BEHAVIOUR in SPACES -a re-look at various lecture versions (2008-2017)

Post 731by Gautam Shah

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BEHAVIOUR in SPACES has seen many changes Since 2008 or perhaps earlier date when it all began. There are several Print and NET-based versions (www.gautamshah.in) Some are linked here.


A > These were rather un-organised or Random Topics on Behaviour in Space with 2013 (tentative outline for the series) I used to talk-discuss in 2013
1 Behaviour
2 Inhabitation
3 Interior Spaces
4 Behaviour in Interior Spaces
5 Domains
6 Domains and Spaces
7 Task Settings


B > This was little more formalized in 2016
1 Human Behaviour
2 Inhabitation
3 Place identity
4 Domains
5 Domains and Spaces
6 Exterior and Interior Spaces
7 Spaces Sizes and Shapes
8 Behaviour in Spaces
9 Manifestation of Behaviour
10 Expression and Communication
11 Privacy and Intimacy
12 Task Settings
13 Amenities and Facilities
14 Space Planning
15 Real and Virtually Real

C > But the series had started in 2014 with following topics
These all at INTERIOR DESIGN ASSIST .
1 INTERIOR DESIGN and the LOCUS
Blog 15Mar2014 https://interiordesignassist.wordpress.com/2014/03/15/interior-design-and-the-locus/
2 LONELINESS and Space Design
Bog 19Mar2014 https://interiordesignassist.wordpress.com/2014/03/19/loneliness-and-space-design/
3 SPACES for INTERPERSONAL RELATIONSHIPS
Blog 185 https://interiordesignassist.wordpress.com/2014/09/15/spaces-for-interpersonal-relationships/
4 SPACE and HUMAN BEHAVIOUR
Blog 30May2014 https://interiordesignassist.wordpress.com/2014/05/30/space-and-human-behaviour/
5 SPACE –USERS or OCCUPANTS
Blog 2June2014 https://interiordesignassist.wordpress.com/2014/06/02/space-users-or-occupants/
6 VIRTUAL SPACES and INTERPERSONAL RELATIONSHIPS
Blog 8Jun2014 https://interiordesignassist.wordpress.com/2014/06/08/virtual-spaces-and-interpersonal-relationships/
7 IDENTITY in a SPACE
Blog 159 https://interiordesignassist.wordpress.com/2014/08/20/identity-in-a-space/
8 HUMAN BEHAVIOUR in SPACE
Blog 251 https://interiordesignassist.wordpress.com/2014/11/21/human-behaviour-in-space/
9 PLACE and SPACE for INHABITATION
blog 321 https://interiordesignassist.wordpress.com/2015/01/30/place-and-space-for-inhabitation/
10 SPACE and USERS
Blog 343 https://interiordesignassist.wordpress.com/2015/02/21/space-and-users/
11 POSTURES and BEHAVIOUR
Blog 347 https://interiordesignassist.wordpress.com/2015/02/25/postures-and-behaviour/
12 EXPRESSION and SPATIAL BEHAVIOUR
Blog 361 https://interiordesignassist.wordpress.com/2015/03/11/expression-and-spatial-behaviour/
13 SPACE SIZES and HUMAN BEHAVIOUR
Blog 410 https://interiordesignassist.wordpress.com/2015/05/02/space-sizes-and-human-behaviour/
14 PLACE in SPACE
Blog 417 https://interiordesignassist.wordpress.com/2015/05/09/place-in-space/
15 SPATIAL BEHAVIOUR
Blog 512 https://interiordesignassist.wordpress.com/2015/09/07/spatial-behaviour/
16 PRIVACY and INTIMACY as spatial behaviour
Blog 524 https://interiordesignassist.wordpress.com/2015/09/29/privacy-and-intimacy-as-spatial-behaviour/
17 SPATIAL PRIVACY
Blog 562 https://interiordesignassist.wordpress.com/2015/12/20/spatial-privacy/

D > LINKS to BLOGS on BEHAVIOUR in SPACE (16 DEC2015-APR2016 One semester Lecture Series) These all at INTERIOR DESIGN ASSIST .

1 EVIDENCE of HUMAN BEHAVIOUR
Blog 566 https://interiordesignassist.wordpress.com/2015/12/31/evidence-of-human-behaviour/
2 INHABITATION
Blog 567 https://interiordesignassist.wordpress.com/2016/01/02/inhabitation/
3 Behaviour in Interior Spaces PLACE IDENTITY PLACE IDENTITY Blog 569 https://interiordesignassist.wordpress.com/2016/01/06/place-identity/
4 SPACE DOMAINS
Blog 572 https://interiordesignassist.wordpress.com/2016/01/15/space-domains/
5 DOMAINS and SPACES
Blog 574 https://interiordesignassist.wordpress.com/2016/01/20/domains-and-spaces/
6 GRADES of EXTERIOR and INTERIOR SPACES
Blog 576 https://interiordesignassist.wordpress.com/2016/01/27/grades-of-exterior-and-interior-spaces/
7 SPACE SIZES and SHAPES
Blog 579 https://interiordesignassist.wordpress.com/2016/02/03/spaces-sizes-and-shapes/
8 SPATIAL SETTINGS for HUMAN BEHAVIOUR
Blog 581 https://interiordesignassist.wordpress.com/2016/02/11/spatial-settings-for-human-behaviourspatial-settings-for-human-behaviour/
9 REFLECTION OF BEHAVIOUR
Blog 585 https://interiordesignassist.wordpress.com/2016/02/23/reflection-of-behaviour/
10 EXPRESSION and COMMUNICATION -as behaviour in space
Blog 587 https://interiordesignassist.wordpress.com/2016/03/04/expression-and-communication-as-behaviour-in-space/
11 PERSONAL SPACE for BEHAVIOUR
Blog 589 https://interiordesignassist.wordpress.com/2016/03/10/personal-space-for-behaviour/
12 SPATIAL DISTANCING and BEHAVIOUR
Blog 590 https://interiordesignassist.wordpress.com/2016/03/11/spatial-distancing-and-behaviour/
13 LONELINESS, ALIENATION and SPATIAL BEHAVIOUR
Blog 591 https://interiordesignassist.wordpress.com/2016/03/15/loneliness-alienation-and-spatial-behaviour/
14 TASK SPECIFIC SPACES
Blog 594 https://interiordesignassist.wordpress.com/2016/03/29/task-specific-spaces/
15 SPATIAL BEHAVIOUR with AMENITIES, FACILITIES, UTILITIES and ENRICHMENTS
Blog 597 https://interiordesignassist.wordpress.com/2016/04/09/spatial-behaviour-with-amenities-facilities-utilities-and-enrichments/
16 SPATIAL ORGANIZATION of OBJECTS and BEHAVIOUR
Blog 600 https://interiordesignassist.wordpress.com/2016/04/19/spatial-organization-of-objects-and-behaviour/

E > This is a Series on Behaviour in Space DEC2016 to DEC2017
These al at DESIGN ACADEMICS

1 – SPACE and HUMAN BEHAVIOUR https://designacademics.wordpress.com/2016/12/28/space-and-human-behaviour/
2 CONSTITUENTS of HUMAN BEHAVIOUR in SPACE https://designacademics.wordpress.com/2017/01/12/2-constituents-of-human-behaviour-in-space/
3 SPACE and the PLACE https://designacademics.wordpress.com/2017/01/25/3-space-and-the-place/
4 SPATIAL FEATURES for INHABITATION https://designacademics.wordpress.com/2017/02/02/4-spatial-features-for-inhabitation/
5 – SPATIAL BEHAVIOUR and DOMAINS https://designacademics.wordpress.com/2017/02/12/5-spatial-behaviour-and-domains/
6 – TYPES of SPACES for BEHAVIOUR https://designacademics.wordpress.com/2017/02/16/6-types-of-spaces-for-behaviour/
7 – SPACES SIZES and SHAPES https://designacademics.wordpress.com/2017/02/22/7-spaces-sizes-and-shapes/
8 – EXPRESSION of BEHAVIOUR https://designacademics.wordpress.com/2017/03/02/8-expression-of-behaviour/
9 – HUMAN BEHAVIOUR in Expression and Communication https://designacademics.wordpress.com/2017/03/20/9-human-behaviour-in-expression-and-communication/
10 – BEHAVIOUR and DISTANCING in SPACE https://designacademics.wordpress.com/2017/03/30/10-behaviour-and-distancing-in-space/
11 – TASK SPECIFIC SPACES https://designacademics.wordpress.com/2017/04/18/11-task-specific-spaces/
12 – SPATIAL REORGANIZATION https://designacademics.wordpress.com/2017/06/13/12-spatial-reorganization/
13 – PERSONALIZATION of SPACE https://designacademics.wordpress.com/2017/06/28/13-personalization-of-space/
14 – SPACE PLANNING and HUMAN BEHAVIOUR https://designacademics.wordpress.com/2017/12/19/14-space-planning-and-human-behaviour/

