ADHERED FINISHES

Post 638 –by Gautam Shah

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Many materials, even if suitable for their engineering performance do not have an appropriate surface system, nor are they amenable to modifications towards such needs. Large number of objects that we use to day have applied surface systems. Applied surface systems consist of foreign materials, generically, either of same type, or of different constitution.

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Adhesives, Gums, Glues > Wikipedia image by Mr Brian

There are many methods of applying surface systems to base objects. Some surface systems stay in place due to gravity, whereas others may require some degree of fastening, achieved by mechanical fixing, adhesion, chemical reaction, ion attraction, etc. Many surface system use combination fixing, i.e. one method to achieve initial anchorage, and another for ultimate fixing. In some instances one system of fixing is operative for normal circumstances, and another one is provisioned for extra ordinary stress conditions.

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Fixing Tiles on Walls > Pexels image by Victor Zissou

Fixing of a surface system: Fixing makes the applied surface system operate in consonance with the entity. The space between the surface system and the entity is reduced or eliminated by very close packing, or by introducing an intermediary element. Adhered surface system, cover the object interactively. Adhered surface systems nearly merge with the base entity, and as a result the transfer of stresses is evenly distributed. Adhesives do not form localized stress points like screws and nuts do. For this reason adhered surface systems could be much thinner, than the body necessary for mechanical fixing. A thin body surface system has greater flexibility, ductility, and stretchability, and so better unified behaviour with the base entity.

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Wood Glue > Pixabay image by Counselling Ulrike Mai Cape Town SA

Adhesives can join substances that are materially and dimensionally different and form-wise very difficult. Adhesive joints may be designed as required, to be elastic or rigid. Relatively low process temperature involved in adhesive bonding does not affect the crystallographic structure of the metal. Adhesives can create very extensive, multi layered laminar compositions without physically cutting or puncturing the materials.

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Wikipedia image by Coyau

Limitations of adhesives are few but important. Adhesives require elaborate surface treatments, specific application conditions, curing procedures and considerable expense of time for setting. Inspection of the joint is difficult. Joint design becomes very critical compared with other mechanical and thermal processes. The adhesive itself may corrode the materials it is joining, or induce stresses during curing.

  1. A very strong adhesive will not allow a joint to open out, so there is a rupture elsewhere in the material.
  2. Too weak an adhesive fails and separates into two distinct layers.
  3. An adhesive may fail to adhere to one face

With correctly prepared surfaces, the adhesion at the interface is usually greater than the strength of the adhesive itself, and failures occur within the adhesive film. Failure of the adhesive film is usually caused by the propagation of cracks accelerated by the presence of discontinuities and flaws. Therefore, thin layered adhesives provide the strongest joints. Usually the adhesive selected should have similar strength characteristics to be adherends being bonded together. An exception would be where boding is only temporary pending another joining processes to be used. Most adhesives show optimum strength characteristics when in tension or compression closely followed by, shear. Often the high strength, thermosetting adhesives form brittle bonds that are adversely affected by vibration and impact loading, causing the bond to crack or shatter. Under such conditions a slightly weaker but more resilient adhesives may perform more satisfactorily. Adhesives may show a satisfactory strength characteristic under test conditions, but will tend to creep under sustained loads in service.

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Fixing chips > Pixabay image (Time to glue chips) Pixabay image by Windell Oskay

Adhered finishes often require an intermediary agent, the adherent, to achieve the bonding. The adherents have a dual or multilateral qualities, capable of adhering to the singular or multiple components of both, the surface system and the base entity. The adhesion is provided by surface tension, ionic attraction, friction and chemical bonding. Adhered finishes are occasionally removable but not easily demountable and relocatable. Adhered finishes also have size limitations. The joints in adhered, finishes occur as a thin divide between the two surface components, or as lap-over with a seam joint (stitched, folded, fused).

Adhered finishes, due to their simplistic technology can be employed on remote locations. The surface components are sometimes designed to have different personalities on the outside and the face to be attached to the base.

