BEHAVIOUR in SPACES -a re-look at various lecture versions (2008-2017)

Post 731by Gautam Shah

.

BEHAVIOUR in SPACES has seen many changes Since 2008 or perhaps earlier date when it all began. There are several Print and NET-based versions (www.gautamshah.in) Some are linked here.


A > These were rather un-organised or Random Topics on Behaviour in Space with 2013 (tentative outline for the series) I used to talk-discuss in 2013
1 Behaviour
2 Inhabitation
3 Interior Spaces
4 Behaviour in Interior Spaces
5 Domains
6 Domains and Spaces
7 Task Settings


B > This was little more formalized in 2016
1 Human Behaviour
2 Inhabitation
3 Place identity
4 Domains
5 Domains and Spaces
6 Exterior and Interior Spaces
7 Spaces Sizes and Shapes
8 Behaviour in Spaces
9 Manifestation of Behaviour
10 Expression and Communication
11 Privacy and Intimacy
12 Task Settings
13 Amenities and Facilities
14 Space Planning
15 Real and Virtually Real

C > But the series had started in 2014 with following topics
These all at INTERIOR DESIGN ASSIST .
1 INTERIOR DESIGN and the LOCUS
Blog 15Mar2014 https://interiordesignassist.wordpress.com/2014/03/15/interior-design-and-the-locus/
2 LONELINESS and Space Design
Bog 19Mar2014 https://interiordesignassist.wordpress.com/2014/03/19/loneliness-and-space-design/
3 SPACES for INTERPERSONAL RELATIONSHIPS
Blog 185 https://interiordesignassist.wordpress.com/2014/09/15/spaces-for-interpersonal-relationships/
4 SPACE and HUMAN BEHAVIOUR
Blog 30May2014 https://interiordesignassist.wordpress.com/2014/05/30/space-and-human-behaviour/
5 SPACE –USERS or OCCUPANTS
Blog 2June2014 https://interiordesignassist.wordpress.com/2014/06/02/space-users-or-occupants/
6 VIRTUAL SPACES and INTERPERSONAL RELATIONSHIPS
Blog 8Jun2014 https://interiordesignassist.wordpress.com/2014/06/08/virtual-spaces-and-interpersonal-relationships/
7 IDENTITY in a SPACE
Blog 159 https://interiordesignassist.wordpress.com/2014/08/20/identity-in-a-space/
8 HUMAN BEHAVIOUR in SPACE
Blog 251 https://interiordesignassist.wordpress.com/2014/11/21/human-behaviour-in-space/
9 PLACE and SPACE for INHABITATION
blog 321 https://interiordesignassist.wordpress.com/2015/01/30/place-and-space-for-inhabitation/
10 SPACE and USERS
Blog 343 https://interiordesignassist.wordpress.com/2015/02/21/space-and-users/
11 POSTURES and BEHAVIOUR
Blog 347 https://interiordesignassist.wordpress.com/2015/02/25/postures-and-behaviour/
12 EXPRESSION and SPATIAL BEHAVIOUR
Blog 361 https://interiordesignassist.wordpress.com/2015/03/11/expression-and-spatial-behaviour/
13 SPACE SIZES and HUMAN BEHAVIOUR
Blog 410 https://interiordesignassist.wordpress.com/2015/05/02/space-sizes-and-human-behaviour/
14 PLACE in SPACE
Blog 417 https://interiordesignassist.wordpress.com/2015/05/09/place-in-space/
15 SPATIAL BEHAVIOUR
Blog 512 https://interiordesignassist.wordpress.com/2015/09/07/spatial-behaviour/
16 PRIVACY and INTIMACY as spatial behaviour
Blog 524 https://interiordesignassist.wordpress.com/2015/09/29/privacy-and-intimacy-as-spatial-behaviour/
17 SPATIAL PRIVACY
Blog 562 https://interiordesignassist.wordpress.com/2015/12/20/spatial-privacy/

D > LINKS to BLOGS on BEHAVIOUR in SPACE (16 DEC2015-APR2016 One semester Lecture Series) These all at INTERIOR DESIGN ASSIST .

