similar ones. It also emphasizes the architectural elements. In early ages of a street without intensive night lighting, the colour of the building allowed it to be perceptible. Sides of the openings with lighter tones helped the night interior light to have a wider glow. The choices for exterior colours were fewer then on the interior sides. Colours of the naturally available materials were smartly exploited in several buildings across ages and locations. Natural materials like timbers, stones, soils, or materials processed out of these from the local region have phylogenetic relationship. There is an equality of hue and tone across the local materials.



The colour palette began to change with trade across distanced places. The adventitious effect began to occur when minute quantities of materials such as minerals, pigments, and dyes were bought from other regions. The first use of these additives was in the form of painting or colouring of leather, cloth, timbers, art work, ceramics, fabrics and body make-up. The colour schemes of ceramics, paints and fabrics were drastically altered. These colour-effected materials were initially used in palaces or religious buildings. The effects, however, percolated to ordinary buildings and people in different way. Here art and craft objects of exotic colour schemes were used as a rarity and as gesture of modernity.



Knossos Porch ch Exterior colours

Exterior sides of buildings for a very long time (as much as 9th C.) had colours of the natural materials. The surface variation was through the inclusion of architectonic elements, textures and joints’ patterns. Greeks used streaks in natural materials, mosaics and joint’s pattern for surface variations. The Ordinary Romans exploited debris of old buildings for variegated marbles. These colourful marbles were not local as came from distant lands. The Romans, on the exterior surfaces also used calcimine type of water-based coatings with iron oxides as the colourants. Romans created borders and central patterns with mosaics and inlay pieces of colourful stones and glazed ceramics. Byzantinian used marbles from debris of buildings but their intention was contrast and pattern definition, rather than a unified colour scheme.

colour in architecture 2




Interior spaces once had dominantly natural colours of wood, plasters, terracotta, marble, granite and other building stones (like slate, sandstone, quartzite, etc.). These colours were enhanced or supplemented by embellishments made of metal and furnishing fabrics. The interior spaces were stucco or fresco painted. The walls and ceilings had decorations of paintings, murals, carvings, and colourings. The colours of embellishments and decorations though substantially of natural range were much intense tone and purer hues. Interior spaces were protected spaces so lot of non-sun-fast colours and bleeding coatings (water soluble) of natural gums could be used. Ceramics were the next lot of exotic colour materials.

colour in architecture 3

Colours in Egyptian Dendera Temple

In early ages metals like bronze, brass, copper, iron, tin, gold and silver had natural colours. It was not possible to re-colour these substances, except the patina formation on bronze was a controlled process. Metals were ‘colour’ altered by processes such as metallizing, chasing, inlaying. Tin, gold, and silver plating was effective way adding a ‘coloured’ identity. Metal’s own colours or altered with plating were very distinct from the ‘earth’ colours of minerals, glowing hues of dyes or ‘fired’ colours of ceramics. The metal colours were soon challenged by glass. Glass with its impurities had many different ‘Metallic’ shiny colours. These were now pot coloured or stained. The Metals and Glass were successfully coloured in multiple hues at the start of middle ages.

metal-glass facades

FLOORING COLOUR (earlier Blog article)

PATTERNS in FLOORINGS (earlier Blog article)



Post 310 – by Gautam Shah


Habitable spaces are substantially real and physical, but could also have features that transcend the reality. Such conditions occur because the human cognition sometimes functions ambiguously. The subconscious behaviour of humans also expresses itself free from the structural limitations, false rationality, and restrictive customs.


The ambiguities in cognitive processes arise, as the Time and Space that separate most elements as unique happening, get mixed up, to produce incoherent and surprising effects. The elements nominally distanced in time and space are ‘virtually’ juxtaposed in a make-believe world.

1 Spada Gallery Perspective Wikipedia Image by Sailko2 spada

Time is seen as a measure of change, and Space is perceived for its consistency (or even lack of it) over a time. Primitive man, watching a star and noting its almost intangible movement in the sky, or watching own-self getting old, were percepts in time and space. However, to note the difference, two such distinct frames must be juxtaposed.

Star position and Image as reference for detecting movement

In case of stars, the images were shrouded in known forms such as animals, humans or objects, to record the change. The ageing process had to be realized as own image, rather then being told. First image perception of own-self in the still water or over a glossy surface was not magical for the ‘other being there’, but for the perplexity of left and right getting reversed.

Ware-wolf Myth and reality

The magical impact of a powerful representation in painting, a captivating form of sculpture, a transparent glass bead or stone crystals, a shadow or black colour hiding a detail, all were such make-believe situations. It was a new reality. These are replicated and soon the repertoire of make-believe becomes a nominally confirmed technology.

