Post 450 -by Gautam Shah


Trivial or non-substantive changes are caused by the user, without the help of a professional designer. Such changes are mainly limited to the interior domain of the space. These are personal adoptive changes. Highly articulated interior spaces have either a very strict regimen or very neatly defined functionality, and so do not allow major changes. A person acquires such a space at a premium rent or charge, is aware of the restraints, and so may not have the obsession for change. Trivial changes relate more to the sensorial aspects of an interior space, rather then its spatial quality. Such changes are ‘applique’ and do not affect the depth of the structure. The application or removal, both are ‘benign’ or non ‘causative’.

Exterior side Trivial changes for personalization > En Wikipedia image by Wikierpedia

Non-substantive changes on an exterior side of a building are caused for personalization. These changes rarely occur in one comprehensive exercise. Personalization is a social response to the conditions in the neighbourhood. Indians dominated residential areas in UK, USA, and other countries show strong personalization of exteriors, perhaps to imprint their Indian affinity. This is in stark contrast, to an Indian house in a community sparsely populated with Indians. Here the house owner avoids the external personalization.

Raw houses California st NW Washington DC Wikipedia image by AgnosticPreachersKid

Exterior side changes on buildings, trivial or otherwise, are discouraged by the local authorities to sustain the ethnicity of the neighbourhood. Exterior changes of all types, are not allowed on leased-rented properties. Logistically it is difficult to cause any change on the exterior faces of a multi storeyed building. In buildings where galleries or balconies are provisioned, occupants place demountable entities like flower plants, mobiles, hangings, screens, etc.



Buildings need substantive changes mainly when the user or usage change. Substantive changes are executed by professional designers, in both the domains, unless restrained by extraneous causes such as budget, logistics and local authorities. External changes are difficult in buildings with multiple owners (shared) as there is obligatory discipline. Similarly buildings located in dense localities have severe logistics problems that make it very difficult to cause any changes on the external face. Multistoried buildings with nearly integrated curtain walls as the exterior skin offers no scope for any external modification.

Difficult logistics for substantive exterior change in Multi-ownership apartments Gurgaon Delhi

Substantive changes are caused by brand conscious companies that have very defined para-metrics regarding Graphics, Space and Architecture. To accommodate first two the architecture needs alterations. Substantive changes relate to immediate commercial needs, and also to perception on how long one will stay in the new premises.

Commercial renovation substantive changes on exterior for branding



Post 449 -by Gautam Shah



Personnel are the most important asset for any organization. First, persons with only required qualities are sought. Second, better compensation is offered for hiring specific qualities. Third, incentives are offered for the readiness to reformat the talents and traits. Fourth, employees unable to convert are punished or shifted out of the organization. Organizations hire and retain people with required education, skill, experience, inclination and personality trait. Organizations fully exploit the individual talents and traits. Organizations recognize, support and even reformat these qualities through formal training and opportunistic exposures. Members of the organization are motivated in different ways to modify or upgrade their expertise. Organizations consider personnel as Human resources are not only immensely manipulable, but up-gradable to seemingly infinite levels of efficiency.

Puppet Designer- creator

Organizations have varied capacity to train and reformat the personality trait, natural talent and skills. Very small organizations have no opportunistic exposures to retrain an individual staff member, and as a result, find it easier to hire and fire the required people. Large organizations handle large volume of work, and so can effectively reposition the personnel for reformatting the talent. They shuffle their staff to adjust to consistently fluctuating needs. For large organizations, it is more prudent to retrain a person, than hire a stranger, and disturb the normal work culture of the unit or fire an otherwise known person.


Studio Aalto Upper floor

Once a person is employed, the management of the organization continuously monitor the performance. Organizations relate the performance of an employee to the profitability. This is more so in Design organizations where human resources are an important asset, unlike in manufacturing units where productivity of machines and raw material costs have greater significance. An Employer sees performance as a tool for future efficiency to be gained at a specific cost, whereas an Employee perceives performance as immediate compensation, personal fulfillment, future promotion and skill gain.

Eames Office


Personnel of the organizations are structured in three basic layers.

