MOATS -water bodies as fortifications

Post 518  by Gautam Shah.



KronborgCastle_HCSA moat is a ditch or trench around a castle, fort or settlement. Moats were created by reforming the existing terrain features, or dug as a new one. Fortified structures, like castles were once sited over difficult terrains, where some natural features offer some protection, such as hills, elevated lands or rocky landscapes. Moats were additional defence provisions, formed at vulnerable spots. The difficult terrains, however, make it very difficult to dig a new trench, or reform the existing terrain. Digging a moat was not only labourious, but the management of the excavated material equally difficult. The excavated stuff was used to back support the fort walls, or raise and level the internal grounds. Moats were formed along with construction of fort walls.

Dover castle Network of interconnected ditches Wikipedia image by Author Lieven Smits

1 Denys_van_Alsloot_Skating_Masquerade,_or_Carnival_on_Ice_at_the_Kipdorppoort_Moats_in_Antwerp

A water-filled moat was an ideal condition (or rather romantic) that was supposed to make the fort invincible. But in absence of required quantity of water supply, many moats remained dry ditches. To fill up a moat several other additional facilities would be needed such as natural or artificial reservoir, ducts, pipes, sluices and water evacuation channels. Dry ditches became drainage pits for the castle or buildings inside. Wet moats were a great health hazard. In many stories and mythical tales, moats are supposed to have alligators or crocodiles. Some moats, though, were filled with fish for food.

The “Three Country Moat” in the center of the Himeji castle complex Japan, Wikipedia image by Author Corpse Reviver

Old painting of Himeji castle Complex Japan showing moats

Moats as a dry channel or filled with water, made it difficult for the enemy to cross it, or delay the siege of the fort or castle. A moat like rough depression was difficult for cavalry to ride through, or carry a wood log to batter the doors or walls. The early age moats were conceived as defence structures, and never as an architectural or decorative landscaped feature. The edges or banks were intentionally left unfinished, or rough. The new retaining masonry walls were steep with very acute face to make it difficult to negotiate. The fort wall base at the moat was devoid of any foothold or landing space.

Moat at Agra Fort India Wikipedia image by Author Biswarup Ganguly

Moat at Vellore fort India Wikipedia image by Author Chandrachoodan Gopalakrishnan from Chennai, India

Water-filled moat with wide and deep water body was very assuring. Castles were planned near water reservoirs like rivers, stream, tanks, lakes, or new dams were constructed for it. Such locations were on flatter terrains. The idea of a water-filled moat, reflecting the walls and towers of the castles, or bastions and crenelated parapets of the fort, was so romantic and picturesque that In later periods such structures became mere decorative pieces. The moats needed bridges to connect to the castle or fort. Flatter ground fortifications had wider and deeper water bodies. These were used for fishing and boating. During the medieval periods a large articulated water body was as important as the form of the castle and fortification.

Beaumaris Castle and Moat Wikipedia image by Author Deadmanjones

Fort Delaware Pea Patch Island Showing Moat Wikipedia image

Form and uses of castles and forts have continuously changed. Such structures were once of very small base and could accommodate only few but provided refuge during the invasions. The form changed with style of warfare and the scale of the invaders. Early defence structures were designed for projectiles like arrows, stones etc. With the arrival of artillery, some new styles of structures were required. The depth and width of the moats, design of its banks, and layout in conjunction with ramparts, bastions, etc. were important. But moats continued to provide social isolation to the ruling class for a long time.


Ancient North view of the fortress of Buhen in Ancient Egypt Wikipedia image by Author Franck Monnier (Bakha)



Post 517  by Gautam Shah


Black soot covered walls Almeida Júnior – Country Kitchen – oil on canvas 1895

Black is one of the prime colours, used by humans. Red, though is very vivid and fascinating colour in the history. Red and Black have ethereal connection, and both seem almost indistinguishable in monotone perception. This was one of the reasons that in the black-white cinema era, heroines avoided red dresses and lipsticks. The infamous Psycho shower scene of blood, was shot with not red liquid but most palatable chocolate syrup. The BW movie Jezebel (1938 with cast Bette Davis, Henry Fonda, George Brent), based on Brilliant scarlet dress (outrageous) the heroine wore, was actually Brown in colour. It was a well-deliberated move. Was this the story of red colour in dark dimly lit cave paintings of Paleolithic age? Could they have perceived black from the red, when both of which were extensively used. Paleolithic painters had several sources of black, such as wood charcoal, bone charcoal, manganese oxide, in addition to the tonal variations caused by the surface binding mediums like water, tallow, fish oil, eggs, wax etc. The hue variations were caused by the direction, and intensity of the lighting torch or fire used to see the paintings.