1 EVIDENCE of HUMAN BEHAVIOUR
Blog 566 https://interiordesignassist.wordpress.com/2015/12/31/evidence-of-human-behaviour/
2 INHABITATION
Blog 567 https://interiordesignassist.wordpress.com/2016/01/02/inhabitation/
3 Behaviour in Interior Spaces PLACE IDENTITY PLACE IDENTITY Blog 569 https://interiordesignassist.wordpress.com/2016/01/06/place-identity/
4 SPACE DOMAINS
Blog 572 https://interiordesignassist.wordpress.com/2016/01/15/space-domains/
5 DOMAINS and SPACES
Blog 574 https://interiordesignassist.wordpress.com/2016/01/20/domains-and-spaces/
6 GRADES of EXTERIOR and INTERIOR SPACES
Blog 576 https://interiordesignassist.wordpress.com/2016/01/27/grades-of-exterior-and-interior-spaces/
7 SPACE SIZES and SHAPES
Blog 579 https://interiordesignassist.wordpress.com/2016/02/03/spaces-sizes-and-shapes/
8 SPATIAL SETTINGS for HUMAN BEHAVIOUR
Blog 581 https://interiordesignassist.wordpress.com/2016/02/11/spatial-settings-for-human-behaviourspatial-settings-for-human-behaviour/
9 REFLECTION OF BEHAVIOUR
Blog 585 https://interiordesignassist.wordpress.com/2016/02/23/reflection-of-behaviour/
10 EXPRESSION and COMMUNICATION -as behaviour in space
Blog 587 https://interiordesignassist.wordpress.com/2016/03/04/expression-and-communication-as-behaviour-in-space/
11 PERSONAL SPACE for BEHAVIOUR
Blog 589 https://interiordesignassist.wordpress.com/2016/03/10/personal-space-for-behaviour/
12 SPATIAL DISTANCING and BEHAVIOUR
Blog 590 https://interiordesignassist.wordpress.com/2016/03/11/spatial-distancing-and-behaviour/
13 LONELINESS, ALIENATION and SPATIAL BEHAVIOUR
Blog 591 https://interiordesignassist.wordpress.com/2016/03/15/loneliness-alienation-and-spatial-behaviour/
14 TASK SPECIFIC SPACES
Blog 594 https://interiordesignassist.wordpress.com/2016/03/29/task-specific-spaces/
15 SPATIAL BEHAVIOUR with AMENITIES, FACILITIES, UTILITIES and ENRICHMENTS
Blog 597 https://interiordesignassist.wordpress.com/2016/04/09/spatial-behaviour-with-amenities-facilities-utilities-and-enrichments/
16 SPATIAL ORGANIZATION of OBJECTS and BEHAVIOUR
Blog 600 https://interiordesignassist.wordpress.com/2016/04/19/spatial-organization-of-objects-and-behaviour/

E > This is a Series on Behaviour in Space DEC2016 to DEC2017
These al at DESIGN ACADEMICS

1 – SPACE and HUMAN BEHAVIOUR https://designacademics.wordpress.com/2016/12/28/space-and-human-behaviour/
2 CONSTITUENTS of HUMAN BEHAVIOUR in SPACE https://designacademics.wordpress.com/2017/01/12/2-constituents-of-human-behaviour-in-space/
3 SPACE and the PLACE https://designacademics.wordpress.com/2017/01/25/3-space-and-the-place/
4 SPATIAL FEATURES for INHABITATION https://designacademics.wordpress.com/2017/02/02/4-spatial-features-for-inhabitation/
5 – SPATIAL BEHAVIOUR and DOMAINS https://designacademics.wordpress.com/2017/02/12/5-spatial-behaviour-and-domains/
6 – TYPES of SPACES for BEHAVIOUR https://designacademics.wordpress.com/2017/02/16/6-types-of-spaces-for-behaviour/
7 – SPACES SIZES and SHAPES https://designacademics.wordpress.com/2017/02/22/7-spaces-sizes-and-shapes/
8 – EXPRESSION of BEHAVIOUR https://designacademics.wordpress.com/2017/03/02/8-expression-of-behaviour/
9 – HUMAN BEHAVIOUR in Expression and Communication https://designacademics.wordpress.com/2017/03/20/9-human-behaviour-in-expression-and-communication/
10 – BEHAVIOUR and DISTANCING in SPACE https://designacademics.wordpress.com/2017/03/30/10-behaviour-and-distancing-in-space/
11 – TASK SPECIFIC SPACES https://designacademics.wordpress.com/2017/04/18/11-task-specific-spaces/
12 – SPATIAL REORGANIZATION https://designacademics.wordpress.com/2017/06/13/12-spatial-reorganization/
13 – PERSONALIZATION of SPACE https://designacademics.wordpress.com/2017/06/28/13-personalization-of-space/
14 – SPACE PLANNING and HUMAN BEHAVIOUR https://designacademics.wordpress.com/2017/12/19/14-space-planning-and-human-behaviour/