  • Chores that require little innovation, and which can as well be assigned to machines, are handled by workers (messengers, model makers).
  • Assignments that require some degree of thought but are methodical in nature carried out by technicians (site supervisors, draftsmen, CAD operators, etc.)
  • Tasks that require creativity are handled by experts or professionals (designers, subject experts).

This layered-arrangement varies slightly with the nature of the work in the organizations. Designers involved in Design+Build practice have the first category as the dominant layer. Organizations involved in design creation work have the third category as the dominant layer. Whereas Service organizations such as concerned with testing, evaluation, data management, administration, presentations, etc., have the second category as the dominant layer. In Small Design organizations, the focus is on Design creation, and services are outsourced. Large organizations have enough assignments to operate own and a viable in-house services unit. Large Design + Build practice operates production units attached to the design set-up, or as a distinctly separate workshop facility. Where the organization creates prototypes, the former is the setup, and where deliverable products are created, second option is used.



Post 448 -by Gautam Shah



Adhesives join materially and dimensionally different materials. Adhesives can penetrate deep groves, closely spaced sides and other difficult to access forms to create a joint. Adhesives are very low viscosity or thin body materials so take up very little space. Even their overlapping joints do not add much to the thickness of the assembly. Adhesives allow uniform stress distribution, unlike screws and nuts which create localized stress points. Adhesive Joints may be designed as required, to be elastic or rigid. Adhesive joints can be demountable and very clean on removal.

Glues, Gums, Adhesives

Adhesives form a joint at ambient temperature and at very low processing temperature. Adhesive joining does not affect crystallographic structure of metals or plastics. Adhesives can create very extensive, multi layered laminar compositions without physically cutting or puncturing the materials.


Shoe sole joining with adhesive

Adhesives bonding are surface sensitive joining system. Adhesives require elaborate surface treatments, specific application conditions, curing procedures and sometimes considerable expense of time for setting. Screws, nut-bolts and other mechanical fixings nearly involve substantial mass of the material being joined, so often can join materials with weak surface components. But for adhesive bonding the integrity of the surface component, with the rest of the material is extremely important. Inspection of the joint is difficult. Joint design becomes very critical, compared with other mechanical and thermal processes. The adhesive itself may corrode the materials it is joining, or induce stresses during curing.

Plywood layers joined with Urea formaldehyde

Many of the adhesive products are used as sealants, masking pastes, caulking compounds, bulk fillers, water proofing materials, cracks and crevices filler, temporary to permanent holding compounds (such as for metal sheets, glass, etc.).

Senior Airman Collin Uvanni caulks the baseboards of the new post office at Bagram Air Field, Afghanistan, June 6, 2006.  The office, constructed entirely by the 1st Expeditionary Red Horse Group here, will nearly double the size of the existing post office.  (U.S. Air Force photo/Senior Airman Brian Ferguson)


Adhesives have many formulations and forms, both of which are closely linked to the technique of applications, material surface types and shape configurations. Adhesives can be broadly defined by what they join, such as paper, wood, metals-ceramics-glasses, fibers-fabrics, plastics-elastomers, and biological entities like skin-bones-hairs. Adhesive joining technologies also are a method of categorization, such as liquid-paste spread, hot glues, tapes or patches, ambient temperature curing, baking, heat curing, fusing, surface softening or dissolving, pressure softening, instant bonding, contact adhesive, etc.



Solvent based adhesive

One of the largest markets for adhesives is for wood, paper and fibres. Wood adhesives are of basically two types: 1 Used for joining wood components by carpenters and workshops, these are Polyvinyl Acetate (PVA) and Acrylic emulsion-based adhesives, 2 Used for plywood composite manufacturing such as plywoods, particle boards, etc., such as the Amino resins made from Urea, Phenol and Melamine processed in combination with Formaldehyde.

Hockey stick reinforced with adhesive tape

For wood joinery workshops, and packing and labelling fields two major types of adhesives are used, Adhesives based on solvents and based on water. Water-based systems are mainly in the form of emulsions. Water-based formulations of Polyvinyl acetate (PVA), Ethylene vinyl acetates (EVA) and Methacrylate, are widely used. Solvent adhesives include acrylics and styrene-butadiene (SB) latex. Acrylic resins are used for removable and permanent pressure sensitive applications.