Black is the ‘strongest colour’ (or in scientific language the most remarkable absence of all colours of the spectrum). It was used as draft line of the figure, for highlighting the silhouette of the figure, in few instances for defining the colours’ edges, for containing and bounding the running colours of low viscosity. Paleolithic painters used black (and also other colours such as ochres and red oxides) to shade the artwork for tonal effects. The tonal variations served the purpose adding a depth dimension, for emphasizing the important segments of the composition, and only in later periods for light shading. Light shading with subtle use black was to indicate the direction of the source and often to the root of the magical power.


Carbon Black with high ash content

Carbon Black Pure

Black has been a great additive to tone up (or down) other colours. It, however, is a very strong shade tinter, even better than the whites available in early periods. Black, true to its nature, would reduce the brightness (visual impact) of the colour, compared with the addition of the white. Black added colours contribute depth to the colour. By the time of Iron age, the technique of adding black to vary the tones became much less popular. This was mainly due to the availability of multiple shades of ochres, oxides, etc. Blacks of different origins were added to whites of various types (such as calcium carbonate, barytes, gypsum) to achieve vast range of greys for use in mural paintings.

Red Black combination in Cave Art > Reproduction of a bison of the cave of Altamira Wikipedia image by Author Rameessos

The most difficult part was how to reduce or alter the tonal quality of black? Addition of white reduced it to grey shade, a completely alienated entity of black. In painting, the lightness of a shade was adjusted through mixture with white or black, but now by adding a colour. This was done first by using black of different origin, than by mixing very dark colours such as red oxide, black iron oxide, dark amber, and by adding low opacity ‘white minerals’. When yellows, reds and oranges are mixed with small amounts of black, it can cause a change to very a different shade.

Greys by avoiding the Black >> Gare Saint Lazare, 1877 Claude Monet (1840–1926)

Blacks, greys and other shades shift with the addition of black, often to a level that scared many seasoned artists and crafts-persons. The scare was more forbidding due to the metaphoric association with Gods, human behaviour and varied perceptual interpretations. Blacks of all origins, however, had one positive advantage that this was non fading or non destructible colours. Their tinting strength was fairly good and the perceptible shade was just ‘black’ with very few sub-variants. But its effect on other colours after mixing or through sheer proximity was extremely profound.

Impressionists avoided use of Black > Auguste Renoir – Dance at Le Moulin de la Galette

Art teachers, have been telling their apprentices, juniors and students to keep away from black. The same advise still holds true even today. If you are an interior designer, architect or builder, do not play around with black, unless you have the capacity for course correction or complete redo. Blacks are very opaque, and have a very high tinting strength, so a small amount can cause devastating effect. The small amount is very ill-defined and difficult to measure a term, and thoroughly mixing it into a larger mass without industrial equipment, an impossible task.

rosa-1911660_640Artists can mix few darker colours and get away with a ‘black’ like effect such as ultramarine blue and burnt umber can do it. The impressionists remained away from black, and preferred to devise the ‘black effect’.





Post 516  -by Gautam Shah



Craft is an activity involving skill of making things by hand. The skill of making things by hand evolves with experience. So in this sense not only the skill but resultant products continue to evolve. Craft-work could be a hobby to keep oneself engaged or a pursuit for personal satiation, and a profession for earning a livelihood. Craft activity is a personal engagement, in spite of family, clan or employees partnering it. All human activities have some element of craft-work, as some degrees of innovations are involved in routine work. The innovations relate primarily to productivity, or doing things in easier (lesser effort) manner, and in quicker way. Other efforts include efficient use of materials, working with better tools, devising superior forms, endowing new functions, safety, well being and security.

A handcraft shop Udupi India Wikipedia image by Author Vaikoovery

Elephants at Thrissur Pooram Festival Kerala, India Wikipedia image by Rajesh Kakkanatt

Craft-work allows growth of personal skills, development of physical fitness, body limb coordination, refinement of cognitive abilities, expression of thoughts and feelings, interpersonal relationships, and socio-cultural recognition. Craft is considered a stress buster activity. Craft-items, cumulatively represent both ethnicity and external influences. The craft products form a legacy of solutions that are local and time-tested, and so familiar and reliable.