.

LINKS to my BLOGS on CLIMATE

POST 730 -by Gautam Shah

.

old-farmhouse

1 QUALITY OF INDOOR AIR (26March2014) https://interiordesignassist.wordpress.com/2014/03/26/quality-of-indoor-air/
2 INDOOR AIR ( 20May2014) https://interiordesignassist.wordpress.com/2014/05/20/indoor-air/
3 INDOOR AIR QUALITY (9Oct2015) https://interiordesignassist.wordpress.com/2015/10/09/indoor-air-quality/
4 COMFORT CONDITIONS in INTERIOR SPACES (8June2015) https://interiordesignassist.wordpress.com/2015/06/08/comfort-conditions-in-interior-spaces/

5 BUILDING CLIMATE (1Nov2015) https://interiordesignassist.wordpress.com/2015/11/01/building-climate/
6 CLIMATE and DESIGNING a BUILDING (6July2014) https://interiordesignassist.wordpress.com/2014/07/06/climate-and-designing-a-building/
7 BUILDING DESIGN and CLIMATE (16Aug2014) https://interiordesignassist.wordpress.com/2014/08/16/building-design-and-climate/
8 CLIMATE and BUILT-FORM (5July2015) https://interiordesignassist.wordpress.com/2015/07/05/climate-and-built-form/
9 CONDITIONING INTERIOR CLIMATE (3Oct 2014) https://interiordesignassist.wordpress.com/2014/10/03/conditioning-interior-climate/
10 INTERIOR CLIMATE of a BUILDING (24Sept2014) https://interiordesignassist.wordpress.com/2014/09/24/interior-climate-of-a-building/
11 HUMIDITY MANAGEMENT in BUILDINGS (9Dec2015) https://interiordesignassist.wordpress.com/2015/12/09/humidity-management-in-buildings/
12 173 INDOOR HUMIDITY (18May2018) https://designsynopsis.wordpress.com/2018/05/18/173-indoor-humidity/
13 VENTILATION in TROPICAL BUILDINGS (20March2015) https://interiordesignassist.wordpress.com/2015/03/20/ventilation-in-tropical-buildings/
14 Temperature related Comfort parameters for Interior Design (20Apr2014) https://interiordesignassist.wordpress.com/2014/04/20/temperature-related-comfort-parameters-for-interior-design/

15 PASSIVE VENTILATION in Buildings (3July2014 ) https://interiordesignassist.wordpress.com/2017/07/03/passive-ventilation-in-buildings/
16 MICRO VENTILATION in Buildings (8March2016) https://interiordesignassist.wordpress.com/2016/03/08/micro-ventilation-in-buildings/
17 INTERIOR SPACES and CLIMATIC COMFORT (26May2015) https://interiordesignassist.wordpress.com/2015/05/26/interior-spaces-and-climatic-comfort/
18 414 LOW VELOCITY AIR MOVEMENTS or DRAUGHT (22Mar2019) https://designsynopsis.wordpress.com/2019/03/22/414-low-velocity-air-movements-or-draught/
19 158 DRAUGHT (draft) AIR MOVEMENTS (28Apr2018) ttps://designsynopsis.wordpress.com/2018/04/28/158-draught-draft-air-movements/
20 620 AIR MOVEMENTS in BUILT SPACES (2Dec2019) https://designsynopsis.wordpress.com/2019/12/02/620-air-movements-in-built-spaces/
21 49 Indoor Air Pollution (3Dec2017) https://designsynopsis.wordpress.com/2017/12/03/49-indoor-air-pollution/

