BLOG LINKS on -Kitchens -Foods -Cooking Spaces

Post 635 –by Gautam Shah

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KITCHEN and its SHIFTING POSITION https://interiordesignassist.wordpress.com/2015/04/01/kitchen-and-its-shifting-position/

KITCHENS in DWELLINGS

https://interiordesignassist.wordpress.com/2015/01/21/kitchens-in-dwellings/

DOOR and HEARTH

https://interiordesignassist.wordpress.com/2014/08/11/door-and-hearth/

COOKING and DINING

https://interiordesignassist.wordpress.com/2015/03/12/cooking-and-dining/

FRESH WATER 

https://interiordesignassist.wordpress.com/2015/01/13/fresh-water/

DESIGN of STORAGE SYSTEMS 

https://interiordesignassist.wordpress.com/2015/07/06/design-of-storage-systems/

DESIGNING STORAGE SYSTEMS

https://interiordesignassist.wordpress.com/2015/05/10/designing-storage-systems/

STORING 

https://interiordesignassist.wordpress.com/2014/10/07/974/

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FOOD PREPARATION AREA 

https://interiordesignassist.wordpress.com/2015/11/22/food-preparation-area/

FOOD PREPARATION SYSTEMS – I 

https://interiordesignassist.wordpress.com/2014/10/14/food-preparation-systems-i/

FOOD PREPARATION SYSTEMS – II Kitchen and its place in the house

https://interiordesignassist.wordpress.com/2014/10/15/food-preparation-systems-ii/

FOOD PREPARATION SYSTEMS – III Kitchen and evolution of its Facilities https://interiordesignassist.wordpress.com/2014/10/16/food-preparation-systems-iii/

FOOD PREPARATION SYSTEMS – IV Hearth and Kitchen https://interiordesignassist.wordpress.com/2014/10/17/food-preparation-systems-iv/

FOOD PREPARATION SYSTEMS – V (Kitchen Fire)

https://interiordesignassist.wordpress.com/2014/10/24/food-preparation-systems-v-kitchen-fire/

FOOD PREPARATION SYSTEMS – VI -Kitchen Design by Fires

https://interiordesignassist.wordpress.com/2014/11/19/food-preparation-systems-vi-kitchen-design-by-fires/

FOOD PREPARATION SYSTEMS – VII -Kitchen facilities and tasks

https://interiordesignassist.wordpress.com/2014/12/12/food-preparation-systems-vii-kitchen-facilities-and-tasks/

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SPATIAL BEHAVIOUR with AMENITIES, FACILITIES, UTILITIES and ENRICHMENTS

https://interiordesignassist.wordpress.com/2016/04/09/spatial-behaviour-with-amenities-facilities-utilities-and-enrichments/

AMENITIES in BUILDINGS 

https://interiordesignassist.wordpress.com/2014/06/11/amenities-in-buildings/

TASK SPECIFIC SPACES

https://interiordesignassist.wordpress.com/2016/03/29/task-specific-spaces/

TASKS SHIFTING in INTERIOR SPACES 

https://interiordesignassist.wordpress.com/2015/02/01/tasks-shifting-in-interior-spaces/

SPACE PLANNING -Developments 

https://interiordesignassist.wordpress.com/2014/03/18/space-planning-developments/

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METAL ANNEALING and HARDENING

Post 634 –by Gautam Shah

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Interior Designers often handle metal heating without understanding the repercussions of it. Metals are intentionally heat treated to cut profiles, remove parts-sections from large structures, to shape or un-shape them, to machine, grind, draw, or sheer cut. Metals are unintentionally heat treated on close distance exposure to high heat sources, gas flame cutting or welding, accidental fires and extremities of weather cycles. The heat related exposures, slow or extremely rapid cooling, sustained hot or cold environments, etc. cause changes in the structure of the metals. These may be seen in structural failures, creep, rusting and failure of surface coatings. Here in this article Metal annealing and Hardening processes are explained in very simple terms.

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Cycle frames are stress relieved post-assembly > Wikipedia image by Thewalrus at en.wikipedia

Technically heat-treatment takes place, when metal items are hot-rolled, formed or processed. Here a rise of temperature is inevitable, and items are allowed to cool naturally or in a controlled manner. In general, alloy steels that have a lower heat-conductivity compared to carbon steels are heated more slowly to avoid the internal stresses.