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LINKS to my BLOGS on CLIMATE

POST 730 -by Gautam Shah

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old-farmhouse

1 QUALITY OF INDOOR AIR (26March2014) https://interiordesignassist.wordpress.com/2014/03/26/quality-of-indoor-air/
2 INDOOR AIR ( 20May2014) https://interiordesignassist.wordpress.com/2014/05/20/indoor-air/
3 INDOOR AIR QUALITY (9Oct2015) https://interiordesignassist.wordpress.com/2015/10/09/indoor-air-quality/
4 COMFORT CONDITIONS in INTERIOR SPACES (8June2015) https://interiordesignassist.wordpress.com/2015/06/08/comfort-conditions-in-interior-spaces/

5 BUILDING CLIMATE (1Nov2015) https://interiordesignassist.wordpress.com/2015/11/01/building-climate/
6 CLIMATE and DESIGNING a BUILDING (6July2014) https://interiordesignassist.wordpress.com/2014/07/06/climate-and-designing-a-building/
7 BUILDING DESIGN and CLIMATE (16Aug2014) https://interiordesignassist.wordpress.com/2014/08/16/building-design-and-climate/
8 CLIMATE and BUILT-FORM (5July2015) https://interiordesignassist.wordpress.com/2015/07/05/climate-and-built-form/
9 CONDITIONING INTERIOR CLIMATE (3Oct 2014) https://interiordesignassist.wordpress.com/2014/10/03/conditioning-interior-climate/
10 INTERIOR CLIMATE of a BUILDING (24Sept2014) https://interiordesignassist.wordpress.com/2014/09/24/interior-climate-of-a-building/
11 HUMIDITY MANAGEMENT in BUILDINGS (9Dec2015) https://interiordesignassist.wordpress.com/2015/12/09/humidity-management-in-buildings/
12 173 INDOOR HUMIDITY (18May2018) https://designsynopsis.wordpress.com/2018/05/18/173-indoor-humidity/
13 VENTILATION in TROPICAL BUILDINGS (20March2015) https://interiordesignassist.wordpress.com/2015/03/20/ventilation-in-tropical-buildings/
14 Temperature related Comfort parameters for Interior Design (20Apr2014) https://interiordesignassist.wordpress.com/2014/04/20/temperature-related-comfort-parameters-for-interior-design/

15 PASSIVE VENTILATION in Buildings (3July2014 ) https://interiordesignassist.wordpress.com/2017/07/03/passive-ventilation-in-buildings/
16 MICRO VENTILATION in Buildings (8March2016) https://interiordesignassist.wordpress.com/2016/03/08/micro-ventilation-in-buildings/
17 INTERIOR SPACES and CLIMATIC COMFORT (26May2015) https://interiordesignassist.wordpress.com/2015/05/26/interior-spaces-and-climatic-comfort/
18 414 LOW VELOCITY AIR MOVEMENTS or DRAUGHT (22Mar2019) https://designsynopsis.wordpress.com/2019/03/22/414-low-velocity-air-movements-or-draught/
19 158 DRAUGHT (draft) AIR MOVEMENTS (28Apr2018) ttps://designsynopsis.wordpress.com/2018/04/28/158-draught-draft-air-movements/
20 620 AIR MOVEMENTS in BUILT SPACES (2Dec2019) https://designsynopsis.wordpress.com/2019/12/02/620-air-movements-in-built-spaces/
21 49 Indoor Air Pollution (3Dec2017) https://designsynopsis.wordpress.com/2017/12/03/49-indoor-air-pollution/

22 TEMPERATURE MANAGEMENT by HUMAN BODY (2 April2015) https://interiordesignassist.wordpress.com/2015/04/02/temperature-management-by-human-body/
23 HUMAN BODY TEMPERATURE MECHANISMS (23Apr2014) https://interiordesignassist.wordpress.com/2014/04/23/human-body-temperature-mechanisms/
24 BMR and BODY TEMPERATURE (5Oct2018) https://interiordesignassist.wordpress.com/2018/10/05/bmr-and-body-temperature/
25 CLIMATE and our BODY (26Jul2016) https://interiordesignassist.wordpress.com/2016/07/26/climate-and-our-body/

26 CLIMATE and CHANGE (10Aug2014) https://interiordesignassist.wordpress.com/2014/08/10/climate-and-change/
27 UNDERSTANDING SOLAR ENERGY for BUILDING DESIGN – Part-1 (25Oct2015) https://interiordesignassist.wordpress.com/2015/10/25/understanding-solar-energy-for-building-design-part-1/
28 AWNINGS or SHADING DEVICES (18April2015) https://interiordesignassist.wordpress.com/2015/04/18/awnings-or-shading-devices/
29 HEAT CAPACITY of BUILDINGS (14Feb2015) https://interiordesignassist.wordpress.com/2015/02/14/heat-capacity-of-buildings/
30 DEALING with ENVIRONMENT (10Jan2015) https://interiordesignassist.wordpress.com/2015/01/10/dealing-with-environment/
31 WINDOWS and VENTILATION (20Dec2014) https://interiordesignassist.wordpress.com/2014/12/20/windows-and-ventilation/
32 THERMAL MANAGEMENT – WINDOWS and INTERIOR SPACES (14De2014) https://interiordesignassist.wordpress.com/2014/12/14/thermal-management-windows-and-interior-spaces/
33 INTERNAL SHADING DEVICES (7Apr2014) https://interiordesignassist.wordpress.com/2014/04/07/internal-shading-devices/
34 SHADING DEVICES for BUILDINGS (9Apr2018) https://interiordesignassist.wordpress.com/2018/04/09/shading-devices-for-buildings/

ILLUMINATION and ARCHITECTURAL SHADOWS -Issues of Design 35

Post 729 -Gautam Shah

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1 esther-jiao-ADv0GiMBlmI-unsplash

8 marcello-gennari-KA89yJKYtjE-unsplash

Architectural objects are stationary, but their shadows move and shift around them. The directional variability of the solar illumination offers many different light-shadow conditions. The intensity of solar illumination varies during day hours, seasons and atmospheric circumstances (like cloud cover, mist, dust, etc.), and creates many grades of dark surfaces. These has taught the architects, how to exploit the utter darkness of the cast shadows along with the many grades of intermediate darkness of the back-face surfaces. There are other grades of darkness over surfaces re-illuminated with reflections from surroundings. Such variable contrasts conditions were exploited in many ways. It helped in scaling the darkness of deep set spaces, to grade the near and far-off distances, and add greater realism to nearer objects.

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3 tiplada-mekvisan-n_vdmdtNh6M-unsplash

Architecture is an inside and outside place of visitation, allowing many sided experiences of the object, with cast shadows and intermediate grades of darkness over the ’back-face’ surfaces. These was unlike the Art, where only a fixed extent of intended image is represented, be it a canvas, book page, wall fresco, stained glass, mosaic, or architectonic decorations. The shape of an object and size and form of its shadow, though continuously variable, reflect each other.

9 ehimetalor-akhere-unuabona-iRaeBSeh4uQ-unsplash

Within an art work, the objects’ shape and the size-form of the shadows may not proportionately reflect each other. The selective framing and point of scene capture, chops the objects and their shadows. As a result, proportions, if any are not revealed. The process of selective elimination from art paintings began to be exploited further in architectural creations.

