Post 329 –by Gautam Shah
Stones have naturally variegated constitution and surfaces. These, provide with inexhaustible opportunities to work to many different forms, sizes, and finishes. The qualitative consistency of man-made materials though, poses a great challenge to multifarious nature of stone materials.
The Opportunities of Intervention for stones are of following types:
- Stones alone
- Stones with other earth-based materials
- Stones with natural organic materials: such as plants
- Stones with man-made materials such as Ceramics, Metals, Polymers (plastics and elastomers)
1 STONES ALONE
Stones represent, one of the largest resource of earth-based materials. We have not touched even a small fraction of its top layer of mass. Ecologically its use or disposals are manageable. Only problems with stones supply are its inconsistency of sensorial and other surface qualities, and difficult to predict structural properties. This is where man-made materials prove to be superior and reliable. Man-made materials require complex and costly processing whereas stones as a natural resource though unlimited in supplies have high costs of extraction and transportation. Man-made materials are highly custom created and so are not reused extensively, but stones have nine lives and can be used till conversion to form of a dust particle. Man-made materials are produced through multiple-processing, making them difficult to recycle or dispose off safely.
2 STONES WITH OTHER EARTH-BASED MATERIALS
Stones combined with other earth-based materials provide many opportunities of usage. However, stones by themselves or with other earth-based materials have limited scope for combinations. These are mainly by positioning such as spreading, layering or stacking with gravity, by using electromagnetic forces or by kinetic method of tying-knotting. Few earth-based cementing materials such as mud, pozolana or plant gums are insufficient in supplies and technically inadequate. Yet use of natural materials with very small proportion of man-made of joining materials and technologies can achieve outstanding results.
3 STONES WITH NATURAL ORGANIC MATERIALS
Use of organic materials such as plant-based resources (Jungle, Farm produce) has not been explored adequately. Primitive man started using wood in combination of stone, which has been extended to buildings. Its use is limited, as wood is a scarce resource (not easy to replenish). Other organic products require several levels of processing before qualifying their application with stones. Every single new application is worth its wait and expense.
4 STONES WITH MAN-MADE MATERIALS
Stones have been used with man-made materials like metals etc. But most technologies involve non-mixing combinations, such as mechanical joining, adhesion fixing or coating. Stones and earth-based materials have been used in many synthesizing processes. Stones in their physical form and characteristics have been exploited, as fillers, for creation of composites. However, stones have been less frequently synthesized with man-made materials such as ceramics, metals and polymers. These are going to be the opportunities for the next generation.
The inspiration derives from the successes achieved in combining Ceramics with Metals. Ceramics and metals individually have diverse temperature of forming. At a temperature a ceramic begins to evolve some metal either evaporate, liquidize or form oxides. A combination seemingly impossible is now being achieved, for example in electrical transmission equipments, electronic components, tools and cutting edges making. Similarly stones can be combined with many other materials.
Metal application technologies provide exciting results here. Metalizing a stone surface with metallic particulate or molecules, by plating and sputtering techniques is not farfetched. Synthetics are mainly made with organic (carbon-based) monomers in polymers but chaining. These have been used both as the matrix and fillers components in composites. And can we visualize stones, not in the role of filler, but of a matrix in composite forming.