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Silicone Caulking > Wikipedia image by Achim Hering

Adhesives are used for joining a wide variety of similar and dissimilar materials such as: paper, wood, leather, glass, fabrics, ceramics, plastics, rubbers and metals. However, the largest sectors for adhesives are masonry structures, where large variety of cementing materials like, clays, Portland cement, lime, plaster of Paris (gypsum plasters), etc. are used. Another field akin to adhesives is of sealants, putties, mastic compounds, waterproofing agents, noise dampening coatings. Structural adhesives are expected to provide structural properties equal or often better than the materials being joined. Adhesives perform many other functions. Silicone and polysulfide rubber are used for dampening vibration (glass to window frames). Aircraft and automobile frame components are bonded by adhesives to save labour, weight, and expense of rivets like fasteners. Components joined with an adhesive cannot be separated but some demountable adhesives are available.

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Other Blogs on related topics

TYPES of ADHESIVES

https://interiordesignassist.wordpress.com/2015/06/14/types-of-adhesives/

ADHESIVES – Bonding

https://interiordesignassist.wordpress.com/2014/11/13/adhesives-bonding/

NATURAL ADHESIVES (Bio-adhesives)

https://interiordesignassist.wordpress.com/2014/10/25/natural-adhesives-bio-adhesives/

ADHESIVES

https://interiordesignassist.wordpress.com/2014/10/19/adhesives/

MASTIC, PUTTIES and CAULKING COMPOUNDS

https://interiordesignassist.wordpress.com/2014/11/01/mastic-putties-and-caulking-compounds/

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LIST of BLOGS on DESIGN PRACTICE

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Post 637 –by Gautam Shah

This is a random selection of BLOGS on Design Practice (Professional Practice) from several of my blogs on the subject.

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Flickr Image by Denis Jacquerye

  • INTERIOR DESIGN and CLIENTS>>

https://interiordesignassist.wordpress.com/2015/05/05/interior-design-and-clients/

  • CLIENT and DESIGN PROFESSIONAL -Relationship >>

https://interiordesignassist.wordpress.com/2015/01/14/client-and-design-professional-relationship/

  • FEES NEGOTIATIONS WITH A CLIENT >>

https://interiordesignassist.wordpress.com/2015/01/02/fees-negotiations-with-a-client/

  • PROFILING CLIENTS >>

https://interiordesignassist.wordpress.com/2014/12/02/profiling-clients/

  • DETERMINATION of PROFESSIONAL FEES >>

https://interiordesignassist.wordpress.com/2015/03/10/determination-of-professional-fees/

  • CONTRACT and ENFORCEMENT >>

https://interiordesignassist.wordpress.com/2014/11/02/contract-and-enforcement/

  • A PROFESSIONAL and PROFESSIONAL BEHAVIOUR >>

https://interiordesignassist.wordpress.com/2014/09/27/a-professional-and-professional-behaviour/

  • Differentiating COST from VALUE -Interior Design Practice >>

https://interiordesignassist.wordpress.com/2014/06/14/differentiating-cost-from-value-interior-design-practice/

  • DESIGNERS DILEMMA – RIGHT FEES >>

https://interiordesignassist.wordpress.com/2014/06/13/designers-dilemma-right-fees/

  • DATA for PROFESSIONALS >>

https://interiordesignassist.wordpress.com/2014/05/25/data-for-professionals/

  • PROJECT REPORT OR PROJECT PROFILE REPORT >>

https://interiordesignassist.wordpress.com/2014/04/01/project-report-or-project-profile-report/

  • INTERIOR DESIGNER – the role

https://interiordesignassist.wordpress.com/2015/02/16/interior-designer-the-role/

  • QUALITY CONSCIENCE and COMPLIANCE in DESIGN PRACTICE

https://interiordesignassist.wordpress.com/2016/04/12/quality-conscience-and-compliance-in-design-practice/

