CORNERS and STREET ARTICULATIONS

Post 723 by Gautam Shah

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1A Unidentified-people-at-Wing-Lok-Street

Corners are affairs at street turns and junctions, formed by land-road configurations and architectural built-forms. The street corners mature historically or are arranged through intensive planning.

1B Piccadilly Circus, London, England - PICRYL Public Domain Image Lib of Congress

Building corners result largely due to the shape of the plot and its alignment to the abutting street. But building corners are also formed for architectural oddity through the obliqueness. Odd-shaped plots and flawed-alignments of streets (front and sides of the plot at odd, non-90° angles), are historical consequences or adventurism in the city planning.

1C Berlin_-_Potsdamer_Platz_-_2016

Historically streets developed over a very long period of functional moderation and visual maturation. The imposition of a diagonal pattern was to break the regimented monotony of the iron-grids of streets and generate variegated visual interests. Squared streets’ junctions have predictable quality, where one can see three opposite corners, and all have the same character, except the architectural form. The odd angled streets, however, offer outward (acute) and inward (obtuse) corners.

2a Turn in Street pixabay.com houses-old-the-walls-of-the-stone-3771884

The skewed corners, are more expressions of the road edge, sidewalks, curbs, streetlights or road sedge trees, and less of definitions emerging from the architectural design of buildings. Buildings are often, stubbornly unconcerned of the street lay. It is very common to see acute or obtuse cornered buildings imposing their ‘majestic effect’ on the right angled (90°) streets. Similarly buildings, with inward corners are placed on outwardly cornered streets.

2d corners and angles

2 e Building Corners

Very large street junctions were formed as public spaces. How to occupy, the extensive space has remained a problem. The low density and slow traffic (carts, etc.), crossing the extensive central-space was a chaotic, requiring-marked path. For managing the heavier and faster traffic, a turn-around was needed. The turn-around and its centric architecture (of memorials) fail to enliven the junction or connect the distanced corners. A corner flourishes, only in conjunction with other corners. But, that concurrence is dulled by very wide distances at the junctions. Very extensive centric spaces at road junctions, edged with tall architecture can reveal the corners, provided their design follows the street lay.

2d Barcelona panoramio Very wide junction non effective perception of the corner

In case of heavily built street junctions, the perception of the corner configuration, is more definitive due to the tall facades or their visual continuity. But at ground level, the forms of corners, however, are affected by the surface, colour, texture, reflections, occupation (storefronts, entrances, etc.) and street facilities (street light poles, signage, barricades).

14 View of Gran Madrid Wikipedia Image by Eric Chan from Hollywood, United States

Corners are formed by Vertical surfaces split-croatia-sky-blue

Corners gain a meaning, when the shape-contributing vertical surfaces are larger or taller than the perceiver. But, if the form, size and scale of the corner-forming vertical surfaces, all have the same colour, texture or pattern, the Iron-Grid pattern becomes boring. To avoid the tedious scenery of the 90° iron-grids, some cities have opted for hexagonal or floral grids.

22 Surface colour texture Saint_Pancras station London

Older towns and cities have naturally curved streets, and with the same or varied widths. Curved streets ‘turning away’ seem mysterious or less revealing, in comparison to streets ‘turning inward or towards’, which slowdown the movement and so are divulging. A curved street, or one with many crooked corners results from the illegal encroachment, and inversely street corners, gaps or setbacks are engulfed, both actions occur gradually over many years.

4 Deshaping through encroachment kimolos-cyclades-greek-greece-island-mediterranean

It is said that the curve form of the street has strong ‘perception-effect’ with the ‘left or right handed traffic movements, and culturally the prevalent script writing manner such as left to right or right to left”. But no one knows, how the East Asian (China-Japan) scripts flowing from top to down, can affect the perception of the curved streets.

4a Left - Right Turns

Street corners are also formed on straight roads with setbacks of buildings. However, when the plot width is narrow, and if the front street face is not right angled, the square form of a building does not fit into the plot shape. Such, plots have forced setbacks. Building setbacks are also enforced (for the entire form or just the upper floors) to meet the height regulations (calculated as an incidence of the angle from the opposite edge of the street).

9 Set backs Randa, village, Mallorca, road, alley, church, village center

Street corners of historical towns are multifarious junctions. The complexities arise due to the variations of mid-angles (axiality) between the adjoining streets, and their different widths. The front-edge of adjacent streets also follow their own angular convention. It becomes a polygon of unequal and differently angled faces. The Polygon, becomes non-centric, when one or few buildings, functionally and architecturally dominate the space. The streets serve not just singular way for feed or exit, but turn dual traffic channels with other back of the artery connections. Varanasi, India is a classic example of such confusions.

16 Road junction without any architectural designs for corners but with strong elements of street architecture Barcelona, Spain Wikipedia image by Benjamin Voros vorosbenisop

Buildings designed for very narrow corners (Grid-Iron building in central plaza, NYC), often face two unequal street environments. The differing environments exist due to the unequal widths of the abutting streets. The street width affects the allowable building height, the rents or sale values, degree of commercial development and the density of foot-falls (traffic). So should one adopt different architectural styles for each face?

44 different faces at Corner Collingwood Buildings corner of Pudding Chare & Collingwood Street

There have been two sets of buildings, squared and angled fronts. Squared buildings follow the street line, whereas the angled ones result to conform the sides of the plot, rather than the street. The angular front faces may manage the situation through their own articulation, typically serrations or some bizarre endowments. The street line compliant or squared-front buildings are commonly axially symmetrical.

geograph-5218904-by-Nigel-Thompson

The corner of a building, plot enforced or concept-formatted are exploited as an element for design. Acute cornered building offers little design freedom but obtuse (wide) cornered buildings have larger periphery for commercial exploitation, broader visual face and greater scope for form manipulation. Squared shape-volume buildings are sometimes, strongly affected by an askew neighbouring building, more so, if added later-on.

OLYMPUS DIGITAL CAMERA

Buildings at street junctions, pose a design quandary, what to do with, inward or outward varieties of corners? A corner as a simple ‘union’ of vertical facades does not justify the happening of the change. An emphatic mass is used to intervene. Such a mass just separates the two faces, but will not allow the change of the character of the facades. The intervening mass, if too massive the side-faces get belittled, and if too flimsy, its capacity to interpose is lost. So, the intermediate-mass rise up as a cylinder, several floors, above the side-faces. The cylinder is capped with a crown, clock or ‘a steeple like a lantern’. No one seems to have separated the cornered edges, with emptiness (like the Brazilian Congress, Petronas Towers, Malaysia, or Time Warner Centre, NYC).

18 Corner to corner proximity a rare design phenomena people-walking-near-brown-concrete-building-during-night-time

23 Natural to Cast-Iron Grids as Corners

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REVERING THE NATURE – GREEN MAN

Post 722 by Gautam Shah

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Green Man is a mystery that persists through various times, faiths and cultures. Historically the Green Man has appeared in unconnected locations and periods. The unexplained history and purposes are as enigmatic as the combination of human and plant. There are very few human-plant blends in comparison to human-animal mixes. The human-plant combinations have not been deific figures of worship or even reverence. The human-plant mix as Green man has only the characteristic head that is immortalized. It has remained a superfluous motif and never became an integrated architectonic element. Green Man has survived with minor transformations in the same form. The few changes have not been very evolutionary, like the changing forms of Gothic grotesque images. The forms are not easy to mark out for the age or culture.

13 Facade of house at Elizabetes ielā, 10b, by Mikhail Eisenstein 1903

Green man is not set to any particular context, position or location. The facial expressions do not reflect, where it is posited, in corners, over columns, door-heads or under the brackets. Green Man though expresses many different moods, angry reflective, gloomy humorous melancholic, idyllic, cheerful, whimsical, romantic, mysterious, ominous, calm, hopeful, fearful, tense, lonely, etc. Green man is usually interpreted as a positive and benevolent force. The figure is never angelic but always earthly.