4 Grotesque carving of a house in Crutched Friars, London. Image by Henry Thew Stephenson

Reality is a state of things as they actually exist, rather than as they may appear or might be imagined. Painting, sculpture, transparencies of crystal, shadows, reflection in water or movement of a star, are real and not imaginary things. Yet, reality, was distinctly contrasted with what is unreal or dreamy and delusional. When the dream and reality transcend there is sense of ‘Avidya (lack of knowledge), a Maya as the cause of illusion. The unreal, was unexplained till it could be recreated, and it becomes real. Dreams and delusions are expressed in many visual ways, art, sculpture, performances, whereas alchemy was ‘magic. To resolve the contradictory conditions of reality and dream, people have created ‘unnerving and illogical scenes’, strange creatures, grotesque forms, and queer built-spaces. These have been ways to expose the psychological truth by stripping ordinary objects of their normal significance. The disdain for literal meanings given to objects is considerable. It forces a compelling image, beyond the ordinary formal organization, and has evoked the empathy of the viewer.


Narcissus Reflection in water

Thinkers, such as Aristotle, Plato, Frege, Wittgenstein, and Russell, have made a distinction between thought corresponding to reality, coherent abstractions (thoughts of things that is imaginable but not real), and that which cannot even be rationally thought.

4 Art_Nouveau_MetzThe real and magic are separated by the superfluous. The superfluous, is the applique carrying its own meaning. It is essentially intended to counter the mundane. It is not deep or thoroughly effective. Sir John Summerson, the architectural historian calls it ‘surface modulation’. He also says ‘Architecture had, with some difficulty, liberated itself from the ornament, but it has not liberated itself from the fear of ornament’.

space and reality

The shrouded symbolism of decorations and the contempt for the explainable interpretation, led to creation of new space making elements. The first attempts were like photograph processing tools of superimposition, merging, morphing, etc. It created visual aberration for depth in space, but a deviation of objects in a time frame, a 4D effect. Films and television provided the impetus to make-believe cognition, beyond the visual frames. This is now further adopted to perceive spatially modulated forms in architecture.

Film effects –Make-believe

What was historically the simultaneity of form and structure, is now form fitted out with a structure. Instead of moving in circles with the old adages of form follows function or the function shaping out a form, both are concurrently perceivable in virtual reality.


Salvador Dali creating own reality

Salvador Dali’s painting called ‘Persistence of Memory’, with melting images of pocket watches was in rejection that time is rigid or deterministic. It suggested the theory of Einstein’s that time is relative, and not fixed. Dali works incorporated optical illusions, negative space, visual puns, and trompe l’oeil visual effects, stereoscopic images. He was among the first artists to employ holography in an artistic manner. Dali had a glass floor installed in a room near his studio. He made extensive use of it to study foreshortening, both from above and from below, incorporating dramatic perspectives of figures and objects into his paintings. Dali’s post–World War II period bore the hallmarks of technical virtuosity and an intensifying interest in optical effects, science, and religion. Dall sought to synthesize Christian iconography with images of material disintegration inspired by nuclear physics.


Experiments to involve time in built forms helped the emergence of several forms and techniques for manipulation of the reality. Both impinge on each other in various measures.

5 Dr. Rowan Building, Close-up of Terra Cotta Ornamentation Wikipedia Image by Los Angeles

1 Ornamentation had too much metaphorical connection with the past, and very static visual impact, both restricting the time dynamism. For the process of de-ornamentation, geometry, functional, structural, and spatial aspects provided the much needed excuses. The new datum for architecture and products, etc. the ‘form follows function, purity of form and truth to materials’ became the tenets of modernism. Abstracted arts and crafts had no reliance on functionality or the materials, and the confusion continued through the cubism, surrealism and Dada-ism, etc.

7 Kinemax theatre France

2 Deconstructionists attempted to move away from such constricting aspects. They compromised the geometry of form by abrogating the functional, structural, and spatial aspects of construction, in the architecture, literature or stage arts. But in architecture they still had to deliver a building standing with the gravity and other forces and in literature and other arts it had to be a deliverable product or a recognizable entity. So in spite of running away they remained anchored to reality.

6 East face of the Imperial War Museum North by the Salford Quays Wikipedia Image by Photograph © Andrew Dunn,

\Dali was not alone in trying to project the persistence of time. Many others have followed the path but differently, characterized by fragmentation, an interest in manipulating a structure’s surface or skin, non-rectilinear shapes which appear to distort and dislocate elements of architecture, such as structure and envelope.

‘Peter Eisenman’s Wexner Centre for the Arts: Some of the grid’s columns intentionally don’t reach the ground, hovering over stairways creating a sense of neurotic unease and contradicting the structural purpose of the column’.