  • INTERIOR DESIGN PRACTICE > FEES

https://interiordesignassist.wordpress.com/2015/12/15/interior-design-practice-fees/

  • MANAGING FEES -for Building Design practices PART – III

https://interiordesignassist.wordpress.com/2015/08/21/managing-fees-for-building-design-practices-part-iii/

  • MANAGING FEES -for Building Design practices PART – IV

https://interiordesignassist.wordpress.com/2015/09/05/managing-fees-for-building-design-practices-part-iv/

  • MANAGING FEES -for Building Design practices PART – II

https://interiordesignassist.wordpress.com/2015/08/15/managing-fees-for-building-design-practices-part-ii/

  • MANAGING FEES -for Building Design practices PART – I

https://interiordesignassist.wordpress.com/2015/07/20/managing-fees-for-building-design-practices-part-i/

  • PROFESSIONAL FEES

https://interiordesignassist.wordpress.com/2015/07/16/professional-fees/

  • SPECIFICATIONS CONTENTS (Design Practice)

https://interiordesignassist.wordpress.com/2015/03/31/specifications-contents-design-practice/

  • DESIGN PRACTICES

https://interiordesignassist.wordpress.com/2014/11/15/design-practices/

  • DESIGN PRACTICE and CONSCIENCE

https://interiordesignassist.wordpress.com/2014/11/11/design-practice-and-conscience/

  • WRITING SPECIFICATIONS in DESIGN PRACTICE

https://interiordesignassist.wordpress.com/2014/09/17/writing-specifications-in-design-practice/

  • COMMITTING a CLIENT for JOB

https://interiordesignassist.wordpress.com/2015/08/03/committing-a-client-for-job/

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Pexels Image by Kaboompics // Karolina > http://www.kaboompics.com/

A set of articles on DESIGN IMPLEMENTATION PROCESSES that were offered as PG Level course are also available at >

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01 Organizations
https://designacademics.wordpress.com/2016/08/08/organizations-1/

02 Essentials of Design Organizations
https://designacademics.wordpress.com/2016/08/11/essentials-of-organizations-02/

03 Design Organizations
https://designacademics.wordpress.com/2016/08/14/design-organizations-03/

04 Projects of Design
https://designacademics.wordpress.com/2016/08/22/projects-of-design-04/

05 Job or Assignment Handling in Design Organizations
https://designacademics.wordpress.com/2016/08/30/jobs-or-assignment-handling-in-design-organizations-05/

06 Deliverables from Design Organizations
https://designacademics.wordpress.com/2016/08/23/deliverables-from-design-organizations-06/

07 Dealing with a Client in a Design Organization
https://designacademics.wordpress.com/2016/09/06/dealing-with-a-client-in-a-design-organization-7/

08 Specifications
https://designacademics.wordpress.com/2016/07/31/specifications-08/

09 History of Specifications
https://designacademics.wordpress.com/2016/08/01/history-of-specifications-09/

10 Standards
https://designacademics.wordpress.com/2016/08/06/standards-10/

11 Liabilities
https://designacademics.wordpress.com/2016/11/28/liabilities-11-design-implementation-processes/

12 Bureau of Indian Standards BIS
https://designacademics.wordpress.com/2016/10/03/bureau-of-indian-standards-bis-12/

13 International Standards Organization ISO
https://designacademics.wordpress.com/2016/10/11/international-standards-organization-iso-13/

14 ISO 9000 and other Management Standards
https://designacademics.wordpress.com/2016/10/09/iso-9000-and-other-management-standards-14/

15 Quality for Designers
https://designacademics.wordpress.com/2016/09/13/quality-for-designers-15/

16 Quality Conscience
https://designacademics.wordpress.com/2016/09/16/quality-conscience-16/

17 Consumerism
https://designacademics.wordpress.com/2016/08/16/consumerism-for-designers-17/

18 Human Resources
https://designacademics.wordpress.com/2016/10/21/human-resources-18-design-implementation-processes/

19 Leadership in Design Organizations
https://designacademics.wordpress.com/2016/09/19/leadership-in-design-organizations-19/