: Wooden crafts for sale at the municipal market of Patzcuaro, Michoacan Wikipedia image by Author Thelmadatter

Indian stringed puppets Wikipedia image by Author Nicolás Pérez

Craft is an expression of human activity that relies on design, improvisation, enterprise, abstraction of the form, reality of functionality and compression of diverse meanings. Craft has a recognizable shape, size and existence. It persists without the creator, but has with it the flavour of the place and time of its origin. Crafts denote materials, processes and recognizing the ‘good’ (or aesthetics) things. The ‘good’ things are sought to be recreated and improved upon through new materials and processes. Routine production processes output products of consistent form and quality, like bricks, ceramic pots, etc., and are not craft’s endeavours. This means craft items are substantially varied versions of the earlier products.

Old men making handicrafts in Naqsh-e Jahan Square

Agra India artisan producing marble stone inlays wikipedia image by Author David Castor (dcastor)

Craft-items are real products where there is an intensive exploration of materials, processes and the meaning. It is not just intellectual and physical activity of making a tangible object, but also the discovery of meaning. Craft making is devoid of any absolute result or exact definitions, but rather an approximation and realization of essence. A complete piece of craft becomes an art. It is contingent, so one moves on to something else, without certainty or expectancy. It is an experience that inculcates a desire, to do something different.

Mata Ortiz pottery from Chihuahua FONART exhibition 2010 in Mexico City Wikipedia image by Author AlejandroLinaresGarcia

There are indistinct differences between the work of art and pieces of craft. The works of Art are exclusively centred on the meaning, often subjugating the materials and the processes of manipulation. The craft item is an embodiment of manipulated materials. The applied arts though manifest the materials, but do not reflect the processes of materials’ conversions. Since industrial age massive manufacturing capacities have distinguished handicrafts. Craft-items can be produced by using automated tools and other machine-based processes. This has created some categorizations of folk-crafts, country-crafts and tribal crafts.

Basket weaving Cameroon Wikipedia image by Author ymea Permission (Reusing this file) CC-BY-SA. Autorization by OTRS (ticket n° 2006062110007771).



Post 514  -by Gautam Shah


armarium, arium, almery, almirah, alamari, almarie, wardrobe, cupboard, cabinet, chest, closet, chiffonier, bureau, dresser, panoply,

The word almirah derives from Latin armarium = arma (weapons, tools) + arium =place, a place or device associated with a specified thing or function. Middle English almery and Anglo-French almarie, both are based on weapons or arma. Hindi alamari derives from Portuguese almirah.

Armoire Abbaye d’Aubazine – L’armoire liturgique la plus ancienne de France Wikipedia image by Author MOSSOT

Dutch wardrobe Wikipedia image by Author Hajotthu

An almirah was a free standing chest or closet, and a storage place to keep vestments in the sacristy of a church. Almirah in modern sense is synonymous with a cabinet, cupboard, wardrobe, etc. but not with sandook, patara, chest or box. It is closed or a shuttered-storage entity, so cannot be equated with storage with shelves in niche, alcove, bay or recess. There are some doubts if a chest of drawers or bureaus used for storing small things, underwear, make-up things or writing papers and pens, study chests, etc. may also be called almirah?

Sainte-Marie de Corneilla-de-Conflent Wikipedia image by Author Acoma

Almirahs were custom made, from wood by carpenters, for a client and the place, till about the industrial age. Ancient almirahs were heavy and bulky, and difficult to shift around, except within the room or premises. The bulky almirah, when full of stored items, were almost impossible to move anywhere. For planning any shift, it was necessary to open the concealed, secret and multiple locking systems and empty the contents. In the vast premises of church or palace, almirah were nearly immobile safe keeping unit. And yet during invasions, the almirah, in spite of the bulk and weight, were carried off as treasured catch. Almirah were carried away as part of the luggage during immigration. New almirah were created and offered to European brides as part of the dowry.