3 The movements in architecture and products had one major problem, one had to conceive-plan and detail the entity to execute it. For developing complex forms, the age-old means of orthographic drawings, model making and perspective like visualizations were now too insignificant tools. It had to wait the arrival of the computer to ‘conceive-plan-detail and visualize’ the complex forms.

Rotating Tower Project Dubai

Virtual reality can operate directly with the brain bypassing the sensorial nodes and functions. A ‘person to brain’ interface helps in executing the tasks by getting around the conscious blocks, such as the phobias, fear of public speaking, inhibitions, and vagaries of awareness and consciousness. A step further would be community based on brain-computer connections. The computer perceives, responds and moulds the interactions between ‘brains’ of the members. The participant may be induced by any number of possible means to forget, temporarily or otherwise, that they are inside a virtual realm.

the garden of earthly delights



Post 309 ⇒   by Gautam Shah 


First ever human endeavours of unprecedented size and complexity, such as construction of buildings, forts, cities, or palaces, civic facilities like aqueducts, bridges, gates, fighting wars and calamities, writing epics, creating works of art, all have been executed as projects. These projects require strategic planning, research, innovations, procuring and transporting the supplies, storage, human resources, tools and equipment’s deployment. Such projects often lasted for several generations, or were conducted by different people taking over the controls. The three important elements of conducting a project are, namely: Documentation, supervision and feedback system helped the ‘timeless’ continuity by managing the changed circumstances.

Hanging Gardens of Babylon



Historically large projects were initiated by the powerful coterie of rulers who could command large number of workers as believers or slaves. The armed forces were the most organised of groups, and were preferred executioners. Post 14th C Europe and India saw rise of business men, who patronized construction of large projects like palaces, temples, cathedrals. Early 19th C. saw emergence of different class of entrepreneurs who began to build very large Industrial units, warehouses, wharf and rail roads. These industrial age projects, in comparison to any other project in the history, were conceived, executed and made operational in a very compact time frame. The time compression necessitated new methods of project management. The building had to be an economic entity. The style was not shackled by architectural isms, materials or technology. The new breed of industrial project initiators, were joined by new Governments that were turning more democratic. The Government sponsored economic activities were constructions of bus and railway depots, ports, canals, dams, bridges and roads, etc. These Government projects were often designed executed and managed by private agencies.

Industrial plant

Panama Canal under construction 1907

Mexico Cathedral

Earlier Designers were Planners of the project, and to many extent were active participants in execution process. These allowed them to detail and improvise the project during the execution. But during Industrial evolution Projects were planned for production strategies, then designed (Buildings) and executed by different agencies, and ultimately made operational. These processes required new methods of project handling or management.

Ship Yard

Just before and during the world war II, it was necessary to ensure that production of war materials of all forms matched the anticipated demand, and was supplied to the right place at the right time. For this purpose new planning and forecasting methods were required. After the world war, these mathematics based planning methods developed into a new discipline known as OR -Operations Research. OR is a discipline concerned with the planning, assessment and control of operating systems, such as industrial production, commerce, etc. or virtually any human effort. Interest in the methods for design and logic of these systems, rather than in their operations, led to another subject, SE -Systems Engineering.

Decision making in design is covered by SE. Decision making in planning of the construction, execution, implementation, operations and the management thereof, is covered by OR. In reality these two disciplines overlap and merge into an overall systematic approach for Project Management.

As a discipline, Project Management has developed from several different fields such as building construction, mechanical engineering, military projects, etc. Two types of mathematical project scheduling models were developed.

Miami station

The PERT -Programme Evaluation and Review Technique was developed as part of the United States Navy’s (with Lockheed Corporation) for Polaris missile submarine programme, and the CPM -Critical Path Method was developed (jointly by DuPont Corporation and Remington Rand Corporation) for managing plant maintenance projects. Other such tools were like: work breakdown structure (WBS) and resource allocation methods.

By the 20th C. project managers began to (time) schedule productions for the rapidly changing markets (choices, technologies). In the 1950s and 1960s project planning methods for time management and cost control through inventory, warehousing, transportation management, were developed. Much of this development was based on the concept of determining a precedence relationship (that is, identifying which work activities must be completed before other work activities).

Gas-Oil Platform Bombay high seas

Business was facing challenges of more complex products and services, demands for better quality products, cost-conscious customers, faster development cycles, stiffer international competition. There was need for joint ventures to share risk and collaboration for leveraging the expertise. Project management was designed to help the business leaders do just that.

.Soyuz Space craft

Enormous projects are often called programmes, divisible into multiple projects. The projects, in turn, can be broken down into smaller sets of activities. These are further dissected into tasks, or work packages. Tasks are assignments for a person, equipment or a facility (department). Project management techniques are applied to planning and managing activities at all such levels.