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Gas cutting > Pixabay image by skeeze USA

Metals are heated without reaching to a melting stage, to provide ‘increased hardness, strength, toughness, softness, ductility, elasticity, electrical conductivity, improved formability, better machinability, stress relief, and improved dimensional stability’. On cooling the metal materials or formations change the surface and body structure, but without changing the size and shape. All metals and alloys are heat treated at some stage during the production. These thermo-mechanical processes are known as ‘annealing, normalizing, quench hardening, tempering, nitriding, martempering, austempering, carburizing, solution annealing, aging, etc.’

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Tempering colours for steels > Wikipedia image by Zaereth

Metal grains or crystals are rarely perfect, due to metal and alloy making and post-product forming. Such imperfections, endow capacities to take shock loads and reversal of stress. For some critical components, like boilers, jet engines, power house turbines, axles, hot discharge nozzles, however, some predictable behaviour is necessary. Copper and silver, are annealed by heating and cooling quickly, then immersing in water. Copper is nominally a malleable metal, and so can be shaped by hammering while cold. But it also hardens it allowing formation of a sharp edge. The excessive hardness can be removed by heating the material and plunging it into cold water.

Normalizing is a basic process of heat treatment for reducing stresses of manufacturing processes such as excessive hardness. For normalizing the temperature range is 65-100C lower, in comparison to annealing heat treatments. The rate of cooling is lowered by covering the item in sand, ashes or other substances of low heat conductivity, or by allowing it to cool inside and with the oven. This creates a softer product.

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Welded truss assembly cannot be undone (by fire torches for cutting) without disturbing the removed or remaining entity > Wikipedia US Navy photo by John E Peters

Tempering is a follow-up process to achieve a desirable balance between hardness and toughness of the item. Items hardened by quenching oil or water, are reheated to a lower temperature to decreases the hardness slightly, but to improve the toughness. The metal is held at the temperature for a fixed period, during which period the internal stresses in the metal are relieved. The term tempering is also used for low-carbon steels and nonferrous metals, which are cold worked to increases the hardness. Plates, tubular and linear products treated by quench-and-temper process. Heavy-walled structural shapes are sometimes water-quenched directly after the last roll in the mill, and tempered by the heat retained in inner section of the body.

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US WW-II Liberty ships failed due to brittle fracture of steel, that was too ductile when ships were deployed in frigid Atlantic. 

Metals can be surface-treated with or without heat treatments to harden, gain resistance to abrasion and wear, and to achieve fracture resistance, while leaving the interior soft and tougher. These methods include carburizing, cyaniding or nitriding by adding carbon, cyanide or nitrogen, respectively.

Carburizing of steel is a heat treatment for introducing carbon into the surface. It is carried out in a furnace that contains more carbon than the steel. The strength of hardened steel increases rapidly as the percentage of carbon is increased, but at the same time the steel’s toughness decreases. Often the most useful part is one in which the surface is higher in carbon and thus hard, while the interior is lower in carbon and thus tough. Such a combination of properties can be obtained by carburizing, or annealing the parts in a gas rich in carbon. Similarly De-carburization of steel is an opposite process. The steel is heated in an environment deficient in carbon.

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Cracking in Cast forms due to none or inadequate heat treatment processes

Cyaniding of steel is a heat treatment mainly used on low-carbon steels. Small articles like bolts, nuts, screw and small gears and sprockets are casehardened by heating red hot in a bath of sodium cyanide and then are quenched and rinsed, in water or oil, to remove any residual cyanide.

Nitriding is alternative process of hardening. The steel parts are heated in an atmosphere of ammonia and hydrogen but to a lower temperature, so the crystal structure remains ferritic. Nitrogen from the ammonia gets diffused into the steel.

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Annealed wire Nails > Pixabay Image by Josef17 -Josef Juchem

Annealing involves heating to a specified temperature, and then cooling it at a controlled rate. The temperature is adjusted depending on the degree softening that is required, or the amount of hardness to be reduced. It also varies according to metal type. Low temperatures reduce the brittleness, yet holding the hardness, High temperature treatments reduce hardness and increase elasticity and plasticity. The rate of cooling also affects the hardness. Steel hardens on rapid cooling may soften aluminum. Annealing is an integral part of making materials softer for forming or machining. Annealing precipitates and coagulates the carbides and results in large ferrite crystals.

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Sword making entails very mature Heat Treatment processes

Annealing is used for steel, however, other metals including copper, aluminum and brass can be subject to a process called solution annealing. It is a high temperature heat treating process for stainless steel, nickel and titanium alloys. Most austenitic stainless steels are annealed at a minimum temperature of 1038° C followed by water quenching or rapid cooling. Martensitic steels are annealed at lower temperature of 760° C and slow cooled. The items are held at a temperature and for time to bring the carbon in the steel into a solid solution.