Armoire de mariage, musée pyrénéen, château fort de Lourdes, Hautes-Pyrénées, France With pediment Head Wikipedia image by Author Père Igor

A Dowry cabinet in German Museum Wikipedia image by Author Frank C. Müller, Baden-Baden

There are essentially two classes of Almirahs, fixed and movable. Fixed ones were not bolted or tied to anything but are situationally designed and mounted in a corner, or set inside a niche. The movable ones were placed against a corner or a flat wall. The traditional almirah are of human height with one or two single leaf shutters or with dual doors providing wider access. The almirah have two bottom level drawers opening on the outer face, and sometimes two internal drawers covered by the main shutters. It had secret chambers on the sides of drawers, under the head side, and as a false bottom. Almirahs were also made into smaller height cabinets, or as dual depth cabinets.

Wikipedia image National Museum in Warsaw

Image by Pavel Ševela / Wikimedia Commons.

The inside faces of the doors were simply finished except in the post 18 C periods, when metal hooks and micro shelves began to be included in the door. Early almirahs were all shelves’ arrangement, with no provision of rods or hooks for hanging of clothes. Similarly the door fronts were carved or decorated with veneer or marquetry, but no mirror or painted, etched or engraved glasses were used. The almirahs in renaissance period began to have a top heading of pediments. The solid or square bottom now had round ball or pawed legs. The legs were spaced with an intermediate panel.

Armoire “Chantilly” de style Louis XV, réalisé par les Ateliers Allot Frères. Wikipedia image by Author Allot rené

First almirah were used for storing and protecting the armour (almery and almarie). Religious places like churches used this for storing vestments and ritual vessels. Craft’s person like carpenters, goldsmiths, used it to store delicate proprietary tools. Master muralist stored parchment, fabric and paper-based cartoon roles and studies on canvas. Almirah have compartments some of which were used for storing items of day to day use, and additional secret chambers and drawers for securing jewellery, documents and other valuables, which were rarely opened.

Liège, Belgium Wikipedia image by Kleon3

Wardrobe, spruce, painted. Upper Austria, Linz area, 1790; Germanic National Museum in Nuremberg Wikipedia image by Author Anagoria

Very early Almirahs (pre 7- 8th C) were a simple wood log like raw assembly without any decorative finish or embellishment. The remarkable surface ornamentation was of iron or bronze hardware like hinges, spikes, nails, and locks. The Egyptian Canopic chests are cases used to contain the internal organs that were removed during the process of mummification. These chests, and later a walk-in cabinet like forms were tall wooden shrine-like forms. These were made from wood and coated with gesso, and brightly painted.

Egyptian Box for Ushabtis or Canopic Jars

Coffre à vases canopes de Toutânkhamon, Musée égyptien du Cairo, (Egypt) wikipedia image by personnelle de Gérard Ducher (user:Néfermaât).

The painted wood style continued for several centuries, in absence of any better wood surface finishing methods. Corners and bevels are often decorated with gilding. Flat surfaces were painted with landscapes. Painted wood surfaces were not long lasting. And as a result the emphasis turned to use of good quality of wood and carve it. Woods were explored for the arrangement of grains or natural patterns.

Painted Wardrobe Museum für Volkskultur in Württemberg, Waldenbuch) Wikipedia image by Author Photo: Andreas Praefcke



Post 513  by Gautam Shah


Timber varieties are broadly categorized as Softwoods and Hardwoods, with underlying presumptions that former ones are softer and duller in colour and lighter in weight, whereas the later are harder or tougher and darker in colour and heavier in weight. Softwoods as the name implies are soft grained, but are necessarily not inferior to the commercial quality of hard woods. The tones of sap and heart portions of soft woods are not acutely different from each other.

Wikipedia image by Author Patrick Dinnen (talk)

Hardwood timbers come from deciduous trees that lose the leaves annually or biannually, and Softwood timbers come from conifers, which usually remain evergreen. Hardwood trees tend to be slower growing, and are therefore the timbers are more dense in grain, but not always. Softwood trees grow in large tracts and very rapidly.

Wine barrels Wikipedia image by Author Gerard Prins

Classifying trees as hardwood or softwood is often misnomer definition. As for example Balsa wood is one of the softest timbers, though technically it is classified as hardwood. Likewise, the wood of Yew trees, which though technically a softwood, is tougher than many hardwoods like oak. Wood classification actually depends on the seeds produced by the tree. Hardwood trees have seeds in the form of a shell or fruit. Ancient Greek word shows, that angiosperm =vessel seed or contained in a protective vessel. Softwood trees produce seeds without any cover and called gymnosperm = naked seed.