Green Man

The Green man is depicted as a masculine face ranging from the middle aged to elderly. It is a strong figure of power, almost like the mythological iron smiths in various cultures. Green man is construed to be a symbol of a rebirth, cycle of growth in spring, fertility or procreation, but without any iconographic evidence. Some have claimed it to be a pre-pagan example of belief system of nature related deities, but again without any mythological trace.

6 Green Man in the presbytery of St. Magnus Cathedral, Kirkwall, Orkney, ca. twelfth-thirteenth centuries, Norman and Romanesque Wikipedia Image by Wordandsilence1979

Green man has strong lineage to plants, shrubs, climbers or trees. During and before the pagan period, groves of oak and yew trees were places of worship and sacrifices. The trunk, branches and foliage were shaken or cut on ceremonial occasions. The parts of trees, like the trunk, branches, twigs and sap were seen as human arms, fingers, blood etc. The trees were associated with death and rebirth, because of their capacity to regrow from almost dried and dead conditions. The timber of the yew trees as support posts were supposed to ‘outlast a post of iron’. The sacred groves were ideal location for propagating the new belief through the new churches. The ancient sacred groves of trees were maintained in churchyards. Christian Roman priests, during the periods of gruesome spread of Christianity were very suspicious of tree worship. But Green man has manifested in close proximity to the figure of Christ, but not as a deity. It was continuing symbol of life.

25 Face of a Green Man on the north side of the main west entrance of Derby Cathedral, England Wikipedia Image by Parkywiki

Ancient pre-pagan icons of fertility were a forest-god, a symbol of birth-death-rebirth cycles. The forest God was personified as a man, but only as a spiritual presence of nature. He was worshiped in hope of good harvests and symbolically guarded the gate between the real and unreal worlds.

26 The Ancient Religion of the Celts – Celtic Polytheism Imge from https about-history.comthe-ancient-religion-of-the-celts

Celts considered themselves as descendants of trees. Celtic Paganism, like many other regional versions were polytheistic in nature, but with strong reverence for the trees. The identity of a tree was as a benefactor of fertility, albeit a male one and not that of a mother or a Goddess of fertility. The fertility was celebrated with sexual intercourses, during the springs in sacred groves. Trees were more of holy places but not present as deific motifs.

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The Green man is depicted as a face of an elderly man, with a dense backdrop of wild shrubs. Green man image of face has wines and leaves jutting mainly from ears and head, occasionally from mouth, but less frequently from the nostrils. Edges of face and beard are lined by vines and shown bearing flowers and fruits. These images are consistent, though lack literary or other folklore descriptions.

Female Mascarons

There is no evidence of images or sculptures of Green man placed as the main deity or near an altar for worship. Green man images occur as decorative ornament in architecture, doors, columns, wall corners, gates and graves. Green man is found in both secular and ecclesiastical buildings. The ‘Green-man’ became a popular name and emblem for inns, pubs, and public buildings. It is as a mystical character, a superfluous image of just the head. The Green man now had three distinct forms, ‘1 Foliate head, completely covered in green leaves except the eyes, 2 Spewing head, mouth bursting with vegetation, and, 3 Hideous head, sprouting vegetation from all facial orifices’.

28 Acheloos, detail of roman mosaic from Zeugm

From Renaissance periods, Green man began to be included as symbolic emblem on manuscripts, adornments, stained glass and murals. The Green man now literally began to be green coloured. A number of images of the Green Man have been found on graves. The head, in the form of, not a pompous person, but an empty skull suffused with greenery. Green man also occurs as hollow mask of cast plaster and embossed metal, the image may seem a stylized, but with facial expressions set to be relevant to the place and purpose.

Early ‘Green-men’ were known simply as foliate heads. These foliate heads were coined as the Green Men, by Lady Raglan in her article ‘The Green Man in Church Architecture(published in the ‘Folklore’ journal of March 1939).

29 Acanthus Foliage used in Green Man images

Green Men are connected with the acanthus for foliage ornament and decoration. The pattern of foliage leaves and branches, the flow of beard, mustaches and head hair, eyes, mouth, in each motif are different. The sculptor or artist can have different manners of expression but was there an attempt to depict certain type of mood? Some motifs or masks do convey friendly, fierce or pensive emotions, taking away the grotesqueness.

16-17 Rodin

24 Relief_libation_Louvre Votive relief libation to a vegetation goddess. Limestone, Early Dynastic III ca. 2500 BC, found in Telloh ancient Girsu Wikipedia Image by Jastrow 2006

Green deities have been mainly of two types: The deities are placed against a plant or tree to prove their lineage, or the body features such as face, limbs etc. have elemental transplants of vegetation. At another level certain class of persons are respected for their knowledge about vegetation and medicinal value. Greek and Roman gods Dionysus/Bacchus, are considered precursors of the Green man. Bacchus is often portrayed crowned with vines or ivy.

21 The druids; or the conversion of the Britons to Christianit Engraving by S.F. Ravenet, 1752, after F. Hayman

Celtic culture offers, another tree related character, Druid. It was a real one, rather than a concept. Word Druid originates from the Latin word nemus =grove (Nemetona =goddess of the sacred grove). Druid has many mythical connections such as (Breton=drouiz, Welsh=derwydd, Old Irish=druí, Scottish Gaelic=draoidh). In Celtic cultures (like Gaulish, British, Irish), the druid was accepted as social leader and knowledgeable person. He was responsible for divination, worship and sacrifices. The Christians naturally did not approve of such a cult figure. The Druids were not allowed by Christian leaders to document their knowledge of occultism or medicine, as both were more rational and could pose problems. Druids were experts on vegetation and use of natural medicines (almost like Indian ‘Vaidya’). And in spite of Druid’s age seniority, robe and white beard, their identification with the Green man has never been validated.

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The Green One, has continued to be a revered figure, in spite of Islamic dictates against physical deities. Green one has been the mysterious and spiritual guide and protector of all Sufis.

9 Al Kadir Islam

Khidr or al-Khidr =the Green One or Verdant one, also transcribed as Khidar, Khizr, Khyzer, Khizar, is a revered figure in Islam, described in the Quran as a ‘righteous servant of God, who possessed great wisdom or mystic knowledge’. The most popular shrine in Yazd, the Pir-e Sabz =the shrine of green vegetation (perhaps due to the green foliage it), is dedicated to a female figure Anahita (who brings rain and marks the beginning of spring). Worshipers pray for the fertilizing rain and celebrate the greening of nature and the renewal of life.

23 Naqsh-e Rustam investiture of Narseh (r. 293-302), in which the Sassanian king (second from right) receives the ring of kingship from Anahita (right).

10 Immeuble_art_nouveau_(Riga)_(7575658724)

11 Door of the Art Nouveau Building by architect Jules Lavirotte, Sculptures by Jean-François Larrivé

12 Mascarons Mosaic by Miksa Róth at Török Bank [fr] building in Budapest 1906

The Green Man vanished, for a while, from major buildings, but it never disappeared from the psyche of common people. It began to appear, surreptitiously, as street motif, in nondescript buildings and odd corners of restored buildings. Green man became a Mascaron (an ornamental motif of a human face). These were placed on door lintels, heads, to keep off the evil spirits. The motif became a decoration in Beaux Arts and Art Nouveau styles. The face motifs adopted special moods or expressions of the place and context.

7 - 8 Modern Green Men Full body sculptures

This is the Second article of the seriesREVERING THE NATURE

First article was REVERING THE NATURE – Part-I Human-Plant Lineages.

Next Article in this series will be > REVERING THE NATURE – HUMANOID or ANIMALISTIC FORMS.