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Padlock rings are toughened to make them less prone to cut and keys are hardened to prevent their bending. > Wikipedia image by Tomasz Sienicki

Direct Heat hardening: Surfaces can be hardened with induction or laser heating. Original or coated surfaces are heat treated for surface hardening, or for forming an alloy on the surface. Solid-solution hardening, here the additives are distributed uniformly throughout the crystalline grains. In comparison for precipitation hardening, the metal is heated to a temperature where one of the substance dissolves, then it is rapidly cooled to avoid precipitation. With steel contains aluminum, the nitrogen combines to form fine particles to harden the steel. Case Hardening, is used to make the surfaces of steel resistant to abrasion and wear, while leaving the interior soft and therefore tougher and more fracture-resistant. Case hardening is important in the manufacture of gears, axles, and other machine parts subject to wear. Aging is done at an elevated temperature that is still well below the temperature at which the precipitate will dissolve.

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Casting fresh from heat treatment furnace > Flickr image by Goodwin Steel Castings

Quenching is the cooling of the material from the higher temperature to room-temperature. Sudden cooling by quenching in oil or water, causes the surface to cool much faster then the inner or core mass. Frequent heating and graduated cooling anneal the metal mass more ductile or softer. Similarly This makes a surface of metal objects harder. Oil is the mildest medium, salt brine has the strongest quenching effect but water is between the two. In special cases, steel is cooled and held for some time in a molten salt bath. Heating and Quenching or cooling are essentially workshop based processes. These are difficult to implement at site.

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BLOG LINKS on OPENINGS SYSTEMS

Post 633 –by Gautam Shah

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ANTI-LIGATURE https://interiordesignassist.wordpress.com/2014/04/04/anti-ligature/

LOCKS https://interiordesignassist.wordpress.com/2014/08/15/locks/

ANTI LIGATURE > https://interiordesignassist.wordpress.com/2016/06/28/anti-ligature-issues-for-design-8/

SAFETY ASPECTS of DESIGN > https://interiordesignassist.wordpress.com/2016/04/15/safety-aspects-of-design/

ALMIRAH-1 > https://interiordesignassist.wordpress.com/2015/09/11/almirah-1/

STORAGE CABINETS > https://interiordesignassist.wordpress.com/2015/08/11/storage-cabinets/

DOORS-SECONDARY HARDWARE > http://talking-interior-design.blogspot.in/2016/02/doors-secondary-hardware-latches-stays.html

DOORS – BASIC HARDWARE > http://talking-interior-design.blogspot.in/2016/01/door-basic-hardware.html

ANCIENT DOORS > http://talking-interior-design.blogspot.in/2014/05/ancient-doors.html

DOOR HINGES > https://interiordesignassist.wordpress.com/2015/03/03/door-hinges/

SLIDING DOORS > https://interiordesignassist.wordpress.com/2015/02/02/sliding-doors/

 WIDE DOORS and MULTIPLE DOORS > https://interiordesignassist.wordpress.com/2014/09/06/wide-doors-and-multiple-doors/

REACH in SPACE > https://interiordesignassist.wordpress.com/2015/10/18/reach-in-space/

MEANING of a WINDOW SILL > https://interiordesignassist.wordpress.com/2015/12/24/meaning-of-a-window-sill/

SHOP WINDOWS > https://interiordesignassist.wordpress.com/2015/12/12/shop-windows/

EVOLVING ARCHITECTURAL WINDOWS > https://interiordesignassist.wordpress.com/2015/02/04/evolving-architectural-windows/

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CLASSICAL WINDOW FORMS > https://interiordesignassist.wordpress.com/2015/01/27/classical-window-forms/

WITCH WINDOW > https://interiordesignassist.wordpress.com/2014/09/16/witch-window/

WINDOW TAX > https://interiordesignassist.wordpress.com/2014/08/08/window-tax/

MASKING of OPENINGS Part -III -Framing https://interiordesignassist.wordpress.com/2016/01/25/masking-of-opening-part-iii-framing/

MASKING of OPENINGS Part -II https://interiordesignassist.wordpress.com/2015/09/23/masking-of-openings-part-ii/

 MASKING of OPENINGS Part -I https://interiordesignassist.wordpress.com/2015/08/30/masking-of-openings-part-I/

 