7 marko-dukic-Gc3UFiAGhFI-unsplash

27 temple-lord-venkatrama...manjugani-745809

In architectural works, extensive shadows conceal objects or architectonic elements that must be nominally seen for realization of the composition, form, size and proportion. The dominant and extensive shadows could, however, may be ‘concealed’ behind objects that are placed in the frontal most planes. Such dominant and extensive shadows, though are relevant for fixed hours and points of views. One of the classical examples of this is the Greek Columns forming the facade.

Column heads

25 supreme_court_building_usa_washington_front_columns_courthouse_government-770070.jpg!d

Shadows massing form building fronts of two classes. Buildings that are comparatively of flatter plane, though with pockets of shadows of various depths (depth read as the downward length of the shadow). Some of the shadows indicating the depths get mixed up with darker colours of the facade surfaces like glass. This is an area, where seasoned designers fail to perceive the true dark-light play over the facades. Another class of shadows massing over building fronts occur due to the projecting out mass of elements. These projections over the facade are well illuminated but their shadows fall on plane surfaces as well as on undulating masses. The uneven masses, if, angular or with inclination, the complexity of the shadows increases manifold.

4 manuele-sangalli-MFKFp3-s3Rg-unsplash

6 abhyuday-majhi-bW-vRGOF5EI-unsplash

Shadow massing affects the buildings’ around public or open spaces. Such buildings, if form a flatter plane, whether, due to the repetition of architectural motifs (elements of facade language) or due to the extensive scale of visual perception, dilate the surface shading effect of the sunlight. Buildings forming such ‘visually flat planes’ were socially throughly failures.

17 Puerta_del_Sol_(3)

The ‘fixed-view’ or panoramic architectural configuration for the Plazas and Public spaces are of two basic types, 1 a large open public space dilutes the surface shade-shading effect of the sunlight, because of the large scale, whereas, 2 a very compact frontal space, seems spatially so articulated that there are too many varieties of surface shade-shadings of the sunlight. In the later case few designers had resources, experience, opportunity or time (historically, decades, if not centuries, for the long process of improvisation) for any corrective action. So whatever, was locally plausible, was accepted.

15 switzerland-840974_640

26 Brussels grote markt-belgium-1546290

In case of an architectural entity, the field is infinite but can be visually scanned by movement of the eyes, forming a seamless scene. But that was not so, with older style cameras that captured visual scene that seemed jarring. In case of human eyes the proportion of object to shadow is variable, but with artificial devices the object to shadow is shifting and so jarring. To reduce such variability of scenes, architects have resorted to selective framing for fixated observations, through windowing or deep set perspectives (that focussed the points of views). In architecture limited observations were also enforced through smaller or occluding openings, open ended-deep spaces, overhangs, serrations, cavities, etc. The selective framing chops the objects or their shadows.

18 Almoina

13 night-2300576_640

At a first glass, the shadows as dark entities seem very dark in the context of bright exteriors. Eyes however, soon dilate themselves and begin to perceive finer details within the shadows. Architectural features, human beings and their shadows often create captivating compositions of scale and proportion, but this can be perceived by an observer or camera. So scene capture like photograph remains a ‘neutral’ observation.

5 tai-jyun-chang-4zmC6Ni--qM-unsplash

Shadows have natural relationship with the source, direction and type of illumination, but more importantly, it is the quality of objects and the surfaces on which shadows occur. Cast sun light shadows show a horizontal line as horizontal, but a vertical line as an inclined entity. Consistent exposure to these has come to be accepted as nominal phenomenon. But shadows of inclined elements such as stairs, ridge of the roof, etc. have a different character.

Son_et_lumière_du_temple_de_Louqusor_-_panoramio_-_youssef_alam

11 City Center, Fort Worth, Texas Site plan with shadows] - PICRYL Public Domain Image

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Architectural shadows are defined by the geo zones. Nominally between 23° N and 23° S have brighter sunlight. The strong light here gets reflected in darker shadows, but that again is affected by the dominant colour of terrain, density of vegetation and surface colours of building materials. Tropical areas such as Southern countries of Europe have had deeper and elaborate architectural elements. The shadows are used as an architectural instrument of form, composition, and visual effects.

32 ART by Ottavio Viviani Capriccios of Light and Shasdows

This is the 35th article (in continuation of old series -new beginning) on ISSUES of DESIGN.

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ISSUES of DESIGN -List of 34 Blog articles

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Post 728 -Gautam Shah

640px-tarazona_-_vista

This Blog Series ISSUES of DESIGN began on 30MARCH 2016 with plan to include 20 Topics. But, later 20 more Topics were planned. Now, after FIVE years it has reached to 35 Blog articles. 6 More articles will be included by JUNE end 2021. –Gautam Shah

01 (603 30 Apr2016) BODY POSTURES – Issues for Design -1 https://interiordesignassist.wordpress.com/2016/04/30/body-postures-issues-for-design/

02 (605 13May2016) INTERVENTIVE SPACES – Issues for Design -2 https://interiordesignassist.wordpress.com/2016/05/13/interventive-spaces-issues-for-design-2/

03 (606 17May2016) PERCEPTION through SCALES and CONVERSIONS -Issues for Design -3 https://interiordesignassist.wordpress.com/2016/05/17/perception-through-scales-and-conversions-issues-for-design-3/

04 (607 24May2016) SPACE PERCEPTION – Issues for Design -4 https://interiordesignassist.wordpress.com/2016/05/24/space-perception-issues-for-design-4/

05 (609 6Jun2016) MOVEMENT and BALANCE – Issues for Design -5 https://interiordesignassist.wordpress.com/2016/06/06/movement-and-balance-issues-for-design-5/

06 (610 10Jun2016) NON VISUAL LANGUAGE -Issues for Design -6 https://interiordesignassist.wordpress.com/2016/06/10/non-visual-language-issues-for-design-6/

07 (612 20Jun2016) DESIGNERS and QUALITY -Issues for Design -7 https://interiordesignassist.wordpress.com/2016/06/20/designers-and-quality-issues-for-design-7/

08 (614 28Jun2016) ANTILIGATURE -Issues for Design -8 https://interiordesignassist.wordpress.com/2016/06/28/anti-ligature-issues-for-design-8/

09 (617 22Jul2016) SCALING the SPACES -Issues for Design-9 https://interiordesignassist.wordpress.com/2016/07/22/scaling-the-spaces-issues-for-design-9/

10 (621 18Aug2016) REAL and VIRTUAL -Issues for design-10 https://interiordesignassist.wordpress.com/2016/08/18/real-and-virtual-issues-for-design-10/

11 (623 Sep122016) METAPHOR Issues for Design -11 https://interiordesignassist.wordpress.com/2016/09/12/metaphor-issues-for-design-11/

12 (629 8Nov2016) CONTEXT -Issues for Design -12 https://interiordesignassist.wordpress.com/2016/11/08/context-issues-for-design-12/

13 (639 4Feb2017) SOLIDS and VOIDS -issues of Design -13 https://interiordesignassist.wordpress.com/2017/02/04/solids-and-voids-issues-for-design-13/

14 (642 4Mar2017) OBJECTS in SPATIAL FIELDS -Issues for Design -14 https://interiordesignassist.wordpress.com/2017/03/04/objects-in-spatial-fields-issues-for-design-14/

15 (649 9Jul2017) REFERENCING buildings -issues for design -15 https://interiordesignassist.wordpress.com/2017/07/09/referencing-buildings-issues-for-design-15/

16 (653 6Jun2017) RHETORIC in DESIGN -issues for design -16 https://interiordesignassist.wordpress.com/2017/08/06/rhetoric-in-design-issues-for-design-16/

17 (654 14Aug2017) SCALING the SPACES -Issues for design -17 https://interiordesignassist.wordpress.com/2017/08/14/scaling-the-spaces-issues-for-design-17/

18 (659 2Oct2017) PERCEPTION of CONTRAST -Issues for design -18 https://interiordesignassist.wordpress.com/2017/10/02/perception-of-contrast-issues-for-design-18/