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REVERING THE NATURE – Part-I Human-Plant Lineages

Post 721 by Gautam Shah

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23 Sacred Groves of Kerala KAAVU

14 Sacred Green places calm water_trek peace tranquility pxhere image 1193814Natural elements in various forms have been revered in all cultures and ages. The reverence for natural elements was due to both, fear and appreciation. Natural entities have been venerated in their original whole, parts or representative adaptations. Natural elements, like the flora and fauna were worshiped in original forms, and also by equating to human body elements like arms, hands, legs, fingers, head, face, blood, semen, etc. Similarly terrestrial features like rivers, water-bodies, stones, hills, mountains, valleys, sun, moon, planets, stars, air, winds, light, rains, clouds, etc. have awed humans by their scale and power. The life processes like birth, death, fertility or procreation, growth, rejuvenation, pain, joy, love and compassion, feelings, remembrances, etc. are happenings that roused curiosity.

12 Worshiping_nature_

In India and elsewhere, unchanging patterns of far off stars were sensed as the consistency in nature, but over that imposition of certain other patterns, like the movements of moon and other planets, showed the anomalies of seasons causing floods, dry spells, earthquakes, storms and hurricanes. Man has worshiped everything real on earth, in the skies, and their symbolic representations. These astral forms over the period became extremely abstract, with no trace of the original.

18 Akhenaton-wife-Nefertiti-rays-daughters-sun-god

There were many abstract and un-explainable happenings that were challenges, like the omens, good or bad luck, irrational punishments. These experiences were formless, but associated with contextual things and that became objects for veneration. One universal belief was living beings having a soul that transcended the various body forms. The transition of a soul from one body form to another, or to a body-less ghost was accepted as the realm of existence. Souls needed places to go to, like, the underworld, heaven, hell or ethereal, and also as many animal-human body manifestations.

19 Celestial Microcosm

The mundane body forms did not adequately express the extraordinary powers that some of the souls were endowed with. So, it perhaps began with the human body gaining the heads of other beings. These body forms were of many realms and created a bizarre mix of reality, unreality and even virtual reality. Why was the first body transmutation of the head? Was there realization that the head controls the body? The Egyptian Isis, Hindu Ganesha -Son of God Shiva, many reincarnations of Vishnu, were all with modified heads. The mutant heads expressed the anger, cruelly and grotesque expressions. Reverse mutation with body of an animal and head of human were exploited to endow strength, running speed, flying or jumping powers. Wining a fight against a monster was another such expression in Sumerians, Chinese or Indian mythologies.

20 Tree Monsters Image by wallpaperflare

Attributing qualities of a living or dead person, to plants, inanimate objects or natural phenomena, is a form of Animism. It is perhaps, the most ancient form of worship. In many societies totems or emblems part of animism. In India Kalpa-Vriksha, also known as kalpataru, kalpadruma or kalpapādapa, is a wish-fulfilling divine tree. Animism perceives all natural things as ‘animated and alive’. All objects, places and creatures, and even words, sounds, smells and other sensorial expressions have spiritual significance.

13 prayer-flags-candles-prayer-buddhism-preview

24 Tree of Life God and Goddess From Sumer around 2050–1950 BC Wikipedia Image

In ancient periods of Europe, trees or especially groves of yew and oak were objects or places of worship. A sacred grove, a natural holy place, is known as alka (Lithuanian) and elks (Latvian). In Kerala, India sacred groves are known as ‘Kavu’, and Devrai (gods’ forest) in hilly range -Ghats of Western India. Such clusters have associated water bodies such as rivulet or pond and a presiding animistic deity (often a serpent or cobra -Naag Dev).

1 Chandod Sacred Grove

2 Sacred Groves ART by Arnold Böcklin

Trees have been worshiped both as Male and Female forms, and through the parts like the trunk, branches, twigs and sap representing the human arms, fingers, blood etc. Trees have been symbols of rebirth, cycle of growth in spring, fertility or procreation. The trees were associated with death and rebirth, because of their capacity to regrow from almost dried and dead condition.

5 OSUN OSOGBO

While Muslims (Arabs and Bedouins) consider sacred trees especially as an abode of righteous figures’ (Wellis’) souls or as having a connection to their graves, the Druze relates sacred trees especially to the events or deeds in the lives of prophets and religious leaders’

‘According to the Druze religion only people like prophets could be ‘sacred; physical objects like, trees may be regarded only as ‘blessed’. A plant species all of whose specimens, are worshiped owing to religious tradition (regardless the exact background) has to be treated as ‘holy. Amots Dafni

(from-https://ethnobiomed.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/1746-4269-2-26).

10 pagan-3892831_1280

The term Druid, possibly derives from the Celtic word for oak. Druids were the ceremony masters, who organized worship, sacrifices, divination, and judicial procedures at Oak groves. Many religions, like Christianity and Islam were very suspicious of the tree worship, but had to concur with the public belief that groves were sacred places of the ghosts. First public gatherings and later the churches, though first occurred in such groves. Earlier saints were buried under already accepted sacred trees. Later the saint’s graves under a tree became a beatified place. With larger buildings, Kings and high priests were buried inside the churches. The Trees and the graves seem to have usurped each others position.

21 Cult of Druids The Druids; or the conversion of the Britons to Christianity'. Engraving by S.F. Ravenet, 1752,Druids were banned by the Roman government from 1st C AD., as they opposed the coming of Christianity. It was then said that ‘Jesus’ was ‘better than a prophet, more knowledgeable than every Druid, a king who was a bishop and a complete sage’. With Christianity, the focus on trees changed fromrebirth’ to ‘resurrection‘. Christianity.

16 Tree Sucking Egyptian Deities

Osiris was the green skinned deity of vegetation, agriculture, fertility, afterlife, death and resurrection. Osiris was in charge of the underworld of the dead. The Hebrew word for ‘die’ is used only in relation to the death of a person or animals, but not for plants. Former two have the breath of life. In Arab folklore, sacred trees are haunted by Jinn. In many folk-lores, trees were homes of spirits and where the deceased find blissful repose. Trees are places where sick and dying are placed for blessings. Objects like wreaths, ribbons, threads or rags are hung on trees for sick humans, livestock, or for good luck.

Folk Village Wish Korean Folk Village

8 Holy Threads 4400391261_f3583b3fe0_c

The World Tree, Cosmic Tree or Tree of Life is a conceptual form that exists in many cultures of the world. It occurs as description and also as a mystical image. One of the oldest records of the World Tree is of Babylonia (about 3-4 Millennium BC). Such trees have an image with foliage (heaven), trunk (earth) and roots (underworld) and a spatial presence (position and metaphysical imagery). The position was the axis Mundi (axis of Earth’s rotation between the celestial poles) and the imagery that connected the heaven, earth, and underworld (or past, present and future).

7 Kalpataru,_Kinnara-Kinnari,_Apsara-Devata,_Pawon_TempleIn Hinduism, Buddhism and Jainism, ‘Kalpa-Vriksha or Kalpataru’ is a wish-fulfilling divine tree, and also associated as the tree of knowledge. The Vedic Aranyani, the protector goddess of the forest is a daughter of Shiv and Parvati, who was raised by Kalpa-Vriksha. VanaDevi is worshiped in rural India by Hindus as VanaChandi, and BonBibi (Bon=jungle) by Muslims in Sunderbans (West Bengal) India. In Hinduism, the Goddess Vrinda (holy basil plant =Tulsi in India) was blessed by God Krishna. Shakambari, the mother of all vegetation, is a form of Goddess Durga. She represents nine plants of medicinal benefits. Buddha and Mahavira (Jain) attained wisdom and salvation under trees (respectively the pipal and sal).