22 TEMPERATURE MANAGEMENT by HUMAN BODY (2 April2015) https://interiordesignassist.wordpress.com/2015/04/02/temperature-management-by-human-body/
23 HUMAN BODY TEMPERATURE MECHANISMS (23Apr2014) https://interiordesignassist.wordpress.com/2014/04/23/human-body-temperature-mechanisms/
24 BMR and BODY TEMPERATURE (5Oct2018) https://interiordesignassist.wordpress.com/2018/10/05/bmr-and-body-temperature/
25 CLIMATE and our BODY (26Jul2016) https://interiordesignassist.wordpress.com/2016/07/26/climate-and-our-body/

26 CLIMATE and CHANGE (10Aug2014) https://interiordesignassist.wordpress.com/2014/08/10/climate-and-change/
27 UNDERSTANDING SOLAR ENERGY for BUILDING DESIGN – Part-1 (25Oct2015) https://interiordesignassist.wordpress.com/2015/10/25/understanding-solar-energy-for-building-design-part-1/
28 AWNINGS or SHADING DEVICES (18April2015) https://interiordesignassist.wordpress.com/2015/04/18/awnings-or-shading-devices/
29 HEAT CAPACITY of BUILDINGS (14Feb2015) https://interiordesignassist.wordpress.com/2015/02/14/heat-capacity-of-buildings/
30 DEALING with ENVIRONMENT (10Jan2015) https://interiordesignassist.wordpress.com/2015/01/10/dealing-with-environment/
31 WINDOWS and VENTILATION (20Dec2014) https://interiordesignassist.wordpress.com/2014/12/20/windows-and-ventilation/
32 THERMAL MANAGEMENT – WINDOWS and INTERIOR SPACES (14De2014) https://interiordesignassist.wordpress.com/2014/12/14/thermal-management-windows-and-interior-spaces/
33 INTERNAL SHADING DEVICES (7Apr2014) https://interiordesignassist.wordpress.com/2014/04/07/internal-shading-devices/
34 SHADING DEVICES for BUILDINGS (9Apr2018) https://interiordesignassist.wordpress.com/2018/04/09/shading-devices-for-buildings/

ILLUMINATION and ARCHITECTURAL SHADOWS -Issues of Design 35

Post 729 -Gautam Shah

..

1 esther-jiao-ADv0GiMBlmI-unsplash

8 marcello-gennari-KA89yJKYtjE-unsplash

Architectural objects are stationary, but their shadows move and shift around them. The directional variability of the solar illumination offers many different light-shadow conditions. The intensity of solar illumination varies during day hours, seasons and atmospheric circumstances (like cloud cover, mist, dust, etc.), and creates many grades of dark surfaces. These has taught the architects, how to exploit the utter darkness of the cast shadows along with the many grades of intermediate darkness of the back-face surfaces. There are other grades of darkness over surfaces re-illuminated with reflections from surroundings. Such variable contrasts conditions were exploited in many ways. It helped in scaling the darkness of deep set spaces, to grade the near and far-off distances, and add greater realism to nearer objects.

2 simon-launay-0lvWTBqsoZA-unsplash

3 tiplada-mekvisan-n_vdmdtNh6M-unsplash

Architecture is an inside and outside place of visitation, allowing many sided experiences of the object, with cast shadows and intermediate grades of darkness over the ’back-face’ surfaces. These was unlike the Art, where only a fixed extent of intended image is represented, be it a canvas, book page, wall fresco, stained glass, mosaic, or architectonic decorations. The shape of an object and size and form of its shadow, though continuously variable, reflect each other.

9 ehimetalor-akhere-unuabona-iRaeBSeh4uQ-unsplash

Within an art work, the objects’ shape and the size-form of the shadows may not proportionately reflect each other. The selective framing and point of scene capture, chops the objects and their shadows. As a result, proportions, if any are not revealed. The process of selective elimination from art paintings began to be exploited further in architectural creations.