19 (661 4Nov207) SOUND and SPACE -issues of design -19 https://interiordesignassist.wordpress.com/2017/11/04/sound-and-space-issues-of-design-19/

20 (662 16Nov2017) MODELLING of OBJECTS in SPACE -issues of design -20 https://interiordesignassist.wordpress.com/2017/11/16/modelling-of-objects-in-space-issues-of-design-20/

21 (661 3Mar2018) GEOMETRY -Issues of Design -21 https://interiordesignassist.wordpress.com/2018/03/03/geometry-issues-of-design-21/

22 (669 27Mar2018) SUPPORT SYSTEMS -Issues of Design-22 https://interiordesignassist.wordpress.com/2018/03/27/support-systems-issues-of-design-22/

23 (674 14Jun2018) SIZING and SCALING the SPACES -Issues of Design 23 https://interiordesignassist.wordpress.com/2018/06/14/sizing-and-scaling-the-spaces-issues-of-design-23/

24 (684 14Dec2018) DYNAMIC CURVATURES -Issues of Design 24 https://interiordesignassist.wordpress.com/2018/12/14/dynamic-curvatures-issues-of-design-24/

25 (686 9Jan2019) DESIGN, MOTIF, PATTERN -Part 1 -Issues of Design 25 https://interiordesignassist.wordpress.com/2019/01/09/design-motif-pattern-part-1-issues-of-design-25/

26 (689 15Feb2019) DISTANCE as an ELEMENT of DESIGN -Issues of Design 26 https://interiordesignassist.wordpress.com/2019/02/15/distance-as-an-element-of-design-issues-of-design-26/

27 (692 15Mar2019) VANDALISM -Issues of Design 27 https://interiordesignassist.wordpress.com/2019/03/15/vandalism-issues-of-design-27

28 (702 26Nov2019) DISTANCE MEANINGS -Issues of Design 28 https://interiordesignassist.wordpress.com/2019/09/26/distance-meanings-issues-of-design-28/

29 (707 19Nov2019) SPATIAL MEMORIES –Issues of Design 29 https://interiordesignassist.wordpress.com/2019/11/19/spatial-memories-issues-of-design-29/

30 (708 28Nov2019) ELEMENTS of BUILDING SYSTEMS -Issues of Design 30 https://interiordesignassist.wordpress.com/2019/11/28/elements-of-building-systems-issues-of-design-30/

31 (711 23Jan2020) 711 SEGMENTING the SPACES -Issues of Design 31 https://interiordesignassist.wordpress.com/2020/01/23/segmenting-the-spaces-issues-of-design-31/

32 (714 24Mar2020) DESIGN PROCESSES -Design Handling –Issues of Design 32 https://interiordesignassist.wordpress.com/2020/03/24/design-processes-design-handling-issues-of-design-32/

33 (720 3Sep2020) DEPTH and DISTANCE PERCEPTION -Issues of Design 33 https://interiordesignassist.wordpress.com/2020/09/03/depth-and-distance-perception-issues-of-design-33/

34 (727 15Jan2021) ILLUMINATION and SHADOWS -Issues of Design 34 https://interiordesignassist.wordpress.com/2021/01/15/illumination-and-shadows-issues-of-design-34/

Other topics likely to be included >

35 ILLUMINATION and ARCHITECTURAL SHADOWS -Issues of Design 35

36 ILLUMINATION and ART WORKS SHADOWS -Issues of Design 36

37 ILLUMINATION and COLOUR SHADES -Issues of Design 37

38 TRACING -Issues of Design 38

39 DESIGN, MOTIF, PATTERN -Part 2 -Issues of Design 39

40 COLOUR HUE TINT -Issues of Design 40

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ILLUMINATION and SHADOWS -Issues of Design 34

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Post 727 Gautam Shah

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#1 Looking_down_from_The_Eiffel_Tower,_Paris_8_April_2007

Shadows are formed by illumination, but require something to ‘fall’ on. Some of the formative factors for shadows are, nature of illumination (solar, terrestrial and man-made), distance, intensity, direction, multiplicity of sources (original and reflected), etc.

Solar or moon eclipses cast shadows. In a solar eclipse, the Moon’s shadow falls on Earth. In a lunar eclipse, the Earth’s shadow falls on the Moon. A solar eclipse could be total, partial, or annular, whereas a lunar eclipse may be total, partial, or penumbral. Umbra, is a simple shadow, the darkest centre portion, cast by a point source of light. Penumbra, is cast by a light source with a larger surface area than the object. Antumbra is formed when the light source is covered by the larger object.

#2 Full Moon Light

We deal with Three types of natural illumination. The illumination from sun is extensive and distanced, yet strongest and so seem to be a cascade of parallel rays. The illumination from the moon is feeble and arrives like a cone. Minor planets like Mercury, Venus and stars create insignificant amount of illumination for any Design environment. Natural illumination cannot be switched off or its source position changed. The intensity can be filtered and orientation redirected. Illumination from artificial (man-made) sources are strong to diffused, but with an identifiable ‘pointed’ origin at a measurable distance. These are switchable and manipulable sources.

#3 Nightsky_in_himalayas(binsar_wild_life_sanctury)

The natural and artificial sources of light, get redistributed through refraction, reflections and diffractions. These occur are due to the micro particulate matters in atmosphere, changes in the mediums that transit the light, and various interventions of atmospheric elements.

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Three things are needed to perceive a shadow. The first is light. The second is an object that blocks the light. And third, another object (rather its surfaces) for the shadow to ‘fall’. Objects, except those in the air (floating-flying) have attached shadows. Attached shadows ‘fall’ on grounds that are horizontal (parallel to the gravity) inclined or undulated. The quality of a shadow, such as the length and intensity, however, depends on the angle and direction and multiplicity of the sources. We are accustomed to shadows on horizontal grounds, cast by the solar or top down lights. But shadows of bottom-up lights or reflected lights are less predictable and so intriguing. Shadows provide cues about the depths, direction of illumination, the nature of ‘fall- grounds’ and and objects’ edges.

#!8 Akko-Harbor

#17 Twilight Port Illumination port-5788261_960_720

#6 Artificial illumination for day-night cricket match

A shadow is an area with absence of light, and so darker than the directly illuminated zones, and non illuminated surfaces that lie on the opposite (back) side of the illumination. Back-face surfaces continue to receive secondary light of reflections from illuminated surroundings, though in smaller proportion. Such bak-face surfaces are lighter than the shadows.

#S hadowsin front and back side

Illumination, causing the shadows offer a range of tonal variations, some with distinct edges, some with little flutter at the edge and others seamless diffusions. Objects in solar illumination (and feeble illumination of moon etc. at night) are in the presence of ‘blue’ skies, which provide secondary brightness. The blue sky reduces the stark contrast of the shadows.

#8 Lunar shadows

Lunar environments are without the blue sky (there’s no air to refract light), the dark shadows are set against the pitch black skies. When the moon skies have presence of the Sun or Earth, due to their fortnightly passage, the regions directly illuminated seem extra ordinarily bright. The lunar surface presents varied effects of textures, at different lighting and viewing angles. It is very difficult to collate these images into a single comprehension. Moon visiting astronauts, Aldrin said that ‘continually moving back and forth from sunlight to shadow should be avoided, because it’s going to cost you some time in perception ability’. Armstrong also noted, ‘it is very easy to see in the shadows after you adapt for a while’.

#9 Lunar Darkness

Neil Armstrong, the astronaut has said ‘It’s quite dark here in the shadow, and a little hard for me to see that I have good footing.’ Armstrong and Buzz Aldrin had to conduct their scientific work in these unusual shadows, which often made parts of equipment that fell into their deep black invisible.


Long before, a person saw own reflection in water (and, later, mirror), shadows have been following like an attached tail. The shadow on the ground however were seen only as a silhouette, a solid mass, without revealing the body features. The reflection in water or mirror was better, it showed the features, shifting the left-right. Both It were existential and yet perplexing phenomena, ‘only real things can cast a shadow, and also be seen in a mirror’.