Timber carving Detail of the Last Supper from Tilman Riemenschneider’s Altar of the Holy Blood, 1501-05, Rothenburg ob der Tauber, Bavaria Wikipedia image by Author Tilman2007

Softwoods or conifers are less dense and so are easy to cut or drill. Softwoods on being planned and sanded expose tender remnants of food transfer area. Such tender areas contain un-synthesized sugars and starches, which readily absorb and release moisture resulting in swelling and shrinkage. Small amounts of aliphatic compounds, waxy and resinous substances which along with the softness of grain help, at least initially, to provide a very smooth surface texture. The softness of the surface is however, lost with exposure to atmosphere. Examples of softwoods are pine, douglas, spruce, redwood, fir, cedar, juniper, cheal, deodar, larch. juniper, yew and cypress.

Grand Fir (Abies grandis) cross section, Rogów Arboretum, Poland Wikipedia image by Author Crusier

Softwoods are used for roofing trusses, temporary support structures for construction industry, warehousing pallets, packing cases, etc. About 80% of all timber come from softwoods. Softwoods are used as intermediate material for wood composites such as block-boards and production of paper pulp, MDF, etc.

Synagogue Kurkliai Lithunia Wikipedia image

Hardwoods are denser (heavier in weight) and therefore sturdier. Hardwoods are darker in colour, and the heart portion is fairly distinguishable from the sap portion. The denseness results in smooth cut and on planning offers smoother finish. On planing and sanding the hardwood surface shows intermittent branches of pores, the food transfer areas are clearly visible. The pores are very narrow in width and short in length and are full of remains of un-synthesized sugars and starches. The pores in hardwoods are of shorter length but are prominent. The pores on drying tend to shrink in, but being fewer and tightly packed by the surrounding fibres. The effect of moisture transfer is not very acute as with soft woods. Hardwoods being tough-grained, require greater efforts for smoothing but then the surface retains its fairness much longer. Examples of hardwoods are oak, maple, walnut, alder, balsa, beech, hickory, mahogany, teak and sycamore.

Australian Acasia Wikimedia image by Author Forest & Kim Starr

Hardwoods are used in furniture, decks, flooring, and structures that need to last longer. Hardwoods supplies are varied in species, and comparatively smaller in volumes. Hardwoods are more expensive than softwood. Hardwoods are used for production of exotic veneers.

Table surface made of Sheesham Wood Wikipedia image by Author Andy king50

Hardwood or Softwood, both have their unique features. But a wood should have a tight, even grain and colour. Excessive knots or irregular patterns are good for decorative effects but not for structural usage. Similarly wood cracks or splits should be avoided. Woods with resins, gums or tendency to de-colouration (in presence of sunlight or water) need to be carefully used.

Traditional Malay boat building with Neobalanocarpus heimii, is a tropical hardwood Wikipedia image by Author Christoph Swoboda

One of the oldest (since 1906) and popular method of testing hardness of wood is the Janka Hardness Test. The test is the average amount of impact force required to ‘embed a .444-inch (11.27mm) steel ball to half its diameter’. Most of the time, the numbers you’ll see quoted here are referring to side hardness. As per this test the hardest wood is Australian Buloke (Bull-oak) tree, describes as rock like hard. Few of the harder Indian varieties include Sadad (Combretaceae -Rangoon creeper family > Terminalia elliptica) used for ladder steps and thresholds.



Post 512 by Gautam Shah


Spatial behaviours of human beings are in response to the spatial environment and in spite of it. Space is the setting where environment and its cognition occur. Cognition is universal, but has personal endowments and so environment has subjective significance. In a space the spatial features remaining static, environment is continually varying, and so the spatial experience is ever expounding. Environmental conditions and spatial features, manifest in concert. We expect the presence of one to trigger the other. And this becomes a great tool for designing spaces and thereby infuses desired behaviour.

Barber shop Brazil, Wikipedia Image by Author Fabio Pozzebom/ABr

Nature of cognition is one major factor that governs the Space experience. Space experience results from cognitive systems, their capacities, and physiological needs. It is also affected by the inherited (intuitive) and learnt (intellectual) knowledge. Space experience is also formed by the presence of other beings, recognition and acknowledgement.