7 marko-dukic-Gc3UFiAGhFI-unsplash

27 temple-lord-venkatrama...manjugani-745809

In architectural works, extensive shadows conceal objects or architectonic elements that must be nominally seen for realization of the composition, form, size and proportion. The dominant and extensive shadows could, however, may be ‘concealed’ behind objects that are placed in the frontal most planes. Such dominant and extensive shadows, though are relevant for fixed hours and points of views. One of the classical examples of this is the Greek Columns forming the facade.

Column heads

25 supreme_court_building_usa_washington_front_columns_courthouse_government-770070.jpg!d

Shadows massing form building fronts of two classes. Buildings that are comparatively of flatter plane, though with pockets of shadows of various depths (depth read as the downward length of the shadow). Some of the shadows indicating the depths get mixed up with darker colours of the facade surfaces like glass. This is an area, where seasoned designers fail to perceive the true dark-light play over the facades. Another class of shadows massing over building fronts occur due to the projecting out mass of elements. These projections over the facade are well illuminated but their shadows fall on plane surfaces as well as on undulating masses. The uneven masses, if, angular or with inclination, the complexity of the shadows increases manifold.

4 manuele-sangalli-MFKFp3-s3Rg-unsplash

6 abhyuday-majhi-bW-vRGOF5EI-unsplash

Shadow massing affects the buildings’ around public or open spaces. Such buildings, if form a flatter plane, whether, due to the repetition of architectural motifs (elements of facade language) or due to the extensive scale of visual perception, dilate the surface shading effect of the sunlight. Buildings forming such ‘visually flat planes’ were socially throughly failures.

17 Puerta_del_Sol_(3)

The ‘fixed-view’ or panoramic architectural configuration for the Plazas and Public spaces are of two basic types, 1 a large open public space dilutes the surface shade-shading effect of the sunlight, because of the large scale, whereas, 2 a very compact frontal space, seems spatially so articulated that there are too many varieties of surface shade-shadings of the sunlight. In the later case few designers had resources, experience, opportunity or time (historically, decades, if not centuries, for the long process of improvisation) for any corrective action. So whatever, was locally plausible, was accepted.

15 switzerland-840974_640

26 Brussels grote markt-belgium-1546290

In case of an architectural entity, the field is infinite but can be visually scanned by movement of the eyes, forming a seamless scene. But that was not so, with older style cameras that captured visual scene that seemed jarring. In case of human eyes the proportion of object to shadow is variable, but with artificial devices the object to shadow is shifting and so jarring. To reduce such variability of scenes, architects have resorted to selective framing for fixated observations, through windowing or deep set perspectives (that focussed the points of views). In architecture limited observations were also enforced through smaller or occluding openings, open ended-deep spaces, overhangs, serrations, cavities, etc. The selective framing chops the objects or their shadows.

18 Almoina

13 night-2300576_640

At a first glass, the shadows as dark entities seem very dark in the context of bright exteriors. Eyes however, soon dilate themselves and begin to perceive finer details within the shadows. Architectural features, human beings and their shadows often create captivating compositions of scale and proportion, but this can be perceived by an observer or camera. So scene capture like photograph remains a ‘neutral’ observation.

5 tai-jyun-chang-4zmC6Ni--qM-unsplash

Shadows have natural relationship with the source, direction and type of illumination, but more importantly, it is the quality of objects and the surfaces on which shadows occur. Cast sun light shadows show a horizontal line as horizontal, but a vertical line as an inclined entity. Consistent exposure to these has come to be accepted as nominal phenomenon. But shadows of inclined elements such as stairs, ridge of the roof, etc. have a different character.

Son_et_lumière_du_temple_de_Louqusor_-_panoramio_-_youssef_alam

11 City Center, Fort Worth, Texas Site plan with shadows] - PICRYL Public Domain Image

16 bologna-516526_640

Architectural shadows are defined by the geo zones. Nominally between 23° N and 23° S have brighter sunlight. The strong light here gets reflected in darker shadows, but that again is affected by the dominant colour of terrain, density of vegetation and surface colours of building materials. Tropical areas such as Southern countries of Europe have had deeper and elaborate architectural elements. The shadows are used as an architectural instrument of form, composition, and visual effects.

32 ART by Ottavio Viviani Capriccios of Light and Shasdows

This is the 35th article (in continuation of old series -new beginning) on ISSUES of DESIGN.

.