#10 Shadows in water httpspixabay.comphotosczech-republic-czech-budejovice-750417

In folklore a shadow, like a soul can get detached from the body. This reflects the belief in the shadow as being either the soul itself or a guardian spirit of the soul. Incidentally, there was also a belief that selling your soul meant you had no shadow. ‘In quarrelling about the shadow, we often lose the substance’.


1 In a story, Peter Schlemihl (character of 1814, novella, Peter Schlemihl’s Miraculous) sells his shadow to the Devil for a bottomless wallet (the gold sack of Fortunatus). But he finds the society including his love shuns him. When the devil in a new bargain wants to return his shadow in exchange for the soul, he is in dilemma, but prefers to throw away the wealth.


2 In a fairy tale, Peter Pan loses his Shadow, and makes frantic effort to find it and have it re-united with himself.3 A Wolf, in the evening felt elated on seeing his own elongated shadow but soon a larger shadow of the lion blotted it out.

#11 Donkey and the shadow

4 A Traveller hired an Ass. For siesta, the traveller wanted to use the shadow of the Ass. The ass owner, objected to it saying you hired the ass not the shadow.

#12 Indonesian (wayang) Shadow Puppet Theatre Performance Wikipedia Image by PL 05 SIGIT

The shadows are earthly matter, so metaphorically a divine body carries no shadow. The shadow-less divine figure in art-works seemed ethereal, floating in the air. Divine figures, though continued to have ‘graded shades’ for three dimensional effects of the body shape, postures, and gestures. If divine body carries no shadow, can the architectural spaces or environments (trees, rocks, mountains, water bodies) that surround them have shadows? Vampires are said to have no shadows and are said to be afraid of shadows. The gods of death are also afraid of shadows. When a human being is protected (followed) by a shadow, the person cannot be attacked (in presence of illumination) by demons or other evil supernatural entities.

#15 895 LIGHT and DARK

Kumi Yamashita -The Artist With a Fascination for Shadows I sculpt using both light and shadow. I construct single or multiple objects and place them in relation to a single light source. The complete artwork is therefore comprised of both the material (the solid objects) and the immaterial (the light or shadow).

NEXT few articles in the series
ILLUMINATION and ARCHITECTURAL SHADOWS -Issues of Design 35
ILLUMINATION and ART WORKS SHADOWS -Issues of Design 36
ILLUMINATION and COLOUR SHADES -Issues of Design 37

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GREEK ARCHITECTS

Post 726 -Gautam Shah

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Greek architecture is broadly divided in two eras, the Hellenic period (900 to 300 BC) and the Hellenistic period (300 BC to 30 AD.). During the Hellenic period, after 600 BC, many buildings of refined details and an improvised layout appeared. In the later phase Greek style spread out, as a result of conquests by Alexander and the rise of the Roman empire. During the late 5th– 4th CBC, town planning became an important issue for Greek builders.

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Architecture, at that point of time was more of the inclusive process, of construction management, construction engineering, chemical engineering, civil engineering, materials engineering, mechanical engineering, military engineering and urban planning.

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It was a Greek sculptor, not an architect, who said that successful attainment in art is the result of meticulous accuracy in a multitude of arithmetical proportions’.

3a Doric Capital Details

4 -Paestum Basilika

The word architect meant an expert proficient in building design, execution management, construction, the practice of sculpting and many other skills. The Greek Architects of 5th CBC onward would have been lost in antiquity, but for the resurrection through the critical mentions, by Vitruvius, in the book ‘De architectura’ (known as ‘Ten Books on Architecture’). Marcus Vitruvius Pollio (80–70 to 15 BC) was himself, a Roman author, architect, civil, military engineer and acoustic expert.

9 Temple of Olympian Zeus in Athens (Attica, Greece) A.Savin (Wikimedia Commons WikiPhotoSpace)

Vitruvius in the book(s), discussed about proportions, human body measures, and the architectural elements. He considers buildings to have three attributes: firmitas (strength), utilitas (utility), and venustas (beauty)’.

Some of the few, of several Greek architects (builders) of the period 5th CBC onward that find mentions in various records were, Antistates, Callaeschrus, Antimachides, Pormus, Cossutius, Hermogenes, Pytheos, Chersiphron of Gnosus, Metagenes, Demetrius, Paeonius or Paionios of Ephesus, Ephesian Daphnis, Ictinus, Philo, Cossutius, Gaius Mucianus, Antimachides, Kallaeschros, Porinos, Hippodamus of Miletus, Arcesius or (T)arcesius, Hermodorus of Salamis, etc.

5 The Temple of Olympian Zeus, Athens, (174 BC–132 AD), with the Parthenon (447–432 BC) in the background

Greek architects of the period were innovative and meticulous in detailing. This, perhaps emerged, from the acute professional competition and need to get public confirmation of their works. The Later process was a perquisite before the work started. It was a period, when the architectural or construction drawings were rare, and scaled models were rarer. They relied more on description substantially oral and occasionally written. Such design confirmative process did not survive, but for the mention by Vitruvius. He made a point that ‘the work of some of the most talented are unknown, while many of those of lesser talent but greater political position are famous’.

18 Lyon Lugdunum Théatre Romain

6 Olympie temple d'Héra, façade Est.

15 Screenshot_2020-12-28 (458) Pinterest

14 Greek Columns Schema_Saeulenordnungen

Doric and Ionic were not successive Greek orders, but, possibly appeared in different regions, rather concurrently, (Doric in eastern Greece and Ionic in the west and mainland). In Ionic architecture, (from 480 BCE onward), there is greater variety in details. Corinthian order, first came up in the late Classical period (400-300 BCE), but was widely used during the Hellenistic era (300-30 BCE).

12 House of the Masks in Delos, Greece Wikipedia Image by Bernard Gagnon

Greek builders used mathematical formulations to determine the height, width and other characteristics of architectural elements. They went on to refine a perfect column by making it slender and increasing the number of flutes, altering their sectional shape, column base, capital, and the distance between the columns. The efforts also included the optical refinements and corrections.

22 Baalbek-Bacchus-Details

10 Ancient ruins of Apollonia near the Albanian city of Fieri Wikipedia Image by Decius German Wikipedia

By the end of Hellenic period (900 to 300 BC) and beginning of the Hellenistic period (300 BC to 30 AD.), Classical form of the Doric temple was out of favour. Few Doric style structures being built were elaborate in plan and detail. The changed Doric style robed the simplicity of the order. The new Hellenistic age saw new temples’ construction in the eastern parts of Greece. Here, the favoured Ionic style was getting replaced with resplendent Corinthian form. The balance and precision of the earlier periods were getting lost in new forms of structures being built.

13 Erechtheum_Acropolis_Athens

The Hellenistic period also witnessed involvement of architects in new architectural forms and development of urban facilities. The new architectural forms were agora, colonnaded stoa, gateways, propylaeum (entrance to the Acropolis or temples), circular temples (tholos), hippodromes (horse-chariot racing), gymnasiums (palaestra), senate houses (bouleuterion), lighthouses (Pharos), libraries, clock towers, fountains, and mausoleums. A variety of administrative and court buildings were without front colonnades. Palatial architecture experimented with new forms, as officials aspired to grandiose buildings of palatial pretensions. In new forms of buildings the need for real or decorative columns was no longer important. The pristine walls were formatted with ornamental surface decorations. At places the arch and vault began to manifest.

27 Parthenon, Acropolis, Athens Wikipedia Image Sharon Mollerus(10045594164)

Parthenon Constructions: ‘The Parthenon embodies an extraordinary number of architectural refinements, which combine to give a plastic, sculptural appearance to the building. Among them are, the upward curvature of the base along the ends and repeated in the entablature; an imperceptible, delicate convexity (entasis) of the columns as they diminish in diameter toward the top; and a thickening of the four corner columns to counteract the thinning effect of being seen at certain angles against the sky’. –from Encyclopaedia Britannica.

