Post 474 –by Gautam Shah
For creative writing it is important to communicate the concept and purpose of the expression. Stating it explicitly as an introduction, or recapitulating as the summary at the end, serve only a limited purpose. An introduction or the summary, are dulled by the elaborate body, with the passage of time and by other interesting details. Both remain muted if the print style, manners of speech or the media support do not reinforce it. In digital access systems the introduction or summary, are generated automatically, without the author being involved in its creation. The media presentation of this is without any typographical or graphical enrichments.
The contents of writing are yet focussed in several ways. In this article the remaining SEVEN methods are discussed, THREE were presented in the earlier article.
4 – EMPHASIS BY CONDENSATION AND ELABORATION: The emphasis in presentations occurs by condensation and occasionally by elaboration of the subject matter. Primarily Condensation eliminates all unnecessary and less necessary contents, and thereby increase the clarity, reduce the expression size, delivery time, perception effort, etc. Condensation is also done by use of abbreviations and symbols that replace large units of contents. These include idioms, proverbs, metaphors, and signs. Condensation is often used to restrict the access to a specific class of audience, like magicians’ instructions.
Elaboration is achieved by augmenting the context of difficult to understand concepts, events, situations, or objects. It is also done by using the same word in different context, and using similar words (synonyms and antonyms from a thesaurus) to redefine the meaning. Multiple explanations help amplify content. Elaboration is also achieved by inclusion of anecdotes, couplets, quotations, footnotes, end notes, and other sensorial effects.
Emphasis is often created by intentional de-emphasis. Obvious details, concepts, ideas, conclusions are not put forward at the nominal time and space, but are placed at the end, or the audience is allowed to draw its own inferences.
The condensation and elaboration are employed to colour a document as a personal style statement.
Processed information often becomes so comprehensive that it becomes a very abstract expression. Abstracted expressions are exploited to achieve new insights.
5 – BRIDGING AND LINKING: The contents are bridged to create a seamless or a larger concept. The most common bridging is through time and space organization of the contents. The links to other documents (e.g. hyperlinks, bibliographies, index) are such reference bridges. Recorded contents are classified according to the nature of content, names of the author, date of publication, size and form of the document. Such classification identifiers also provide associations. A well bridged or cited content vouches its authenticity through circumstantial referencing.
Search engines list topics in terms of number of users referencing it. Wikipedia -the internet encyclopaedia relies on citations. Preface and such write-ups broach the subject by positioning it in a wider perspective.
Contents are also bridged using conjunctions. Words like and, if, or, when, then, whereas, therefore, etc. connect clauses or sentences. Bullets, numbered lists, also bridge sub topics.
7 – SEPARATING AND ISOLATING: The contents are separated or isolated, by spacing and by tabulation (paragraphs, bullet marking, numbering, hyphenating, bracketing), to highlight or categorize the sub-topics. Separation in writing is achieved by commas, semicolons, brackets, or other interludes (gutter spaces in newspaper columns). In recordings a null space is provided for the machine to recognize the end of one section and the beginning of next one. By isolating the contents it becomes easier to link each such section distinctly.
8 – ABSTRACTION: The contents are abstracted by removing all less important information, time slots and space gaps. The expression language in Internet chat rooms shows the nature of abstraction spreading across the world. Common words are written eliminating vowels and are denoted by their phonemes. Symbols and metaphors are also used to squeeze the contents. Vedic mantras represent knowledge in a very condensed form to easily remember it (‘Shrut Gyan’ -knowledge that is heard). However, such condensation is vulnerable to different interpretation of the contents.
9 – MARKING: Contents are marked to enhance (bold facing, underlining, Italics, large size type faces) their presence. The contents are delivered louder, faster or slower, brighter, repeatedly, and in metres (musical, couplets with rhymes) for the same effect.
10 – BY TITLING (NAMING): One of the best way of focussing (by declaration) the contents are to provide a title to it. A title as created by the author is more truthful but is not accepted by the reader or audience, as their intentions of accessing need not match the author’s perceptions. Storage systems create own titles to facilitate access by their users’ needs. Titles often have limitations of size. This is overcome by including long titles or list of keywords or summary or precis.
Presentations styles and techniques used for direct or inter personal communication like elocution, orations, sermons, lectures, cannot be used for, or are useless for reports, etc. Writhing as an assignment from superiors, teachers, retainers, employers have a defined motive, and structure. Method of presentation is essentially tailor-made to satisfy the assignee.
This article in continuation of earlier >>
Creative Writing – 2