Texting, a way to keep engaged and be private Wikipedia image Uploaded by JohnnyMrNinja Author Jason

As designer, we exploit both, the environmental features and facilitations by space elements, to condition specific behaviour. Space elements such as amenities, facilities, support structures and reach extension tools, along with environmental conditions that offer comfort, security, safety and survival, are used for infusing desired nature of behaviour. The behaviour is intended for place occupation, acclimatization, dimensional accommodation, sensorial and physical reach, and task functionality of a space. The behaviour gets primarily reflected in human body-limb language of postures, gestures, stability and mobility, and secondarily in sensorial vulnerability and degree of congeniality (privacy and intimacy). At another level, the overt expressions like speaking, writings, painting, also reflect the space and environment.

Street Play India, Wikipedia image by Author Jugal Bharali

For a Designer, space, environment and human behaviour indicate how a person will respond to a given space+environment setting. Alternatively one can predict how an individual or group will behave in certain setting. At individual level the human behaviour is governed by age, sex, level of adaptation, familiarity, consistency, variability, limb capacity, body-limb coordination, etc. But the social-contact mechanisms regulate what we share and empathize. The interactions with others depend on the awareness about sex, age, stature, need, social position, degree of familiarity, distance and recognition (through cognition). The behaviour (even of lone beings) and the forms of interpersonal relationships of various races and cultures are different. Here the lifestyle or cultural values that has been passed on from one generation to another as ethnicity or ‘cultural ethos’ play an important role.


Thimpu Bhutan, Wikipedia-Flickr image by Author laihiuyeung ryanne

Behavioural responses nominally occur for the co-occupants that are present, but sometimes through the metaphoric presences. Metaphoric presence of others is reinforced primarily by the historical context (what we have been told or learnt) and associations.


MANAGING FEES -for Building Design practices PART – IV

Post 511 by Gautam Shah



Building Design firms often provide many different design services, such as Architecture, Interior Design, Structure, Interiors, Landscape, etc. And within these broad range of groups, the actual services may relate to New constructions, Renovations, Alterations, Extensions, valuation and project assessment, project feasibility reports, etc. The projects, when handled simultaneously rarely remain within the confines of well-documented definitions. Like some pre-emptive work for interior or landscape design will occur in the architectural scheme. And when the post building construction, other services are prematurely terminated, the ‘pre-emptive’ work will not get paid.

Serpentine BP Pedestrian Bridge by architect Frank Gehry’s Buckingham Wikipedia image by Author Torsodog

The Louvre Museum

These services occur in different schedules, and their scopes are based on very different criteria. Building design fees are chiefly collected on the basis of floor spread or footprint, except in few countries where it may be based on hours spent on it. The floor spread based varies with the type of project. Fees charged for Architectural projects include the construction cost (built-up coast) + some extra for site development design works. Similarly structural design fees are computed on the construction costs, but that may be a small part, in comparison to costs of site development works like land contouring, retaining walls and other support entities. Interior Design fees cannot always be calculated on the basis of carpet area, as lot of materials and objects are retained or reused.

Maggie’s Care Centre, Glasgow, Scotland Wikipedia – Flickr image by Author scarpadog (Jon-Marc Creaney)

In a group or associated practices the savings occur from the seamless handling of a project. This occurs when common entities are detailed or specified just once. Like for Landscape design site structures (pavings, curbs, retaining walls, water-body formations) are specified with architectural details. Electrical layout for architecture and Interior design is nearly identical.

Schönes Deutschland
Das Haus der Deutschen Kunst in München.


Yet, in all these, the most important issue, vis a vis a client that comes through is, What should be, and How to determine the Cost of the job? The term Total Cost of Job nominally means to include all the costs of actually executing the designed job, similar costs of inputs from other design consultants or agencies, and the cost of all the peripheral work executed on the site through or by owners themselves or their agents, during the Currency period of the Design Services. The total Cost of Job will also include the estimated value of the work being preserved or maintained on the site.

interior-of-maintenance-shop Public Domain images by Hillebrand Steve, U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service

At the start of a design project, the total cost of the job, is not available. As a result some notional figure is determined, to bill the first installment of fees or a lump-sum figure is used for first bill. This figure is determined on the basis of total cost of the job, but more importantly the intellectual rights of design formation. To determine the cost of a job, spread of the job or the built-up area is very useful. Structural engineers often base the fees on RCC (or structural) component of the project or a percentage of fees payable to the architect. Interior designers base their fees on Carpet area, but more surely on Interior Design intervention area, which is more rational or realistic. In spite of this in a group or associated practices it becomes difficult to derive a common fee’s formula.


The Louvre Museum