Screenshot_2020-12-29 Temple of Dionysus, Teos Ancient City

Karpion was a Greek architect and architectural theorist active in the 5th CBC. He and Iktinos (also spelled Ictinus, Iktinus), co-authored a treatise on the proportions of the Parthenon (the major building was Temple of Athena on the Acropolis of Athens). Many of the temples, including the Parthenon, were rebuilt during the so-called Golden Age of Athens (460–430 BC). Phidias, an Athenian sculptor, and Iktinos and Callicrates, two famous architects, were responsible for the reconstruction. Iktinos was also an architect of the Temple of Apollo at Bassae and the Telesterion at Eleusis, a gigantic hall.

Ionic Column Capitals - Initial two way to Four way evolution

Hermogenes of Priene was a Greek architect (3rd– 2nd BCE), of the Hellenistic period. Hermogenes favoured the symmetry of the Ionic over the Doric. He, in his books, codified, not just the Ionic order, but rules on symmetry and proportions. He canonized the proportional relationships based on the diameter of the column, as the module. Vitruvius called it an architectural ideal, ‘eustyle’ (eu stylos =right column).

22 Baalbek-Bacchus-Details

Doric order originated in Greek mainland, sometime during 7th BCE and remained major order till 5th BCE, whereas, Ionic order developed in Ionia during the mid of 6th BCE. Ionic order had volutes on front-back side of the capital but to make it symmetrical (visually more so, on corner or end columns), four-sided volutes were devised. the Corinthian capital was, however equal on all four sides. itruvius associates the Doric representing the masculine, and the Ionic with feminine proportions.

25 The Great Court of Roman Heliopolis was built in the 2nd century A.D., covered an area 134x112 meters and contained the main installation of the cult. The Baalbek temple complex

Most famous works of Hermogenes include the Temple of Artemis in Magnesia, One of the largest Temple of Dionysos (in hexa-style peripteral) in the Ionian city of Teos, Vitruvius is expressing when he writes “in the members of a temple there ought to be the greatest harmony in the symmetrical relations of the different parts to the general magnitude of the whole.” One element in a classical system cannot be changed without changing the other proportions too.

3 Temple of Dionysus, Teos Ancient City

Pythius (Pytheos) of 350 BC, built the Temple of Athena. He is cited by Vitruvius as –Pythius, the celebrated builder of the temple of Minerva at Priene. He too disliked the Doric order, for the ‘faults and incongruities’ caused by the inconvenient placing of triglyphs.

Satyros or Satyrus was a Greek architect in the 4th CBC who designed and oversaw the construction of the Mausoleum at Halicarnassus.

28 Mausoleum - Halicarnassos, Greek Architecture, History of Architecture, pg 149 Sir Banister Fletcher's

Antistates, Antimachides, Kallaeschros, and Porinos, during 560–527 BC, designed the temple of Jupiter Olympius, Athens. The project was revived in 174 BC, with substantial changes, like Corinthian order in design, and as Decimus Cossutius in charge of it. The project, yet, it remained incomplete in 164 BC.

Paeonius or Paionios of Ephesus (350–310 BC), with Demetrius (300 BC) and, also, possibly, Deinocrates, were responsible for the Temple of Artemis at Ephesus. Metagenes was a Cretan architect, who along with his father, architect Chersiphron, is also considered responsible for the construction of the Temple of Artemis at Ephesus. Similarly, Paeonius with Daphnis of Miletus designed the Ionic temple of Apollo at Didyma. Both were huge structures.

29 Temple of Apollo, Didyma Wikipedia Image by Bernard Gagn

Hippodamus of Miletus (498-408 BC) was an ancient Greek architect, urban planner, physician, mathematician, meteorologist and philosopher. He is considered to be the pioneer of European urban planning, Hippodamian Plan with grid layout.

30 Hippodamian Plan with grid

Arcesius or (T)arcesius (probably the same as Argelius) was an Ionian architect who worked in Ionia during the 3rd CBC. He was assigned the Temple of Asclepius. He wrote a critic on Doric order for being ‘faulty and inharmonious’.

Hermodorus of Salamis was a Greek architect from Cyprus, active in Rome (146-102 BC). He designed, the Temple of Jupiter Stator, Temple of Mars and the Port Navalia.

Anthemius of Tralles was a Greek geometer and architect in Constantinople. With Isidore of Miletus, he designed the Hagia Sophia for Justinian.

21 Exterior views of the Altes Museum Berlin

20 Neoclassical building in Liverpool Wikipedia Image by Carole Raddato from FRANKFURT, Germany (15988721502)

The Greek respect for proportion, scale, details, imaging the comprehensive structure, began to dilute with new varieties of buildings and professional competition for projects. Some of these architectural concerns, affected the Roman architecture, and later in the neoclassical architecture of Renaissance onward.

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LE CORBUSIER and ILLUMINATION

Post725  -by Gautam Shah

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For Corbusier history of a window was a struggle for illumination. He typically wanted, at least in the initial years, openings to bring outside in. This was due to childhood memories of Northern Europe day lighting, inferior quality of glazing and interior spaces that had small windows and required artificial illumination often during the day time. He, as a cubist saw the glazing plane as an opaque surface slightly receding due to its placement and surface quality.

Corbusier Early Projects

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Glass was a shimmering plane against the dull surface of the structure. He liked the configuration for illumination to be unbroken, and so preferred a separate ventilation system. For the same reason he did not like framing for the window. He would rather place the glazing plane directly into the masonry. This was continued in many of the later buildings like Ronchamp and Shodhan Villa Ahmedabad.

corbusier-interior-daylighting

Corbusier started placing more then adequate openings, like the ribbon windows of Villa Savoy, and invited complaints from the client. The extent openings became more rational in later projects. To cut the excessive glare he began to use an architectural baffle, a brise-soleil, for the first time, in the Algerian office-blocks (1933). Later he experimented with mechanical baffles for an office building in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, but mainly used masonry and cement concrete brise soleil for buildings at Chandigarh and Ahmedabad.

5 Unite_d'Habitation,_Marseille

architecture_loft_marseille_cit_lecorbusier_b_timent_marseilles_loggia-332038.jpg!d

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For him daylight was a living light, continuously variable, whereas the artificial light was static and local. Corbusier experimented with the distribution of daylight by positioning an interior plane adjacent to the window. The planes were first in the form of a right angle wall or ceiling, but later became inclined as well as doubly curved. Slit windows close to flat ceilings were used in many buildings. He began to use the same technique for distributing illumination of electric lights by large parabolic reflectors.

6 Casa Curutchet

7 ATMA_House_186

8 -Secretariat_Chandigarh

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Corbusier placed openings to frame specific land views as picture windows or often just apertures. Ends of the ramps, stairs, passages, were marked by such openings. Such linking of openings was also used with apertures or cutout in ceilings. These occurred with another smaller or larger cut out below or with a water body to reflect it.

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BLOG links for Articles on BALANCE and MOVEMENTS

Post 724 –Gautam Shah

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Few Links of articles on BALANCE, MOVEMENT as published on my Blog site   https://interiordesignassist.wordpress.com/

BALANCE in DESIGN – Part 1

https://interiordesignassist.wordpress.com/2016/04/05/balance-in-design-part-1/

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BALANCE in DESIGN – Part 2

https://interiordesignassist.wordpress.com/2016/12/02/balance-in-design-part-2/

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MOVEMENT and BALANCE – Issues for Design -5

https://interiordesignassist.wordpress.com/2016/06/06/movement-and-balance-issues-for-design-5/

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PERCEPTION of BALANCE and MOVEMENT

https://interiordesignassist.wordpress.com/2015/08/14/perception-of-balance-and-movement/

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VISUAL PERCEPTION of MOVEMENTS

https://interiordesignassist.wordpress.com/2015/04/15/visual-perception-of-movements/

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PERCEPTION of MOVEMENTS

https://interiordesignassist.wordpress.com/2015/01/07/perception-of-movements/

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DYNAMIC CURVATURES -Issues of Design 24

https://interiordesignassist.wordpress.com/2019/01/09/design-motif-pattern-part-1-issues-of-design-25/

curvatures-and-streamlined-products-1930-1940s

GEOMETRY -Issues of Design -21

https://interiordesignassist.wordpress.com/2018/03/03/geometry-issues-of-design-21/

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MODELLING of OBJECTS in SPACE -issues of design -20

https://interiordesignassist.wordpress.com/2017/11/16/modelling-of-objects-in-space-issues-of-design-20/

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MORPHING the ARCHITECTURAL GEOMETRY
https://interiordesignassist.wordpress.com/2018/04/12/morphing-the-architectural-geometry/

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STABILITY of BUILT FORMS

https://interiordesignassist.wordpress.com/2015/06/25/stability-of-built-forms/

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DRAPERIES

https://interiordesignassist.wordpress.com/2015/05/15/drapery/

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CORNERS and STREET ARTICULATIONS

Post 723 by Gautam Shah

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1A Unidentified-people-at-Wing-Lok-Street

Corners are affairs at street turns and junctions, formed by land-road configurations and architectural built-forms. The street corners mature historically or are arranged through intensive planning.