9 Banyantree

25 Adam-Eve and the Tree httpspixabay.comphotosbremen-historic-center-historically-4689974

22 Japanese Tree Spirit Kodama from the Gazu Hyakki Yakō

17 Nils_Asplund_-_Heimdal

Next Article in this series > REVERING THE NATURE – Part-II Green Man

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DEPTH and DISTANCE PERCEPTION -Issues of Design 33

Post 720 by Gautam Shah

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11 trier_porta_negra_left_outside_outsider_feeling_melancholy-531710.jpg!d

Depth is ‘the most existential dimension’. It is the dimension of dimensions, most inevitable experience of the world and being. Merleau-Ponty (1968) considers depth to be the primary spatiality that grounds experiences of the world. Depth designates the primary dimension that defines the distance between one’s self and other things. In this sense the depth allows the ‘coexistence’.

4 lamp-chandelier-light-souvenir-preview

Depth is often considered as the third measure. Width and Length, both are parallel to the gravity, but depth is usually vertical. Depth is measured from a high to a lower point or from front to back side. The bottom point of depth is the gravity. Depth and Height are synonymous, except that Depth is downward and Height is upward. Other terms for depth include altitude, elevation, datum, thickness, etc. Depth relates to a point, that is less accessible or fathomable, like depth of water, drawer, field or someone’s feeling. Depth differentiates the front from the the background and so reflects the intensity.

2 depth-of-field-4397882_960_720

Depth gives an ‘additional dimension to a two-dimensional (Width and Length) representation, and revels other qualities of the field’. The perception of depth, indicates information like the position of the perceiver, target and the mediating context. Depth is the distance between one’s self and other things, even, if the later are unreal. Distance gives a wider perspective, but Depth offers better or detailed insight.

15 scary-spooky-night-street-horror-fear-creepy-dark-gothic

Depth of measurable Distance, implies a Direction, which in turn reflect concentration, assimilation, densification and comprehension. Depth nominally relates orientation towards the Gravity. But, we say looking inside the space though it is up and away from our gravity. Similarly, we say viewing deep inside the microscope or telescope. The measure of deepness is down or inwards, like a deep place, deep waters, deep winter, etc. Emotionally depth means abstruseness, extent of sagacity and penetration. Depth of expression have intensity, density, complexity, strength and seriousness.

3 tunnen-shaft-depth-deep-people-hiking

Visual depth defines the position of objects by connecting and separating them in space. Audio depth has many facets, the sound could be of high or low pitch, direct or reverberated. Depth of smell and Taste, both reflect the intensity of experience. Tactile Depth is the reach of experience to subcutaneous level. Depth is a measure, perceived through the sensorial faculties.

6 geograph-1489323-by-Hywel-Williams

The presence of dual (two eyes-ears) or multi-nodal (touch) perceptions define the direction, to make the depth-measure more accurate. The movement of eyes and the ability to shift the focus create a sense of visual and aural perspective. Here the far-off objects become duller and the intervening distances proportionately change.

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Depth perception leads to judgement of distance. Depth constitutes a perceptual horizon that places the body with other things, as well as the world, such ‘interconnection is indispensable to understanding of the depth’.

9 Calgary_Tower,_Calgary,_Alberta,_Canada_-glass_floor-20June2010

Depth and Distance are different. Distance is sensed between two objects, as a multi sensorial experience and also as a contextual phenomena. Depth offers the distance and sense of volume. Distance is between two objects, and for that both the objects need to be experienced simultaneously, or alternatively bridged through several mediating things like time delay (motion picture frames) and spatial proximity, through convergence, divergence and interventions. Depth judgements can be personal, but the Distance, once measured is real. Distance manifests as remoteness or work-reach.

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12 coronavirus-distances-distance-hands-metro-keep-the-distances-love-love-at-a-distance

All depth perceptions are distinguished by the primary experience of third dimension, followed by delayed or spaced out realizations of the ‘after-effects like traces, shadows, context, front-back, etc. The visual shadows occur mainly due to illumination and recognition of tint-hue of the colour. The depth of visual shadows formed with illumination, have two qualities, the orientation (angle) and the intensity (degree of brightness). Through the phenomenon of visual perception, the other concealed depth aspects of objects emerge. Effects of surface illumination are visually perceived as change in the brightness, intensity of colour and texture. The depth dimension continuously changes, yet over a period with persistent exposure and past experiences, together, form a reliable measure.

7 carpaccio_st_jerome_lion_monastery_1509

The depth, is the realization of spatiality of objects and the realm between objects. The depth and space are synonymous. A space exists for the person, where the variable measures of depth form a dynamic and subjective experience. So depth is not a Euclidean definition or element geometrical space, but a personal rapport with the world.

14 aerial-view-of-city-buildings

This is the 33rd article (in continuation of old series -new beginning) on ISSUES of DESIGN.

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ARTICLES on DESIGN THINKING

Post 719 by Gautam Shah

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ARTICLES on DESIGN THINKING > All articles from my Micro Blog site > DESIGN SYNOPSIS https://wordpress.com/view/designsynopsis.wordpress.com

52  REDESIGN IDEOLOGY
105 POINT or BINDU
120 ELEMENTS and SYSTEMS in DESIGN
192 MINIMALISM in DESIGN
194 WINDOWS by FRANK LLOYD WRIGHT
195 SYSTEM through DESIGN
219 FRUGALITY in DESIGN
220 CHANGING STYLES in DESIGN
242 PLAYING with PSEUDO in DESIGN

Apparatus for the Distillation of Vague Intuitions. Installation
250 CONVEYANCE of CONCEPT and DESIGN
253 Le CORBUSIER and OPENINGS
275 BREVITY in DESIGN EXPRESSION
297 CULTURAL PRACTICES AND TECHNOLOGY
316 APARIGRAHA and MINIMALISM
319 KNOWING ART DECO
335 The ARTS & CRAFTS MOVEMENT
348 ARCHITECTURAL FORMS as ART
380 DESIGN THINKING in INDUSTRIAL AGE

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381 FRANK LLOYD WRIGHT WINDOWS
404 TERRITORIES and SPATIAL DESIGN
455 FUNCTIONALISM in DESIGN
492 METAPHORS and SYMBOLS in DESIGN
493 CHANGES in DESIGN ETHOS during 19th C.
510 VASARI CORRIDOR FLORENCE
558 SPATIAL MEMORIES as DESIGN CUES
569 SYMBOL to SYMBOLISM
580 QUALITY METICULOUSNESS in DESIGN

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588 RASA
595 ABSTRACTION for COMMUNICATION
601 REMEMBERING the SPACES
606 ARCHITECTURAL PERSISTENCE
624 DEUTSCHER WERKBUND
631 FORECASTING in DESIGN
637 DESIGN CONCERNS
640 ABSTRACTION in ART
648 COSTUMBRISMO
649 ANEKANTAVADA
653 REAL, VIRTUAL and SUPERFLUOUS

640px-Stoclet_Palace_Hoffmann_Brussels_1911657 ORIGINS of ART NOUVEAU
668 OPENINGS by -FRANK LLOYD WRIGHT
721 LANGUAGE for WRITING and SPEAKING
727 PALLADIAN OPENING
734 CONCURRENT or SIMULTANEOUS ENGINEERING
746 HOLISTIC ENTITIES
748 BODY MEASURES of VITRUVIAN MAN
767 REALISM in ART and ARCHITECTURE
775 FUTURE of DESIGN
780 CONVERGENCE vs DIVERGENCE
784 OUTSIDER or BRUT ART
807 REALITY and DESIGN
810 SPATIAL NARRATIVES
811 REALISM, IMPRESSIONISM to EXPRESSIONISM

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HEINRICH LAUTERBACH -Polish architect of Wroclaw modernism

Post 718 by Gautam Shah

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1 HEINRICH LAUTERBACH Polish architect of Wrocław modernism

2 Haus DR. SCHMELOWSKY in Gablonz by Architekt HEINRICH flickr.comphotosapfelauge26916269368

Heinrich Lauterbach (1893-1973) was a prominent architect of Wroclaw (largest city in the historical region of Silesia, western Poland). He worked between two world wars and post WW-II period. He was in close contact with architecture from a young age. At the age of 14, Heinrich Lauterbach met the architect Hans Poelzig, then director of the Wroclaw Art Academy. He studied drawing and watercolour with Theodor von Gosen, the chief of the sculpture class at the Wroclaw Art Academy. The shaping of Lauterbach as architect was also influenced by contacts with the extraordinary bohemian art environment at the Wroclaw Academy of Arts and Crafts (1920-30s). This included people like Hans Scharoun, Adolf Rading, Oskar Moll and Oskar Schlemmer.