Super Glue


Neoprene or Polychloroprene was the first synthetic elastomer adhesive. It is widely used in shoe manufacturing. It is also used as a contact adhesive for attaching large surfaces and very quickly. It provides water and heat resistant bonds. Epoxy adhesives are widely used for structural applications. Epoxies offer reliable and good adhesion to all substrates. Urethane adhesives are environmentally tough, abrasion resistant and flexible adhesives. Instant adhesives such as cyanoacrylates provide an instantaneous bond and are called super glues. These are available as liquids, pastes, and gels, that set at normal or elevated temperatures. These are used for repair work of pipes, toys, ceramics, etc.

Scotch Tape



Post 447 -Gautam Shah



Fibres, yarns and fabrics have poor bulk, or have lost bulk during various treatments are re-bodied by many different substances. Bodying is also possible without any substantive coating. Certain heat and water treatments shrink the fabric, increasing the bulk.

Starched sized Neck Cloth

Weighting or bodying is a fabric finishing process that may be applied at fiber, yarn or fabric stage. Users oriented bodying processes mostly occur after the fabric production, at clothes stage. One of the oldest known weighting materials has been the size. Starch, gums and gelatine have been used to size fabrics for stiffness, glaze and adding weight. Wool, jute, linen and such coarse fiber fabrics do not require weighting. Fabrics of cotton and silk, in fresh state, and used (after some wear) state need bodying.

Anna Pavlova in Giselle, wearing a romantic Tutu

Classical bell tutus in The Dance Class by Edgar Degas, 1874

Traditional sizing treatments are temporary. Modern day chemicals such as modified starch, polyvinyl alcohol (PVA), carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC), and acrylic co-polymers provide long-lasting effect. Sizing of the warp yarn is required to reduce breakage of the yarn during weaving.



1890s wedding dress made from weighted silk. The splits and damage visible on the sleeve are caused by the weighting process of the fabric.

Raw silk contains from 25 to 30 % of its weight in sericin or gum. When the fiber is cleaned or fabrics are washed, this substance is removed. Silks are weighted to recoup the loss in fiber weight, and to add greater body to fabric. Silk has an affinity for several metallic salts, like iron, lead, and tin. The weight lost in the de-gumming process is refurbished by soaking the fibre or fabric in a bath of the metallic salts. For freshly woven silk fabric, it is first placed in an acid solution of stannic chloride (a chloride of tin). After the absorption of the substance, the fabric is washed, placed into a solution of sodium phosphate and washed. During this process, an insoluble compound (tin phosphate) is formed. This adds weight and body. Sometimes further treatment with sodium silicate is done. A silk can hold considerably more than its own weight, though heavy weighting reduces abrasion resistance, leading to greater wear and tear. Weavers and merchants, once added 10 times more weight, then the customary processing loss of 20 %. One simple way to check presence of chemical weighting compounds is to burn a piece of silk fabric, and it leaves behind a perceptible skeleton of metallic compound.

Laundry Starch

Cotton and other materials are sized for very temporary to permanent treatments. This may be in the form of starch, gelatin, or resin or a combination of these with lubricating substances such as oils or wax. Starches and gelatin are temporary sizes and are removed during laundering. Cheap cotton or rayon fabrics are often heavily starched for stiffness which after laundering may become quite limp. Fabrics like organdy are permanently stiffened Cottons.

Starch Weighted head scarf

Wool fabrics are not weighted, but compacted or fulled to give the fabric more compact or denser structure. Melton cloth is very heavily fulled wool fabric, with a dense -felt like texture.