FRAMING of OPENINGS https://interiordesignassist.wordpress.com/2015/08/04/framing-of-openings/

 

ARCHITECTURAL WINDOWS and VISION in-out

https://interiordesignassist.wordpress.com/2014/11/17/architectural-windows-and-vision-in-out/

 

ARCHITECTURAL WINDOWS and the MEANING

https://interiordesignassist.wordpress.com/2014/11/16/architectural-windows-and-the-meaning/

 

FRAMING of OPENINGS > https://interiordesignassist.wordpress.com/2015/08/04/framing-of-openings/

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DAYTIME INTERIOR ILLUMINATION -REALITY and PERCEPTION > https://interiordesignassist.wordpress.com/2015/07/30/daytime-interior-illumination-reality-and-perception/

 

LANTERNS in ARCHITECTURE > https://interiordesignassist.wordpress.com/2015/06/10/lanterns-in-architecture/

 

LEGENDS of OPENINGS-1 > https://interiordesignassist.wordpress.com/2015/06/04/legends-of-openings-1/

 

NATURE of OPENINGS > https://interiordesignassist.wordpress.com/2015/04/12/nature-of-openings/

 

OPENINGS in COLONIAL PERIOD of INDIA > https://interiordesignassist.wordpress.com/2015/03/24/openings-in-colonial-period-of-india/

 

ARCHITECTURAL WINDOWS and MECHANICS of VISION https://interiordesignassist.wordpress.com/2014/11/18/architectural-windows-and-mechanics-of-vision/

 

GLASS and PERCEPTION https://interiordesignassist.wordpress.com/2014/08/31/glass-and-perception/

 

LEVEL of OPENINGS https://interiordesignassist.wordpress.com/2014/06/07/level-of-openings/

 

DESIGNING OPENINGS https://interiordesignassist.wordpress.com/2014/05/17/designing-openings/

 

CLASSICAL WINDOW FORMS https://interiordesignassist.wordpress.com/2015/01/27/classical-window-forms/

 

GLASS IN WINDOWS Part-II

https://interiordesignassist.wordpress.com/2014/10/02/glass-in-windows-part-%e2%80%a2-ii/

 

GLASS IN WINDOWS Part-I

https://interiordesignassist.wordpress.com/2014/09/28/glass-in-windows-part-%e2%80%a2-I/

 

CONTRAST EFFECT PERCEPTION

https://interiordesignassist.wordpress.com/2014/08/25/contrast-effect-perception/

 

THIRD DIMENSION of OPENINGS

https://interiordesignassist.wordpress.com/2014/04/10/third-dimension-of-openings/

 

SKY LIGHTS https://interiordesignassist.wordpress.com/2016/07/15/sky-lights/

 

ARCHITECTURAL OPENINGS in LITERATURE > https://interiordesignassist.wordpress.com/2016/05/29/architectural-openings-in-literature/

 

DESIGN CONSIDERATIONS for DAY-LIGHTING > https://interiordesignassist.wordpress.com/2016/03/24/design-considerations-for-daylighting/

 

CLERESTORY OPENINGS > https://interiordesignassist.wordpress.com/2014/09/01/clerestory-openings/

 

CLASSES of OPENINGS > https://interiordesignassist.wordpress.com/2014/08/18/classes-of-openings/

 

STRUCTURES over DOORS > https://interiordesignassist.wordpress.com/2014/08/07/structures-over-doors/

 

OTHER TYPES of DOORS > https://interiordesignassist.wordpress.com/2014/07/19/other-types-of-doors/

 

SIZE of a DOOR > https://interiordesignassist.wordpress.com/2014/07/14/size-of-a-door/

 

JALOUSIE > https://interiordesignassist.wordpress.com/2014/06/29/jalousie/

LEVEL of OPENINGS > https://interiordesignassist.wordpress.com/2014/06/07/level-of-openings/

 

INTERIOR ILLUMINATION through DOORS > https://interiordesignassist.wordpress.com/2014/05/21/interior-illumination-through-doors/

 

DESIGNING OPENINGS > https://interiordesignassist.wordpress.com/2014/05/17/designing-openings/

 

MULLION > https://interiordesignassist.wordpress.com/2014/04/09/mullion/

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BLOG LINKS for articles on DESIGN IMPLEMENTATION PROCESSES