5 Hans Poelzig Grand_Theatre 1919 Berlin Germany

3 Jablonecké Paseky Háskova vila

1 Hans Scharoun, 1893-1972 was a German architect dedicated to experimentation, an eccentric and with influential vision of democratic architecture.

4 Hans Scharoun WeissenhofsiedlungScharoun-pjt

2 Adolf Rading was a German architect of the Neues Bauen period. He briefly worked in the office of Peter Behrens in 1919, and then moved to Breslau, becoming a professor at the National Academy for Arts and Crafts

6 House designed in 1928 by Adolf Rading in collaboration with the painter and sculptor Oskar Schlemmer casa rabe, Zwenkau, Leipzig, Germany 1928-30

3 Oskar Moll was a German Fauvist painter; best known for his landscapes, portraits and somewhat abstract still-life.

7 Mallorca by OskarMoll

 4 Oskar Schlemmer was a German painter, sculptor, designer and choreographer associated with the Bauhaus school. In 1923, he was hired as Master of Form at the Bauhaus theater workshop, after working at the workshop of sculpture.

8 Oskar Schlemmer, Small Houses Bauhaus style near Berlin

Lauterbach, after the war, attended the Darmstadt University of Technology and Technical University of Dresden. Here he came in contact with Martin Dülfer, one of the pioneers of Art Nouveau. Later in Berlin he became a master student with Hans Poelzig at the Prussian Academy of the Arts. He then went through studios and design offices at places like Berlin, Kassel and Opole. The work of Heinrich Lauterbach resulted from his fascination with the creative method and projects of his master Poelzig and the ideas of Neues Bauen (new building).

21 Heinrich Lauteinrich

22 Schmelowský Villa

Neues Bauen (New Building) was an avant-garde movement by than rationalist and functionalist. It emerged in Europe during 1920-30s and was identified as New Objectivity (German Neue Sachlichkeit =New Sobriety). This movement re-modelled many German cities in the period. It originally associated with the Arbeitsrat für Kunst (a union of architects, painters, sculptors and art writers, who were based in Berlin from 1918 to 1921). Arbeitsrat worked closely with the Novembergruppe and the Deutscher Werkbundn with Häring. Many members were important founders of the Bauhaus. Among the supporters of such German movements contributors were Walter Gropius, Otto Haesler, Ludwig Hilberseimer, Ernst May, Hannes Meyer, Ludwig Mies van der Rohe, and Martin Wagner.

18 heinrich-lauterbach-muzeum-architektury-2012-11-27-001

The Neue Sachlichkeit (new sobriety) approach was to pursue architecture and design to fulfill objective functions and not along the lines of personal taste, preexisting historical, national or regional styles. The intention was to create objects without any emotional attachment, like how these were designed or used previously.

15 Single-family House No 35 built for the 1929 building exhibition “Wohnung und Werkraum0

Lauterbach launched his practice as a freelance architect in Wroclaw in 1925, and one of the first project was a Studio for portrait photographer Max Glauer. From 1925 until the outbreak of WW-II, he worked in Wroclaw as an architect. Some of his early projects were a residential house with an exchange office and Kampmeyer parquet factory. Lauterbach, in 1929, he organized an exhibition at Breslau in 1929, Werkbundu Wohnung und Werkraum, WUWA, (Werkbundu apartment and workshop). For Lauterbach, the organization of an exhibition, articles and comments in architectural magazines, brought in fame. He secured projects for two functionalist villas in Czechoslovakia and Dubrovnik (Jablonec and Nisou). He built an apartment block in 1928-29. He also re-modelled Wroclaw Chamber of Commerce. Lauterbach’s design projects were residential buildings, villas, and multi-family houses. ‘The work of Heinrich Lauterbach resulted from his fascination with the creative method and projects of his master Poelzig and the ideas of Neues Bauen’.

9 Heinrich_Lauterbach WUWA House 35 South-West_Façade Wrocław Poland

The Werkbund estates, were developed as experiment in modern residential architecture in Stuttgart, Bern, Zurich, Prague, Vienna and Wroclaw. Lauterbach now led the Silesian regional Werkbund. His colleagues were Hans Scharoun, Adolf Rading, both of the Wroclaw Art Academy. Members of the Silesian Werkbund were involved in the planning and execution of about 40 buildings.

10 Haus H. in Gablonz Built following the Werkbund exhibition Flickr comphotosapfelauge3987225291

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In 1930 he moved into one of his row houses in WUWA, with a neighbour as painter Oskar Schlemmer. The main driving force for Werkbund for Neue Sachlichkeit (New Objectivity), was of Ludwig Mies van der Rohe, who realized it with his colleagues, Belgian Victor Bourgeois, Swiss-French Le Corbusier, Austrian Josef Frank, Dutchmen J.J.P. Oud and Mart Stam. Neue Sachlichkeit was a movement against expressionism, and rejected the romantic attitude of the expressionism. Expressionism was strongly seen in German public life like performing crafts, art, architecture, literature, etc.

13 House 35 Heinrich Lauterbach South-West Façade Wrocław Poland

Academic Life From 1930 to 1932 Lauterbach was a lecturer at the Academy of Arts and Crafts in Wroclaw. From 1940 to 1945 he had to do military service. After a teaching assignment at the Technical University of Stuttgart (1947 to 1950), Heinrich Lauterbach became a professor of architecture at the State Academy of Fine Arts in Kassel in 1950. He was also a professor at universities in Poland and Germany.

17 Villa Friedrich Schmelowsky in Gablonz Jablonec nad Nisou, Architect Heinrich Lauterbach 1933 Wikipedia Image by FrantAla

Since 1955 he was a full member of the Berlin Academy of the Arts. He also became a member of the prestigious association of architects, ‘Der Ring’ in Berlin. In the postwar period he taught at the universities in Stuttgart and Kassel.

12 26916269368_ddcb5658a6_c

Schmelowský Villa “It was designed by the architect Heinrich Lauterbach designed a Villa for the dermatologist Friedrich Schmelowský and his wife Marie. The Schmelowský Villa stands in a quiet area of greenery. From Opletalova Street, it seems closed and inaccessible, but it presents a friendly face on the garden side with its large glazed surfaces. The extended shape of the house with the protruding rounded living area supported on steel pillars and the bathroom oriels with round ‘portholes’ gives the impression of a cruising steamship. The layout of the house and the interiors is timeless and as such it continues to serve its enlightened owners today without the need for any modifications. Experts consider the villa to be an excellent example of the aerodynamic functionalism of the Wroclaw school”. (https://www.jablonec.com/en/jablonec-nad-nisou/monuments-and-culture/the-schmelowsky-villa/).

19 Heinrich Lauteinrich

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ZONING BUILT SPACES -PERIPHERAL SPACES

Post 717 by Gautam Shah

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9 Saint_Joseph_Higher_Secondary_School_-_North_building

A space is an affirmed entity, a domain. Spaces have two segments, the Core and the Periphery. A space domain may or may not have any bounding marks, but the core is distinctly surrounded by the periphery. Real or ephemeral peripheries are existent, as both are intimately tied to the core. But real peripheries have the edge forming barriers. The interaction with neighbouring domains forces the edges to be breached.

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A core zone is too specific for the task and nearly self-sufficient. A core zone demands extreme dedication. Core areas are serene, remain unaffected by the vivid happenings in or across the peripheral zones. Peripheral zones, as aligned to the edge of the space, are distanced from the core zone. It is this distance between the core and peripheral sections that invests distinct identity and meaning to each. Peripheral zones draw lots of energy from across the edge or defining barriers, and so become escape areas. Peripheries serve diverse purposes, but only for a location and occasion. It can never have permanence.