1B Piccadilly Circus, London, England - PICRYL Public Domain Image Lib of Congress

Building corners result largely due to the shape of the plot and its alignment to the abutting street. But building corners are also formed for architectural oddity through the obliqueness. Odd-shaped plots and flawed-alignments of streets (front and sides of the plot at odd, non-90° angles), are historical consequences or adventurism in the city planning.

1C Berlin_-_Potsdamer_Platz_-_2016

Historically streets developed over a very long period of functional moderation and visual maturation. The imposition of a diagonal pattern was to break the regimented monotony of the iron-grids of streets and generate variegated visual interests. Squared streets’ junctions have predictable quality, where one can see three opposite corners, and all have the same character, except the architectural form. The odd angled streets, however, offer outward (acute) and inward (obtuse) corners.

2a Turn in Street pixabay.com houses-old-the-walls-of-the-stone-3771884

The skewed corners, are more expressions of the road edge, sidewalks, curbs, streetlights or road sedge trees, and less of definitions emerging from the architectural design of buildings. Buildings are often, stubbornly unconcerned of the street lay. It is very common to see acute or obtuse cornered buildings imposing their ‘majestic effect’ on the right angled (90°) streets. Similarly buildings, with inward corners are placed on outwardly cornered streets.

2d corners and angles

2 e Building Corners

Very large street junctions were formed as public spaces. How to occupy, the extensive space has remained a problem. The low density and slow traffic (carts, etc.), crossing the extensive central-space was a chaotic, requiring-marked path. For managing the heavier and faster traffic, a turn-around was needed. The turn-around and its centric architecture (of memorials) fail to enliven the junction or connect the distanced corners. A corner flourishes, only in conjunction with other corners. But, that concurrence is dulled by very wide distances at the junctions. Very extensive centric spaces at road junctions, edged with tall architecture can reveal the corners, provided their design follows the street lay.

2d Barcelona panoramio Very wide junction non effective perception of the corner

In case of heavily built street junctions, the perception of the corner configuration, is more definitive due to the tall facades or their visual continuity. But at ground level, the forms of corners, however, are affected by the surface, colour, texture, reflections, occupation (storefronts, entrances, etc.) and street facilities (street light poles, signage, barricades).

14 View of Gran Madrid Wikipedia Image by Eric Chan from Hollywood, United States

Corners are formed by Vertical surfaces split-croatia-sky-blue

Corners gain a meaning, when the shape-contributing vertical surfaces are larger or taller than the perceiver. But, if the form, size and scale of the corner-forming vertical surfaces, all have the same colour, texture or pattern, the Iron-Grid pattern becomes boring. To avoid the tedious scenery of the 90° iron-grids, some cities have opted for hexagonal or floral grids.

22 Surface colour texture Saint_Pancras station London

Older towns and cities have naturally curved streets, and with the same or varied widths. Curved streets ‘turning away’ seem mysterious or less revealing, in comparison to streets ‘turning inward or towards’, which slowdown the movement and so are divulging. A curved street, or one with many crooked corners results from the illegal encroachment, and inversely street corners, gaps or setbacks are engulfed, both actions occur gradually over many years.

4 Deshaping through encroachment kimolos-cyclades-greek-greece-island-mediterranean

It is said that the curve form of the street has strong ‘perception-effect’ with the ‘left or right handed traffic movements, and culturally the prevalent script writing manner such as left to right or right to left”. But no one knows, how the East Asian (China-Japan) scripts flowing from top to down, can affect the perception of the curved streets.

4a Left - Right Turns

Street corners are also formed on straight roads with setbacks of buildings. However, when the plot width is narrow, and if the front street face is not right angled, the square form of a building does not fit into the plot shape. Such, plots have forced setbacks. Building setbacks are also enforced (for the entire form or just the upper floors) to meet the height regulations (calculated as an incidence of the angle from the opposite edge of the street).

9 Set backs Randa, village, Mallorca, road, alley, church, village center

Street corners of historical towns are multifarious junctions. The complexities arise due to the variations of mid-angles (axiality) between the adjoining streets, and their different widths. The front-edge of adjacent streets also follow their own angular convention. It becomes a polygon of unequal and differently angled faces. The Polygon, becomes non-centric, when one or few buildings, functionally and architecturally dominate the space. The streets serve not just singular way for feed or exit, but turn dual traffic channels with other back of the artery connections. Varanasi, India is a classic example of such confusions.

16 Road junction without any architectural designs for corners but with strong elements of street architecture Barcelona, Spain Wikipedia image by Benjamin Voros vorosbenisop

Buildings designed for very narrow corners (Grid-Iron building in central plaza, NYC), often face two unequal street environments. The differing environments exist due to the unequal widths of the abutting streets. The street width affects the allowable building height, the rents or sale values, degree of commercial development and the density of foot-falls (traffic). So should one adopt different architectural styles for each face?

44 different faces at Corner Collingwood Buildings corner of Pudding Chare & Collingwood Street

There have been two sets of buildings, squared and angled fronts. Squared buildings follow the street line, whereas the angled ones result to conform the sides of the plot, rather than the street. The angular front faces may manage the situation through their own articulation, typically serrations or some bizarre endowments. The street line compliant or squared-front buildings are commonly axially symmetrical.

geograph-5218904-by-Nigel-Thompson

The corner of a building, plot enforced or concept-formatted are exploited as an element for design. Acute cornered building offers little design freedom but obtuse (wide) cornered buildings have larger periphery for commercial exploitation, broader visual face and greater scope for form manipulation. Squared shape-volume buildings are sometimes, strongly affected by an askew neighbouring building, more so, if added later-on.

OLYMPUS DIGITAL CAMERA

Buildings at street junctions, pose a design quandary, what to do with, inward or outward varieties of corners? A corner as a simple ‘union’ of vertical facades does not justify the happening of the change. An emphatic mass is used to intervene. Such a mass just separates the two faces, but will not allow the change of the character of the facades. The intervening mass, if too massive the side-faces get belittled, and if too flimsy, its capacity to interpose is lost. So, the intermediate-mass rise up as a cylinder, several floors, above the side-faces. The cylinder is capped with a crown, clock or ‘a steeple like a lantern’. No one seems to have separated the cornered edges, with emptiness (like the Brazilian Congress, Petronas Towers, Malaysia, or Time Warner Centre, NYC).

18 Corner to corner proximity a rare design phenomena people-walking-near-brown-concrete-building-during-night-time

23 Natural to Cast-Iron Grids as Corners

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REVERING THE NATURE – GREEN MAN

Post 722 by Gautam Shah

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Green Man is a mystery that persists through various times, faiths and cultures. Historically the Green Man has appeared in unconnected locations and periods. The unexplained history and purposes are as enigmatic as the combination of human and plant. There are very few human-plant blends in comparison to human-animal mixes. The human-plant combinations have not been deific figures of worship or even reverence. The human-plant mix as Green man has only the characteristic head that is immortalized. It has remained a superfluous motif and never became an integrated architectonic element. Green Man has survived with minor transformations in the same form. The few changes have not been very evolutionary, like the changing forms of Gothic grotesque images. The forms are not easy to mark out for the age or culture.