Melton Wool

Silk Sizing



Post 446  –by Gautam Shah




Traditional building systems are massed in one to one relationships or linear, because we design components that are individually dealt, drawn, built and operated. This makes it easier to deal with subsystems in different time, space by different experts. A systems approach to design, render simple or linear systems. Building systems are conceived as structures with superfluous concern for environment or the occupants. Same building composition is placed on all orientations and site conditions. In many instances the ‘architecture is so much internationalized’ that it is moored anywhere, irrespective of climate, location or terrain. The universalization leads to ‘forms being imposed without concern for the purpose’. The only complexity that descends is in the form, generated by the machine manipulated ‘pursuit of the unusual’.

Mathematical Fractal Complexity Abstraction

‘A complex system is one that by design or function or both is difficult to understand and verify’ (Weng, Bhalla and Iyengar). So perhaps design which needs to be well understood before delivery cannot be a complex system. The need for complexity in building system persists. It is perhaps a pursuit of the unusual. The attitude to conceive a system with all its dependencies requires multi-disciplinary approach, which is sadly absent. Experts arrive to offer solutions to make the concept a workable thing. Only in house experts part of architectural design office are, a structural engineer, and perhaps an interior designer. In interior design office subscribes to furniture designer.

El Museu de les Ciències Príncipe Felipe

Complex systems are nested and very effusive. The complex systems are perceived of subsystems, each with unique time and space dependencies. As these dependencies, connections or relations, do not manifest simultaneously one can study them or plan for their hypothetical or real replacement or management. Complex systems have no permanent boundaries, and are difficult to determine. These boundaries, however, can be presumed by the stack holder, who is involved with it. Sadly designers are stake holders in design and execution (delivery) processes but not for the user experience part of it. Complex systems when conceived or analyzed by a team, become open systems, compared to single systems or holistic creations.

Giant’s Causeway in Northern Ireland is an example of a complex emergent structure created by natural processes.

Single or holistic systems are balanced or with thermodynamic equilibrium. But complex systems are continuously varying, as affected by many external energies. Complex systems show a characteristic pattern or order. The order is obvious when the purpose of togetherness of the subsystems is determined or even subsumed.




Bio-mimicry is one such order that is subsumed in buildings. Complex systems often exhibit hysteresis, a phenomenon in which the reaction of the system to changes is dependent upon its past reactions to change. This sort of memory retention or recollection (of previous exposure to magnetism is the working principle in audio tape and hard disk devices or recovery from complicated deformations in the state of substances) is just one facet of system behaviour. It is sought to be seen as simplistic and stand-alone hysteresis.

Falkrik wheel lifting the boat Wikipedia Image Attribution: Famine at en.wikipedia

Memorials are designed as remarkable Places, to serve simpler and fewer functions. Often there is an attempt to de-emphasize the space making elements. With fewer distracting architectonic elements, the attention comes to the site, either integrating or blocking it. The scale is enlarged to make an architecture, or depressed to mark a place.





Post 445 –Gautam Shah



Forged Building Hardware

Forging is a process of shaping iron and other malleable metals by hammering or pressing. Forging is carried out above or below the re-crystallization temperature of the metal. A primary purpose of forging is to shape a metal, but it also redefines the grain size and arrangements. The forged metal becomes more ductile. Forging improves the structure of a metal like better resistance to fatigue and impact, compared to other shaping processes such as casting or machining.

Forging with machine-hammer


Forging is mainly a shaping process where the metal is Drawn-out, Upset or Squeezed or compressed. Forging is also used to join metal pieces.

1 Drawing-out: The length is increased by decreasing the cross-section, such as wires, rolled sections, etc.

2 Upsetting: The length decreases but cross-section increases, such as for forming nails, rivets, bolts and coin stamping.

3 Bending: It is done by hammering the work around a form, such as for pipes, plates or dished ends (top-bottom of vessels).

4 Joining: Two pieces of metal form a joint, by hammering them together at high temperature (such as for copper and brass items).

5 Punching: Forming small openings or slits in the metal by a punch of the proper shape, often over a hollowed section. Punching is also accompanied by forming of the edge profiles.