Post 632 –by Gautam Shah

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These Blogs formed the course for Masters level Design students at Faculty of Design, CEPT University, Ahmedabad, India. The course was initially planned for Entrepreneurship for Designers. Design graduates were expected to professionally operate in the role of Designers, Producers or Services providers. For this purpose, it was decided to include Design creation, Management of design organizations, Design processes, Standards and specifications, ISO management systems, Risk management, Human resources, Basics of finance, etc. The course was offered as two lectures per week over a semester of 16 weeks. It could perhaps include many other modules, but it was not possible in the time schedule of a semester. — Gautam Shah (contact@gautamshah.in)
Blog Site: https://designacademics.wordpress.com/

 

INTERNET LINKS to BLOG articles

 

1 Organizations

https://designacademics.wordpress.com/2016/08/08/organizations-1/

2 Essentials of Design Organizations

https://designacademics.wordpress.com/2016/08/11/essentials-of-organizations-02/

3 Design Organizations

https://designacademics.wordpress.com/2016/08/14/design-organizations-03/

4 Projects of Design

https://designacademics.wordpress.com/2016/08/22/projects-of-design-04/

5 Job or Assignment Handling in Design Organizations

https://designacademics.wordpress.com/2016/08/30/jobs-or-assignment-handling-in-design-organizations-05/

6 Deliverables from Design Organizations

https://designacademics.wordpress.com/2016/08/23/deliverables-from-design-organizations-06/

7 Dealing with a Client in a Design Organization

https://designacademics.wordpress.com/2016/09/06/dealing-with-a-client-in-a-design-organization-7/

8 Specifications

https://designacademics.wordpress.com/2016/07/31/specifications-08/

9 History of Specifications

https://designacademics.wordpress.com/2016/08/01/history-of-specifications-09/

10 Standards

https://designacademics.wordpress.com/2016/08/06/standards-10/

11 Liabilities

https://designacademics.wordpress.com/2016/11/28/liabilities-11-design-implementation-processes/

12 Bureau of Indian Standards BIS

https://designacademics.wordpress.com/2016/10/03/bureau-of-indian-standards-bis-12/

13 International Standards Organization ISO

https://designacademics.wordpress.com/2016/10/11/international-standards-organization-iso-13/

14 ISO 9000 and other Management Standards

https://designacademics.wordpress.com/2016/10/09/iso-9000-and-other-management-standards-14/

15 Quality for Designers

https://designacademics.wordpress.com/2016/09/13/quality-for-designers-15/

16 Quality Conscience

https://designacademics.wordpress.com/2016/09/16/quality-conscience-16/

17 Consumerism

https://designacademics.wordpress.com/2016/08/16/consumerism-for-designers-17/

18 Human Resources

https://designacademics.wordpress.com/2016/10/21/human-resources-18-design-implementation-processes/

 

19 Leadership in Design Organizations

https://designacademics.wordpress.com/2016/09/19/leadership-in-design-organizations-19/

20 Data, Information and Knowledge

https://designacademics.wordpress.com/2016/10/29/data-information-and-knowledge-20-design-implementation-processes/

21 Design Processes 21-1 to 21-4

https://designacademics.wordpress.com/2016/09/24/design-processes-21-1-design-handling/

22 Decision Making and Problem Solving

https://designacademics.wordpress.com/2016/10/16/decision-making-and-problem-solving-22-design-implementation-processes/

23 Systems Thinking

https://designacademics.wordpress.com/2016/10/22/systems-thinking-23-design-implementation-processes/

24 Risk Management

https://designacademics.wordpress.com/2016/10/23/risk-management-24-design-implementation-processes/

25 Guarantees and Warranties

https://designacademics.wordpress.com/2016/11/30/guarantees-and-warranties-25-design-implementation-processes/

26 Finance

https://designacademics.wordpress.com/2016/11/14/finance-26-design-implementation-processes/

. a combined *.pdf file may be available to few genuine users.

 

BALANCE in DESIGN – Part 2

Post 631 –by Gautam Shah

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Balance is an equalizing phenomenon. It manifests in many different forms. It is a state of stability, but ignored as a habit, or nominal happening. Imbalance, however, represents the direction and scale of change. A dynamic balance is cyclical occurrence and may be perceived, if the change of the frame is within perceptive capacities. Static balance is an intermediate or temporary frame of an event or experience.

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Strong inclined line of coast and presence of water body in the centre, add to dynamic balance > Puerto de Burdeos Edouard Manet (1832-1883)

Balance is an experience that is a ‘non-changing’ reference in a situation of consistent momentum. It can also be felt while moving along known tracks, such as of perceiver’s sensorial capacities, mental conditioning and collection of past experiences. Prime experience of balance can be subjective, but with repeat experiences become delineative.