20 Data, Information and Knowledge
https://designacademics.wordpress.com/2016/10/29/data-information-and-knowledge-20-design-implementation-processes/

21 Design Processes 21-1 to 21-4
https://designacademics.wordpress.com/2016/09/24/design-processes-21-1-design-handling/

22 Decision Making and Problem Solving
https://designacademics.wordpress.com/2016/10/16/decision-making-and-problem-solving-22-design-implementation-processes/

23 Systems Thinking
https://designacademics.wordpress.com/2016/10/22/systems-thinking-23-design-implementation-processes/

24 Risk Management
https://designacademics.wordpress.com/2016/10/23/risk-management-24-design-implementation-processes/

25 Guarantees and Warranties
https://designacademics.wordpress.com/2016/11/30/guarantees-and-warranties-25-design-implementation-processes/

26 Finance
https://designacademics.wordpress.com/2016/11/14/finance-26-design-implementation-processes/

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DEPTH of OPENINGS

Post 636 –by Gautam Shah

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Woman_sitting_in_a_window

We are more concerned with the width and height of openings. Width and Height are primarily functional derivative, and secondarily a matter of proportioning. The proportioning works intrinsically with width versus height, but more importantly with the schema of the building. The schema also takes of aura or grandeur of the openings like doors, gates, etc. Over-engagement with width and height of the opening can be reduced by use of surrogate like shadows (Sciography from Greek σκιά ‘shadow’). This technique creates a metaphoric depth of very high contrasts. In this the contrast is between black and white (or presence and absence of certain colour).  Such contrasts are difficult to fully visualize in scale models, as the subduing effects of reflections from surroundings or floors, or counter balancing by internal illumination.

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The openings gain a third dimension due to the shadows, and shadows occur due to differences in depths. But depth of a door or window regulates the field of view and amount of illumination. It governs the changes occurring in transit through the opening. These include disciplining the passage of goods and people. Depth forms an intervening space and time for mechanisms like filtration, funneling, release, mixing, direction, etc. of air and illumination.

Two_doors_of_the_tomb_(inside)The depth of an opening derives from the structures like walls, partitions, domes, etc. but in few cases it is achieved through architectural manipulation. External walls of the buildings, till about the Gothic period, were heavy offering two choices for showing the depth on the external face or internal side. Both of these were done in several ways. A chamferred edge on outside, enlarges the size of the opening, view of outside worlds, net illumination gain for the interior and weather protection. A chamferred edge on inside cut the glare, diffused the illumination, reduced the wall surface requiring mural or other treatments.

ancient-window

 

Gothic buildings’ thinner walls, however, did not allow such a play. So instead the Windows were elaborately segmented. The mullions, muntins and traceries did not divide the story line running through. Gothic glass unlike modern glass was opaque so did not allow interiors to be visible, but during daytime the segments and colours both compensated lack of wall murals and mosaics (of an earlier era). The third dimension of the opening was completely eliminated with glass curtain wall buildings. Mies van der Rohe was yet criticized for using very emphatic mullions.

8714804380_857c6eb75a_z(1)The Depth of openings enhanced the dual character of inside and outside. The architectural depths of the openings are, however, changed by bevelled edges, chamferred sides, introduction of pilasters, intrados, extrados, sloped sills and opening heads. A bottom taper brings the light to the floor, and a sloped interior head illuminates the ceiling.

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One of the most fascinating aspects of openings is the threshold. It may be informal, just a marked significance by small change of elevation, colour or texture. The greater depth of the opening bestows a formal change of a domain, due to marked elevation, changes of treatments and side treatments like seating place, alcoves and chambers. A threshold has two distinct worlds on either of the sides, one or both of which could be real or notional. Such elaborated depths of the door elements become resting zones, zone for transition, point of decision making, celebration, welcome or separation.

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