6 Cutting Forming or cutting large holes or shapes by punching, shearing, etc.

Forging swagging tools

7 Die Forming: Forging is also squeezing metals by producing multi-directional flow to fill in a shaped die through compression. Shaping dies are, open, closed or impression dies. It is usually done hot to increase the plasticity of metal and so reduce the required force. Open-die forging is used to form parts that are too big for a closed die, or where only a few pieces are required. Closed-die forging is used for items to be made to close tolerances and where no machining is required. Coins are formed with impressions on two sides and also with side-edge patterns. Scooter and other carburetors are formed by pressure die casting, a process of forging.


Forging is also called a smithy. The chief activities of iron workshops, since ancient times, have been to heat the metal and beat it to a shape, or Forging. Hand-held Hammer has been chief tool for forging, but in the last two centuries powered hammers and presses are used.

Forged Aluminum wheels




Post 444 –by Gautam Shah



Lanterns are covers over oil lamps or candles to protect the flame in high winds and rains. Covers make lanterns safe against burns and spread of fire. These were later adopted as an architectural feature to bring in illumination. Lanterns were identified as a distinctive architectural feature as openings during Romanesque period. The Lantern developed from many preceding elements that were placed atop a building. These elements, in different cultures, served Three main purposes 1 Bringing in daylight into the interiors of buildings, 2 Provide a glowing feature in the otherwise dark exterior scape, and, 3 Add aeriform silhouettes to the building.





Clerestory openings were forerunners of the lantern lights. These were horizontal slit openings created by keeping the aisle slab at lower level, than the main slab. The clerestory openings provided a consistent quality of light to the interior space. Egyptian and Mycenaean architecture used upper level openings for lighting and ventilation of large rooms. In Minoan palaces of Crete such as Knossos, light-wells were used to supplement the daytime illumination. In Roman basilicas, it formed a series of windows in the upper part of the main hall.



Series of windows in flat side walls of Roman Basilicas provided sufficient, though highly directional illumination. In the Romanesque period the central section became much larger (the four corners of the holy Cross-based plan). Use of pendentives allowed placement of a circular dome or a square form. The dome sitting in this manner, however, was not perceptible from outside, so was raised with the addition of a drum. The drum was pierced with several windows (Santa Hagia, Constantinople). The square space in a plan, with a mounted dome provided a wonderful aeriform, but had two basic issues. It had no clear direction for prayers and related ceremonies and it was very costly, time and material consuming system.


In Romanesque and Gothic churches, the section over the aisles had several clerestory windows. These windows, over the ages, became taller and extent wise much larger. The larger windows created wonderful day-lit bright interiors, but robbed the charm of upper-level clerestory openings.



Gothic architecture afforded several stratified openings, and the need for intense daylight illumination was replaced by some dramatic local effects. This was done with use of light towers. Tower structures, were used for bells (campanile or belfry), stairs, and as architectural elements (spire, steeple). The towers are nominally solid structures at the base but as they rise, have progressively larger size or greater number of openings.

The tower transmitted light with even, but dramatic effect like a modern day spot light. Spires and steeples became very tall pointed structures, almost reaching the sky. These were visible from a distance, but became useless for transmitting light to the interiors. These became light-houses because lit by a small oil lamp, and its presence and forms were perceptible in the dark nights.

Structure of Steeple


Spires and Steeple like spear structures, marked their presence by changing the silhouette of the building. Several of them were added to satisfy multiple sponsors. The structures had to be light weight and properly framed to reach the skies. These were wood-framed, but later sheet metals (18C) began to be used. During the Victorian era and later large nonreligious public buildings and large residences began to use the tower like structures. These were used as decorative roofing element and for as light-well for stairs. At places the need to add silhouette undulation was not acute and elaborate skylights, cupolas, and glass conservatories were used.


In Indian architecture of Mughal period, Roof Chhatris (pavilions) were placed on building terraces, gates, ramparts, etc. Chhatris were functional summer seats on terraces and also decorative forms.






Post 443 –by Gautam Shah



In an Interior Space, Comfort is ease of doing things, like handling tasks, sustaining life, relaxation, expression, communication, interaction, contemplation, and conducting many other affairs. The Interior space facilitates these with its built form, the environment, amenities and enrichments.

Factors defining the comfort conditions, whether,

  1. relating to absolute comfort,
  2. facilitation by the space, or
  3. related to the person are mutually dependent.