3 cathedral-interior

Peripheral zones are non committal, so preferred places for escape, ideal for personal encounters and casual discussions. In very small domains, a core takes away substantial space, leaving little for the periphery to exist. The core zone than, shifts to the edge, away from the entrance. This helps to form a peripheral zone near the entrance. Small dwellings, temples (Garbha-Griha or inner sanctorum) and Buddhists Chaitya in Ajanta Caves India, have such long front areas. Fireplaces and now TVs have off-centric interest and so form elongated rooms. In absence of a periphery insincere participants have no option but to leave the space.

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Peripheral areas without unfilterable edges are ineffective. Peripheral zones derive their functionality from the nature of barriers. In space domains where the core zone is functionally insignificant for any reason, like airport lounges, the peripheral zones emerge as an antithesis of the core zone. At another extreme, the peripheries with ephemeral edges need an extraordinary strong core zone. Earth has atmosphere as the ephemeral barrier, effective only due to the strong gravity of the core. The core is like a faith in a leader that makes followers to converge to some identity marking the focus.

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The spatial connection between the core and peripheral area, is ambiguous one. It is continuously shifting. The core area gets enlarged, so far it retains its centrality. The core zone can stretch its reach through better means of communication and impressions. In religious places like temples and churches core areas are brightest and loudly decorated. But in case of mosques and unity temples or multi-faith Bahai’s the core is intentionally subdued by diffusing its edges and physical characteristics. In airports, lounge and other public spaces, condensate activities like inquiry-information, booking, check-in etc. to the peripheral areas.

4 escalator-stairs-architecture-shopping-centre-preview

Buildings that are enlarged by additions over their periphery, like industrial complexes or space stations, have interconnected multiple core zones. These formations are very similar to internet service providers’ hubs, connected to each other, by band width capacity (or time measure) rather than spatial distancing.

The peripheral zones are affected by the directional and temporal aspects of the environment. Such affectations are relevant only for a while, for a location and so for an activity and few individuals. The affectations also depend on quality of the external barrier. Peripheral zones are primarily shaped by the core zone, but are more often affected by the nature of neighbouring domains.

14 Yoyogi_national_1st_gymnasium_20120103

A physical domain is a unique spatial entity where other domains converge onto it. The convergence is experienced as inward and outward transgression at the peripheral areas. The transgressions alter the spatial character to take advantage of the neighbouring or converging domains. Peripheral zones are flexible, i.e. can be stretched or contracted from their nominal spread. Ariel windows, Bay windows, Chhatris, Balconies, Verandahs are typical outward transgressions, whereas, Chowks, cutouts, shafts, courtyards, are examples of inward transgressions. Such transgressions, change the peripheral areas and reposition the core zone.

5 Interior_of_Christchurch_Art_Gallery,_New_Zealand_2

One can exploit peripheral zones by facing the core zone or turned around and ignore it. For any other position (sideways), one may require strong metaphysical reason, because a core-zone on left or right side is unbalanced and so unnerving.

7 cooking-kitchen-process-restaurant-preview

The barriers over the edge peripheral zone are used for resting, reclining, hanging embellishments, storing etc. The edges are thresholds to other space entities and are perceived as intermediate or buffer areas. These areas mark the end of one space entity and beginning of another one.

11 Family_watching_television_1958

Small spaces, where distancing is not effective (other than intimate or body-touch proximity) cannot be any distinct periphery-based activities. Similarly single activity places like personal offices, lecture halls, bed rooms, kitchens, are focussed units and so dominantly core zones. But areas like road side cafes are peripheral. Medieval kitchens with alcove fire places were peripheral. Compared to it modern island kitchens are conceived to be independent-entity, but cannot function without peripheral storage.

6 -Interior_of_a_Chinookan_plankhouse

The extent or depth of the peripheral zone was determined by the concern for safety, warmth from the fire, the need for privacy, scale of the task-activity and distancing from inclement elements (to reduce their intensity and reach). Peripheral zones with adequate widths turn into acutely used areas.

12 Quad_Monitor_Music_Workstation

Work stations were supposed to have several modules placed together for multitasking functionality. But once the modules get technologically integrated (such as in music studios for playing-recording-editing consoles), these can be placed anywhere, and so no longer enforce the character of centrality. Once upon a time CAD tools were offered as work stations, but with switchable windows the culture has died. Fire was the focus of the primitive homes, and now TV has become the focus of the family and now individual devices like mobiles have diffused the core or centrality as the focus.

13 new-york-stock-exchange

Peripheral zones are used for acutely specific or single purpose activities such as store rooms, study nooks, hobby areas, coffee rooms, home offices, vaults in banks, wardrobes, shower stalls, change rooms, reception areas, podiums in lecture halls, green rooms, ticket booths, display kiosks.

8 chefs-kitchen-luxury-home-granite-counter-tops-parkland-thumb

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716 ARTICLES on MINIMALISM in DESIGN

Post 716 by Gautam Shah

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Minimalism

ARTICLES on MINIMALISM in DESIGN -Gautam Shah

These SIX articles are from my Micro Blog site https://wordpress.com/view/designsynopsis.wordpress.com  The articles are listed in terms of their publication sequence.  The Topics relate to #Minimalism, #Functionalism, #Frugality,

#Brevity, #Abstractions, #Reductionism

192 MINIMALISM in DESIGN

275 BREVITY in DESIGN EXPRESSION

316 APARIGRAHA and MINIMALISM

455 FUNCTIONALISM in DESIGN

595 ABSTRACTION for COMMUNICATION

649 ANEKANTAVADA

 

192 MINIMALISM in DESIGN

An Expression to be effective requires condensation and rearrangement of the content. The minimalism takes many different forms, in Art, it takes abstraction of form or story, in Writing, it turns to recitable poetry, and in Built forms (product design and Architecture) it needs to remain steadfast with sheer functionality.

In audio-visual expression, the reenactions are never faithful to the original, and yet the improvisation can be creative. For minimalism, the productivity is just the frugal use of means, but efficiency of the process. Minimalism is the distinctive impression created through the space and time scales. ‘In design, clarity trumps the brevity’.

The word Frugality stands against Substantial. A thing, substantial, is more ‘down to the earth’, but conversely a minimal entity is infinitesimal or spectral.

Bauhaus was about rejecting the unnecessary things that had begun to undermine the functionality of designed objects. Minimalists ask, What can we strip away without losing the purpose and identity? This is in stark contrast to Redesign Engineering ideology, which ask, What can be redefined? And the search is not a “Eureka”, but adopting and improvising the operative efficiency available in competitive offerings.

275 BREVITY in DESIGN EXPRESSION

Brevity in Design relates to two fundamental measures, the TIME and SPACE. And the calibration of both, leads to efficiency. Brevity in architecture is a reflection of minimalism. It comes from a yearning to ‘shed weight’ so as to be less ‘substantial’. In architecture (and also other forms of design) ‘substantial’ translates into monumental or elaborate. A monumental entity, must confirm to the stabilizing force of gravity, and so should be large and wide-based. An elaborate entity could be multi-functional or multi-faceted, satisfying many needs.

The superfluous ‘becomes intense and dense’ in ‘classical ages’ that reappraisal becomes necessary not to discipline it but to discover the ‘new’. But such pursuit for Brevity starts at personal level, and is initially a preconception. By the time the originator and followers understand the means and methods of it, it may become a style weighed down by ‘substantial’.

Brevity as a doctrine has many subscriptive forms, like, ABC art, minimal art, reductivism, rejective art, De Stijl, neo-plasticism, Bauhaus movement, minimalism, Ludwig Mies van der Rohe’ Less Is More and Traditional Japanese art.