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The horse Fair > Rosa Bonheur (1822-1899)

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The fall of Phaeton > Peter Paul Rubens (1577-1640)

The balancing mechanisms, in natural systems, are obvious in direction perpendicular to the gravity or other strong forces. In contrived compositions like art, craft, architecture, etc. the change is effected by desire to defy the nature. For these sensorial aberrations are used.

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Multiple axis and shifting balance > Cave Painting at Roca dels Moros, Catalonia Spain, Wikipedia image by Enric

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Detail of the Ramsund Sigurd stone C. 1030 Swedish art > Wikipedia image by Ann-Sofi Culled

Anything that is lastingly balanced is related to the horizontal, whereas the imbalance is analogous to the vertical. Horizontal can have several stacks of mass and energy along its body, each of which may be dynamic due to the changing environment. These stacks cumulatively represent the supine motion and seem interrelated. Vertical, if it has, differentiated stacks of mass along its body, reflects the direction of likely disturbance or unbalance.

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Dissolving Horizontal and Vertical for ephemeral feel > Sunrise impression by Claude Monet (1840-1926)

Contrived (man-made?) compositions depend on distribution of mass and energy in real, ephemeral and metaphysical realms. In real sense, the horizontal and vertical are extremes, but do not challenge human body system. Inclined is more persistent and effective, because it has longer length. For an ephemeral feel, the differences between horizontal and vertical are dissolved. Metaphysical flavours are implied by inconsistencies of presentation, typically through thematic narrations. Framing has been used in compositions, to include or exclude such elements thematic narrations.

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Ceiling fresco, Marble Hall, Seitenstetten Abbey (Lower Austria) by Paul Troger 1735 : Harmony between Religion and Science

 In art works foreground and background differences were primarily achieved through scale, but in later periods, proper perspectives and toning down of details of specific and also far-off objects were used to create an equilibrium in the image. Centric and off-centric vertical axises are used to form triangles, with gravity-base as stable pyramidal composition. Centric and off-centric horizontal stratification helped balance formation between solid objects (ground, terrain, humans) and ethereal elements (skies, clouds and angels). To these were added, the inclines for direction, orientation, scaling, distancing and unnerve the serenity. Imbalance was forced by placing ethereal elements below the frame dividing axis.

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Contemporary Dance Center Performance Rage Box > Wikipedia image by Michael Muccioli from Bel Air US

Image elements like flora and fauna were placed in their naturally perceived sense of scale, orientation and visual axis. These were too disturbing in any other manner of presentation, except for grotesque or fiendish forms. But surprisingly, their place was more often, above the frame-dividing axis.

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Tree Roots > Vincent van Gogh (1853-1890)

Sculptures and artefacts are created as axially balanced or challenged equilibration. These have no permanent framing and are to be experienced from all sides and angles except the bottom (gravity support face). Equilibration through symmetry, imbalance, dynamic and static balance, are caused by distribution of mass, texture, colour, angulation and turnaround of body. These are also achieved by presence (solid) and absence (hollow) of the mass. Mobiles and hangers supported on a pin or hung from thread, are truly equilibrated. These are liberated from the ground side.

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Andre Bloc – Sculpture-habitacle Meudon, France > Flickr image by Florent Darrault

Balanced moving or rotating parts, like axle, wheels, bearings, reduce the friction, vibrations and energy requirements. But imbalanced movements help compactors, vibrators, forging and drilling machines. Non synchronized movements are important for bridges to reduce the cyclical or incremental loading. Helicopters and aircraft are considered balanced when achieve consistent balance. Earth orbiting stations are ‘balanced’ when able to synchronize or equilibrate their position with reference to the earth.

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Balanced steam Turbine rotor > Wikipedia image by Siemens “Pressebild” http://www.siemens.com

 Architectural balancing is real and also very articulated. The real one deals with physical stability and consistency with movements, whereas the articulated one is a perception created for the age, culture and relevance. Architecture forms its acts of balance and movement from other forms of expressions like literature, performance arts, lifestyle, art, artefacts and sculpture.

512px-bridge_in_humble_administrator27s_garden

Bridge in Humble Administrator’s Garden, Suzhou, China > Wikipedia image ###

Next few articles will examine these acts of balance and movements in formal architecture and vernacular built-forms. First Blog on this topic was published here > https://interiordesignassist.wordpress.com/2016/04/05/balance-in-design-part-1/

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