Card Players by Paul Cezanne

person_swimming_swim_lake_water-78918.jpg!dA ■ Some of the ABSOLUTE FORMATIVE ASPECTS for COMFORT are:

1. Climate (temperature, humidity, air movement and radiation) Read More here :- Interior Spaces and Climatic Comfort and Temperature Related Comfort Parameters for Interior Design

Comfortable dresses Women_of_Puducherry

2. Anthropometric, Ergonomics and Postures factors, Read More here :- Postures and Behaviour and Postures for Furniture Design -1 and Postures for Furniture Design -2 and Body Posture Systems and Body Postures 


3. Time management (Tasks, duration, cycles of task changes and social interactions) Read More here:- Tasks Shifting in Interior Spaces and Space Planning for Tasks and Interior Spaces as Settings for Tasks  


4. Metabolic activity (Quality of food, Basal Metabolic rate and physiological functionality) Read More here : –Temperature Management by Human Body 


BCOMFORT FACILITATION by the SPACE are closely related physiological accommodation and sensorial perceptions. Accommodation relates to space sizes, form and the perceptive scale which in turn allow physical posturing, social group formation, expression and interaction. A space is comforting due to the familiarity as much as it is invigorating due to the vibrancy and surprises. Space change occurs due to the environment and by its exposure from a different position.

Read more here Place in a Space And Space Sizes and Human Behaviour


CCOMFORT FACTORS RELATED to a PERSON at a very basic level are linked to the mechanisms of survival and level of adaptability. Many facets of comfort are universal for all humans, but it is also a personal matter of choice and aspiration. Personal matters cover, Life style, Clothing, Adornments, Social groupings and Time management. The comfort in interior space, subjectively and objectively, is a complex phenomenon, continuously varying with the needs, experience and age of the person.

Read more here Dealing with Environment And Postures and Designers




Post 442 -by Gautam Shah


Primer coat is the first surface build up on any substrate. It is designed to receive one or several more coats, immediately or some times later. A primer-coat is a surface preparation layer. It covers the surface irregularities like, chemical reactivity, and physical variations -colour, texture, porosity. A primer coat also offers a next application worthy surface.

Eiffel Tower Painting.jpg

A primer coat serves two distinct purposes: 1 It touches the substrate, often of many different types, and so must adhere to it, well, 2 It receives the next coat so functionally must be compatible with it. A primer coat helps in levelling the surface, and must have ‘body’ to fill up the pores, micro crevices, etc. Primer coat is sand papered for levelling, and to roughen up for application of second coat. Its some superfluous part gets rubbed and removed.

Primer coat is nominally applied on ‘virgin’ or an uncoated surface, and sometimes on very old coated surface. In the later case, the primer coat is slightly coloured white, off-white or some colour closer, but lighter then the final intended colour. When an old coat colour is to be ‘masked’ completely, primer coats or undercoats are coloured by a ‘masking colour’, such as Green by darker Red or Red by Blue. It is desirable to have primer of a slightly different and lighter colour shade than the subsequent coat, to differentiate a freshly coated surface and uncoated surface.

Primer failure

Primer coat is a technical coat, so its colour is not very important. The Primer-colours that we see are mainly due to the filler or body-pigments, called extenders. These are chosen for their protective effects and other technical qualities. Primer coats protect the virgin surface, and so are applied soon after the primary manufacturing is over, such as on pipes, sections, sheets, castings, etc. Good primer must remain adhered to the surface, even after other top coats are removed accidentally, or for renovation.


Clear Sealer Coats: These are priming coats for application of clear coats, mainly wood surfaces. A sealer coat, like a primer prepares the fresh surface (of wood) for subsequent application. Sealer coat must be to be low viscosity, but high solid content material. Nitro cellulose clear has been found to be the most versatile sealer material. Other materials include variety modified pine Rosins. Clear sealer coats are often not categorized as priming coat, where the first application is a coat of ‘extender’ such as china clay, barytes or Calcium carbonate mixed with oxide colour. Such a coat covers, the irregularities of colour and grain patterns, fill up pores and micro crevices on wood surfaces. After sand papering-level rubbing it may be coated with a sealer coat. Sealer coats are preceded by staining compounds or coats, to add a translucent tinge on the surface.

white undercoat

A primer or sealer coat is the first coating applied to the objects’ surface, so it is required to:

● Regulate moisture movement in case of wood or masonry surfaces and provide corrosion resistance on metals

● Regulate the PH value and galvanic activity of the surface.