Brevity (First attested in English in 1509)has origins from Latin -brevitās or brevitātem, Anglo-Norman brevité, Old French brieveté (=br -brave + evity -evidence).

316 APARIGRAHA and MINIMALISM

Aparigraha means non-possessiveness or being non-greedy. Aparigraha is the opposite of Parigraha, which means, to amass, crave, seek or seize material possessions.

Aparigraha is one of the virtues in #Jainism. It is also one of the five vows that both the householders (Sravaka) and ascetics must observe. Aparigraha is a desirable self restraint and sincerity (as a fellow citizen) for possessing what is absolutely necessary and so minimum.

(#Jainism -a religion in India, originating in roughly the same time span as Buddhism).

American scholar Richard Gregg coined the term ‘voluntary simplicity’ to describe a lifestyle purged of the inessential. My space is small but my life is big.

The concept of minimalist design was to strip everything down to its essential quality and thereby achieve simplicity. Thereafter nothing can be eliminated ‘to simplify or improve the design’. Minimalists not only ‘reconsider’ the physical qualities but spiritual meaning also.

This usually creates a design statement that is very frugal and personal. And it requires converts, who can understand, believe and accept it. If you are a design service provider that needs spirit and energy of a crusader.

455 FUNCTIONALISM in DESIGN

In the wake of World War I, an international functionalist Design movement emerged, riding on the wave of Modernism. This was triggered by consumer product periodicals that had wide base of female subscribers.

The movement was for achieving purity in design of a product through functional relevance. This was gaining momentum with a similar trend in art, architecture and craft-artefacts. It was for reduction and restrain with the aim to remove the unnecessary and put the essential in the spotlight. These trends in Design were confirming to than current ideas of socialism and humanism.

Louis Sullivan’s 1896, idea of ‘form ever follows function‘ was more metaphysical than being practical to users’ needs. It was more reflective of ‘lack of (‘excessive’) ornamentation. Some treated as ‘bald and brutal’ manner. Philip Johnson daringly ‘held that the profession has no functional responsibility whatsoever’. The postmodern architect Peter Eisenman was more extreme, ‘I don’t do function.’

From all these personal interpretations products, art and architecture began to rely of structural stresses as expressed through straight line and right-angled geometry. This was bereft of emotion, as good design should be ‘clear and unobtrusive.’ The success of functional design was in the rationality and cost effectiveness, as it removed wastage of space and materials.

595 ABSTRACTION for COMMUNICATION

Communication occurs through writing, orally, gestural deliveries and through metaphors or graphics. Authors usually have some knowledge about the target audience.

All communications use spatial or temporal assets and so need to have minimal content. The tradition is ancient one, as knowledge was conveyed orally as Shrut Gyan (Vedic mantras are in easy to remember and in recitable form).

For content rationalization several strategies are resorted to. The contents are abstracted by removing all time-space gaps and less important information. The language in Internet chat-rooms, whatsapp, etc. shows the nature of abstraction spreading across the world. Here common words are shortened by eliminating vowels and are denoted by their phonemes. Symbols and metaphors are also used to squeeze the contents.

The contents are sequenced, with time as the operative element. Oral or gestural deliveries are sequenced in time and so are lineal. Writings can have non-lineal arrangement if aided indexing. Graphical formats are impressionistic, rely on the holistic effect.

The focus of abstraction and communication are through the retrieval and re-enactment of content. So what one strongly feels, desires, believes, becomes the force-de-majeure.

For frugality of expression beginning with a pre declaration or concluding with a definitive statement

The contents can be minimized by forming bridges (e.g. hyperlinks, bibliographies, index) to create a seamless statement or a larger concept. A well linked or cited content vouches its authenticity through circumstantial referencing.

640 ABSTRACTION in ART

Abstraction is a process of removing irrelevant appendages from the idea, thought or concept. This reduces the complexity and increase efficiency.

Abstraction in Art began with the removal or de-emphasis of the background or the context. This allowed the thematic concept to be perceived not just distinctly but in a different manner. The abstract Art was more concerned with the later. The newness of the object independently of its associations or attributes provided an exciting option to impressionism and expressionism. Both the -isms were substantially dependent on negation through colour, texture, form depiction, foreground-background delimitation, depth representation with intensities, perspective or scaling, and environmental connections like light and shadows.

Word Abstract derives from the Latin Abstrahere =to divert and Aabstractus =drawn away, drag away, detach, pull away, divert. It is an assimilated form of Ab =off, away from + Trahere =to draw.

In computer programming abstraction hides all but the relevant data about an object.

Acute abstraction takes away the reality. The subject is not sought or to be recognized. It has no bearing of perception like top-bottom, left-right, real or mirror. But on massing the abstract creations, do reflect the creator and that becomes the style. It is the mannerism that becomes universal. But before that universalism sets in the Art moves to something New.

649 ANEKANTAVADA

The word ‘anekaāntavāda’ is a compound of two Sanskrit words: anekānta and vāda. The word anekānta itself is composed of three root words, ‘an’ (not), ‘eka’ (one) and ‘anta’ (end, side). These three together connote ‘not one ended’, ‘sided’, ‘many-sidedness’, ‘manifoldness’ or ‘many pointedness’.

According to ‘Jain’ (Indian religion that originated in roughly the same time span as Buddhism) doctrine, there is no absolute truth or reality. Anekantavada has also been interpreted, to mean non-absolutism. It is said no single concept can describe the nature of existence and the absolute truth.

Every truth is incomplete, and at best a partial truth. The ultimate truth and reality, if any, are complex and multi faceted. All knowledge must be qualified in many ways, including being affirmed and denied. Anekantavada is a fundamental doctrine of Jainism.

According Jainism reality has many facets, which are difficult to be perceived by one person or through several cycles of life. Different people interpret different aspects of it. Their conclusions are good for them and in the time-space context.

Reality is what we perceive and also of what we do not perceive. We cannot understand the reality unless we are ready to accept both. So all conditions have potentials of many truths.

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The CRAFT of SCENOGRAPHY and NOH STAGE of JAPAN

Post 715 by Gautam Shah

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Immersive theatre is a form of contemporary performance that may include site-specific architecture, some degree of spatial considerations and improvisations both in expression and audience participation Immersion of the spectator in the narrative is a key factor. These may be achieved not just by audio-visual interest but other sensorial interests.

Madonna+-+10

633px-wagner_-_parsifal_-_court_of_klingsors_castle_-_the_victrola_book_of_the_opera

Townscape_with_a_stage_performance,_by_Matthijs_Naiveu

Scenography is a practice of Stage Craft that includes scenic design, lighting, sound, costume design and various types of shielding or curtain barriers. It creates a specific stage-environments or atmosphere to support the expression or narration. It is also perceived as combination of technological provisions and sensorial effects to support what an acted or spoken narrative cannot do or need not do. It creates a sense of place in a performance that could be indicative, real or hyper real or even bizarre.

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The term scenography is of Greek origin, skēnē =stage or scene building, grapho =to describe. It was originally detailed within Aristotle’s Poetics as skenographia. It is now also used as craft of display in museums and merchandising.

DecoradoCementerio

Invisible theatre is stage performance in a place where people would not normally expect to see one, for example in the street or in a shopping centre. Performers disguise the fact that it is a performance from those who observe and who may choose to participate in it, thus leading spectators to view it as a real, unstaged event.

400px-interior_of_teatro_olimpico_vicenza-_scaenae_frons_close-up_-_la_porta_regia

Scenography is the seamless synthesis of space, text, research, art, actors, directors and spectators that contribute to an original creation. -Howard, Pamela (2002 -What is Scenography).

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Scenography is not simply concerned with creating and presenting images to an audience; it is concerned with audience reception and engagement. It is a sensory as well as an intellectual experience, emotional as well as rational. Joslin McKinney and Philip Butterworth..