13 Facade of house at Elizabetes ielā, 10b, by Mikhail Eisenstein 1903

Green man is not set to any particular context, position or location. The facial expressions do not reflect, where it is posited, in corners, over columns, door-heads or under the brackets. Green Man though expresses many different moods, angry reflective, gloomy humorous melancholic, idyllic, cheerful, whimsical, romantic, mysterious, ominous, calm, hopeful, fearful, tense, lonely, etc. Green man is usually interpreted as a positive and benevolent force. The figure is never angelic but always earthly.

Green Man

The Green man is depicted as a masculine face ranging from the middle aged to elderly. It is a strong figure of power, almost like the mythological iron smiths in various cultures. Green man is construed to be a symbol of a rebirth, cycle of growth in spring, fertility or procreation, but without any iconographic evidence. Some have claimed it to be a pre-pagan example of belief system of nature related deities, but again without any mythological trace.

6 Green Man in the presbytery of St. Magnus Cathedral, Kirkwall, Orkney, ca. twelfth-thirteenth centuries, Norman and Romanesque Wikipedia Image by Wordandsilence1979

Green man has strong lineage to plants, shrubs, climbers or trees. During and before the pagan period, groves of oak and yew trees were places of worship and sacrifices. The trunk, branches and foliage were shaken or cut on ceremonial occasions. The parts of trees, like the trunk, branches, twigs and sap were seen as human arms, fingers, blood etc. The trees were associated with death and rebirth, because of their capacity to regrow from almost dried and dead conditions. The timber of the yew trees as support posts were supposed to ‘outlast a post of iron’. The sacred groves were ideal location for propagating the new belief through the new churches. The ancient sacred groves of trees were maintained in churchyards. Christian Roman priests, during the periods of gruesome spread of Christianity were very suspicious of tree worship. But Green man has manifested in close proximity to the figure of Christ, but not as a deity. It was continuing symbol of life.

25 Face of a Green Man on the north side of the main west entrance of Derby Cathedral, England Wikipedia Image by Parkywiki

Ancient pre-pagan icons of fertility were a forest-god, a symbol of birth-death-rebirth cycles. The forest God was personified as a man, but only as a spiritual presence of nature. He was worshiped in hope of good harvests and symbolically guarded the gate between the real and unreal worlds.

26 The Ancient Religion of the Celts – Celtic Polytheism Imge from https about-history.comthe-ancient-religion-of-the-celts

Celts considered themselves as descendants of trees. Celtic Paganism, like many other regional versions were polytheistic in nature, but with strong reverence for the trees. The identity of a tree was as a benefactor of fertility, albeit a male one and not that of a mother or a Goddess of fertility. The fertility was celebrated with sexual intercourses, during the springs in sacred groves. Trees were more of holy places but not present as deific motifs.

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The Green man is depicted as a face of an elderly man, with a dense backdrop of wild shrubs. Green man image of face has wines and leaves jutting mainly from ears and head, occasionally from mouth, but less frequently from the nostrils. Edges of face and beard are lined by vines and shown bearing flowers and fruits. These images are consistent, though lack literary or other folklore descriptions.

Female Mascarons

There is no evidence of images or sculptures of Green man placed as the main deity or near an altar for worship. Green man images occur as decorative ornament in architecture, doors, columns, wall corners, gates and graves. Green man is found in both secular and ecclesiastical buildings. The ‘Green-man’ became a popular name and emblem for inns, pubs, and public buildings. It is as a mystical character, a superfluous image of just the head. The Green man now had three distinct forms, ‘1 Foliate head, completely covered in green leaves except the eyes, 2 Spewing head, mouth bursting with vegetation, and, 3 Hideous head, sprouting vegetation from all facial orifices’.

28 Acheloos, detail of roman mosaic from Zeugm

From Renaissance periods, Green man began to be included as symbolic emblem on manuscripts, adornments, stained glass and murals. The Green man now literally began to be green coloured. A number of images of the Green Man have been found on graves. The head, in the form of, not a pompous person, but an empty skull suffused with greenery. Green man also occurs as hollow mask of cast plaster and embossed metal, the image may seem a stylized, but with facial expressions set to be relevant to the place and purpose.

Early ‘Green-men’ were known simply as foliate heads. These foliate heads were coined as the Green Men, by Lady Raglan in her article ‘The Green Man in Church Architecture(published in the ‘Folklore’ journal of March 1939).

29 Acanthus Foliage used in Green Man images

Green Men are connected with the acanthus for foliage ornament and decoration. The pattern of foliage leaves and branches, the flow of beard, mustaches and head hair, eyes, mouth, in each motif are different. The sculptor or artist can have different manners of expression but was there an attempt to depict certain type of mood? Some motifs or masks do convey friendly, fierce or pensive emotions, taking away the grotesqueness.

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24 Relief_libation_Louvre Votive relief libation to a vegetation goddess. Limestone, Early Dynastic III ca. 2500 BC, found in Telloh ancient Girsu Wikipedia Image by Jastrow 2006

Green deities have been mainly of two types: The deities are placed against a plant or tree to prove their lineage, or the body features such as face, limbs etc. have elemental transplants of vegetation. At another level certain class of persons are respected for their knowledge about vegetation and medicinal value. Greek and Roman gods Dionysus/Bacchus, are considered precursors of the Green man. Bacchus is often portrayed crowned with vines or ivy.

21 The druids; or the conversion of the Britons to Christianit Engraving by S.F. Ravenet, 1752, after F. Hayman

Celtic culture offers, another tree related character, Druid. It was a real one, rather than a concept. Word Druid originates from the Latin word nemus =grove (Nemetona =goddess of the sacred grove). Druid has many mythical connections such as (Breton=drouiz, Welsh=derwydd, Old Irish=druí, Scottish Gaelic=draoidh). In Celtic cultures (like Gaulish, British, Irish), the druid was accepted as social leader and knowledgeable person. He was responsible for divination, worship and sacrifices. The Christians naturally did not approve of such a cult figure. The Druids were not allowed by Christian leaders to document their knowledge of occultism or medicine, as both were more rational and could pose problems. Druids were experts on vegetation and use of natural medicines (almost like Indian ‘Vaidya’). And in spite of Druid’s age seniority, robe and white beard, their identification with the Green man has never been validated.

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The Green One, has continued to be a revered figure, in spite of Islamic dictates against physical deities. Green one has been the mysterious and spiritual guide and protector of all Sufis.

9 Al Kadir Islam

Khidr or al-Khidr =the Green One or Verdant one, also transcribed as Khidar, Khizr, Khyzer, Khizar, is a revered figure in Islam, described in the Quran as a ‘righteous servant of God, who possessed great wisdom or mystic knowledge’. The most popular shrine in Yazd, the Pir-e Sabz =the shrine of green vegetation (perhaps due to the green foliage it), is dedicated to a female figure Anahita (who brings rain and marks the beginning of spring). Worshipers pray for the fertilizing rain and celebrate the greening of nature and the renewal of life.

23 Naqsh-e Rustam investiture of Narseh (r. 293-302), in which the Sassanian king (second from right) receives the ring of kingship from Anahita (right).

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11 Door of the Art Nouveau Building by architect Jules Lavirotte, Sculptures by Jean-François Larrivé

12 Mascarons Mosaic by Miksa Róth at Török Bank [fr] building in Budapest 1906

The Green Man vanished, for a while, from major buildings, but it never disappeared from the psyche of common people. It began to appear, surreptitiously, as street motif, in nondescript buildings and odd corners of restored buildings. Green man became a Mascaron (an ornamental motif of a human face). These were placed on door lintels, heads, to keep off the evil spirits. The motif became a decoration in Beaux Arts and Art Nouveau styles. The face motifs adopted special moods or expressions of the place and context.

7 - 8 Modern Green Men Full body sculptures

This is the Second article of the seriesREVERING THE NATURE

First article was REVERING THE NATURE – Part-I Human-Plant Lineages.

Next Article in this series will be > REVERING THE NATURE – HUMANOID or ANIMALISTIC FORMS.

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