● Seal the surface so that oils, waxes, gases, vapours, salts and other reactive exudations from the object mass do not leach out in adverse conditions

● Fill up micro pores and crevices to level out the surface

● Provide temporary protection to the substrate from actions like abrasion, oxidation, sparking, ignition, insects attack.


A great variety of primers are available in the market, but of following basic THREE categories:

Wood primers generally function as sealers, so have a high pigment + extender ratio. Wood sealers for clear coats are colourless coatings that help in sealing the grain. Commercial wood primers for pigmented paints are white or pinkish in colour due to the presence of white pigments and extenders, compared to metal primers (red-oxide) which, are dark coloured.

white primer on wooden surface 1566994

primer paint

Metal primers have rust inhibitive pigments or extenders like red lead, zinc oxide, zinc chromate, red oxide, calcium boro-silicate, barium metaborate, zinc molybdate, chromium fluoride, basic lead silico chromate, zinc ferrite, calcium ferrite. Under water (submerged) metal structures are coated with zinc rich primers based on epoxy, polyurethane systems or chlorinated rubber paints are used.


Primer on Metal surface

Masonry primers are applied to alkaline surfaces, so are designed as non acidic mediums. Often such surfaces have high degree of loose particles, so Masonry primers have high proportion of binding materials. Commercially these types of primers are known as cement primers, and are available as water or oil-based formulations. Water-based formulations are mainly used on virgin masonry surfaces.




Post 441


A Design organization is nominally owned and operated by a Designer or Group of Designers. This is often a requirement for professions covered by Government recognized councils (like Architecture) in some countries of the world. For most other design fields this may not be a requirement.

In design organizations convener of the entity is a ‘person of authority, such as a President or a chairperson and is the prime leader. A Design organization is launched and continued (taken over) by person/s who have one or several of these authorities: the ability to hire and so influence, motivates, and enables others to contribute toward the effectiveness and success of the organizations. Three distinct authorities are identified, and a Design organization chiefs have these in various proportions.

Formal authority to lead an organization is acquired by the capacity to reimburse or compensate people who work for the organization.

Technical authority derives from superior knowledge, expertise, skill, experience, etc.

Personal authority is a function of Personality attributes such as: age, sex, race, bearing, determination, will power, appearance, charisma, height, weight, etc.

Conveners of design organization, who lack these features, try to make it up by other means. Formal authority can be procured by having a financier partner or associate, or an official appointment. Technical authority can be secured by hiring technically qualified associates or employees. Personal authority can be modified by having an indirect or remote mode of management.

Quality of leadership must vary according to the nature of work in the organization, but it is the quality of leadership that defines the work style of the organization. To achieve the first object, organizations separate out the domain of leadership for the functioning of the organization from the one required to handle a project. The second aspect requires the leader to be as versatile as the project demands.


Bohemian Politicians US-France-India-India

Organizations that handle highly variable situations or non-repeating projects need a very Radical leader. On the other hand organizations with routine projects will function well under a Methodical leader. An Autocratic leader overrides the situational differences and imposes a preconceived style. The autocratic leader expects complete obedience. Such a leadership works well for projects that are critical in time, resources and extent. A Democratic leader would rather mould the situation, so that it can be handled within the ambience of the personal (leadership) qualities. Employees get full support, status and due recognition, and as a result show responsible behaviour and self-discipline. Democratic leaders are ideal for projects involving large user base. A Bohemian leader develops a style to suit the situation on hand, and are often very useful in tackling continuously variable situations. A Custodial leader has extra ordinary economic resources so makes employees dependent on the organization with security and benefits. The resulting performance is barely adequate.