640px-Noh_Performance_(235951661)

Noh Performance > The traditional Japanese Noh stage (butai) Design derived from Shinto worship pavilions (haiden) or dance pavilions (kagura-den) of Shinto shrines. The stage is squared and bounded by Four columns (like the Indian Mandap or Mantapam) for Hindu Marriage or Yagna pooja ceremonies. The four column-roofed entity is placed in open as well as indoor facilities. The stage is a sanctified area for the ritual of performance.

The roof is overpowering element drawing attention to the performance. It also becomes the focus of the hashigakari (suspension bridge), a narrow passage at right upend, used by actors to arrive on the stage.

Noh-stage-diagram

Noh performance space is open on all sides to offer a participatory area for the performers and the audience. It stays open through the performance, as there are no curtains to declare beginning or end of an act over the central stage (honbutai =main stage). So like Indian Kathakali or street performance of Ramayana, Mahabharat and other classical plays the audience see the preparation of scenes and actors’ entry-exit. This is what happened in Greek open air amphi theatre stage performances. An edgeless performance place.

諏訪神社能舞台_Suwa_shrine_Noh_Stage_-_panoramio

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Some of my own BLOGS on STAGE & PERFORMANCE CRAFT > LINKS

STAGE CURTAINS Part 1 ● Performance Spaces
https://interiordesignassist.wordpress.com/2014/11/07/stage-curtains-part-1-%e2%97%8f-performance-spaces/
STAGE CURTAINS – Part 2 (forming the performance spaces)
https://interiordesignassist.wordpress.com/2015/01/17/stage-curtains-part-2/
STAGE CURTAINS -types Part III
https://interiordesignassist.wordpress.com/2015/02/05/stage-curtains-types-part-iii/
SEGMENTING the SPACES -Issues of Design 31
https://interiordesignassist.wordpress.com/2020/01/23/segmenting-the-spaces-issues-of-design-31/
MAKE-BELIEVE in INTERIOR DESIGN
https://interiordesignassist.wordpress.com/2019/11/08/make-believe-in-interior-design/
DISTANCE as an ELEMENT of DESIGN -Issues of Design 26
https://interiordesignassist.wordpress.com/2019/02/15/distance-as-an-element-of-design-issues-of-design-26/
MODELLING of OBJECTS in SPACE -issues of design -20
https://interiordesignassist.wordpress.com/2017/11/16/modelling-of-objects-in-space-issues-of-design-20/
CONTEXT -Issues for Design -12
https://interiordesignassist.wordpress.com/2016/11/08/context-issues-for-design-12/
INTERVENTIVE SPACES – Issues for Design -2
https://interiordesignassist.wordpress.com/2016/05/13/interventive-spaces-issues-for-design-2/
EXPRESSION and COMMUNICATION -as behaviour in space
https://interiordesignassist.wordpress.com/2016/03/04/expression-and-communication-as-behaviour-in-space/
The INTERLUDE (intervening space)
https://interiordesignassist.wordpress.com/2015/06/24/the-interlude-intervening-space/
DRAPERIES
https://interiordesignassist.wordpress.com/2015/05/15/drapery/
VISUAL PERCEPTION of MOVEMENTS
https://interiordesignassist.wordpress.com/2015/04/15/visual-perception-of-movements/
SOUND, SPACE and PERCEPTION
https://interiordesignassist.wordpress.com/2014/05/05/sound-space-and-perception/
PERCEPTION of SOUND and SPACES
https://interiordesignassist.wordpress.com/2014/05/03/perception-of-sound-and-spaces/
SPATIAL MEMORIES –Issues of Design 29
https://interiordesignassist.wordpress.com/2019/11/19/spatial-memories-issues-of-design-29/
BALANCE in DESIGN – Part 1
https://interiordesignassist.wordpress.com/2016/04/05/balance-in-design-part-1/
BALANCE in DESIGN – Part 2
https://interiordesignassist.wordpress.com/2016/12/02/balance-in-design-part-2/
SHEER FABRICS and CURTAINS
https://interiordesignassist.wordpress.com/2014/04/02/sheer-fabrics-and-curtains/
SPACE and SOUND REVERBERATION
https://interiordesignassist.wordpress.com/2014/05/06/space-and-sound-reverberation/

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DESIGN PROCESSES -Design Handling –Issues of Design 32

Post 714 by Gautam Shah

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Designs occur as a concept, idea or theme, expressed in the form explanation, process of creation, or representations like drawings, models, surrogates, samples, digital images. All Designs are documented briefs for realization. Design also carries a meaning of forming a pattern. Creations by artists or craftsperson may occur as experiment or improvisation, and are not truly designs. Designs need not be realized as a physical reality. A design can be a strategy for operational management or conducting services.

Structure at Kabah 4707705100_82facac70a

For a designer, knowing means to achieve a specific end are very important. Proper record keeping of all design processes helps here. It is very difficult to register dreams, intuitions or inspirations. One needs to recall them in a different time and space context. All intuitions or inspirations, however, absurd, have some physical context of origin. Designers unlike a lay craftsperson or artist, are trained and disciplined, to record their design related thought processes. The thought processes thin out or obliterate completely with passage of time, so must be recorded as early as possible.

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Design Processes for a Lay person and a Designer are very different. A creative lay person simply goes on creating (assembling, modifying) things without being aware why certain things manifest in a certain manner. For a creative person the end is important and means irrelevant. A Designer, on the other hand, tries to discover the logic behind it. Selection of an element may be initially intuitive, but there is always a later effort to justify the actions intellectually. A designer justifies all actions like selection, rejection, inclusion or composition of various elements. In doing so the designer refines the intellectual prowess by equipping with an experience that is:

  • definable
  • repeatable or recreate-able as a whole or in selective parts
  • recordable -its perceptive aspects
  • transferable to another person
  • increase or decrease its intensity (time scale) and diffuse or intensify its concentration (space scale).

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For these (above) purposes Designers rely on documents. The expertise of documenting all aspect of design helps a designer to handle extensive or more complex intuitions or inspirations. Personal and impulsively formed systems tend to be Holistic, with few or no recognizable sub systems and being very unique require more extensive definitions and so complex documentation. On the other hand, planned systems, whether personal or evolved through multilateral effort, and over a longer period of maturation, consist of many sub sets. Planned systems have subsets that are already formed by vendors and well prescribed.

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Documents are personal method of transmitting a design to stage of realization. In large projects designs are transmitted to professional executors and in different locations. Design transmission and interpretation, require ‘culture’ of protocols. Many such protocols are not defined but accepted as the traditions. Such traditions make a Design transmission and interpretation fast, but are prone to errors.

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Designers create both, Closed and open-ended systems. Closed Ended Systems are intentionally made holistic. Closed-ended systems are planned to protect the intellectual rights of the innovators. Closed systems are improvise-able only by the author or inventor, whose capacity to update it continuously is finite. Proprietary computer software may be used by a licensee, but its code remains restricted. The closed systems cannot be dissected for inspection or repair, the form is compact and rigid. Closed ended system need nodes of connectivity or gateways to be useful. Such gateways may or may not allow access to others. Such systems become irrelevant as soon as an open-ended option is available. In the world of mutual dependency, closed systems cannot survive much longer.

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Open-ended Systems evolve from multilateral effort or multi trial endeavours. Where large number of people are involved in design and execution, and where these processes are likely to take place at different time and locations, the system automatically becomes Open ended. The subsystems usually offered by venders, to be replaceable, are conceived as substantially independent systems, by their vendors. Open-ended systems have a ‘design-architecture’, formed through common measurements, materials and procedures. To allow these, open-ended systems have a skeleton type frame structure (infrastructure) and fit-in modules. Open-ended systems have built-in reserves or additional safe capacities, often wasteful, but such reserves make systems more persistent. Open-ended systems allow replacements, improvisations and up-gradations of their subsystems and components.

Overhelming spaces piqsels.com-id-ovdvv

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