SASH WINDOWS

Post 691 –by Gautam Shah

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The word sash, derives from the French chassis, which means a frame or a window shutter that holds a glass pane. Technically sash windows refer to an opening system where the framed glazed panels are opened by sliding vertically, or horizontally, against casement windows where shutters are hinged and open sideways. Sash windows, when opened, have no shutters projecting out, so resist rains better and pose lesser fire risk. Sash windows are less susceptible to warping due to moisture, as the shutter is bounded by a frame. Sash windows open by remaining within their frames, so do not distract, as do the hanging shutters of the casement windows. The casement shutters had to be of small-width, or tended to ‘drop at the free edge’. The small shutter width required many mullions to divide the opening. The wrought-iron hinges and lead cames of the casement windows were dark and heavy, compared to the clean image of the sash windows.

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Sash windows allow control over air ventilation, as it can be opened to a small slit to nearly 50 % of the opening. By keeping open both the top and bottom of a sash window by equal amounts (in double hung sash window), it allows warm air to leave at top and cool air to enter through the bottom. This facility of controlled ventilation saw major drive for use of Sash windows replacing the Casement windows.

9 Gulllotine Sash Window Châté_Lîzabé_f'nêt'

The earliest-known use of sash windows was in the later part of the 17th C. Sash windows with their better proportions and elegance compared to casement windows, soon became the most important visual element in buildings of the 18th and 19th C. Sash windows became so popular that people who could afford, replaced the leaded-light casement windows. Many 16th and 17th C houses have ‘replacement sash windows’. Such changes, however, were affected on the main facade only, less prominent facades and side faces continued with the original casement shutters.

3 At_Paraty,_Brazil_2017_100The window tax (during 1696 – 1861, in England) forced people to wall-up unnecessary windows to save tax, and also add fictitious windows for the sake of composing a facade. In spite of the taxation (window tax and a heavy excise duty on glass in 1746) discouragements, this was the period when windows design saw some of the most innovative changes.

Windows were initially positioned flush with the front face of the building, but great fire of London forced authorities, in 1907, to set back all windows by 4″ from the outer face of masonry. To further reduce the risk of fire, in 1774, the exposed wood box containing the cord and weight mechanism was required to be concealed in the side masonry.

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The first sash windows of 17th C were glazed with very heavy glass requiring thick oak frames and glazing bars. However, with the availability of thinner cylinder glass from 18th C onward during Georgian period, sash windows became lighter and elegant. Production of plate glass, from 1850 onward allowed, larger panes of glass. Larger and thinner glass panes required no or fewer glazing bars. The reinforcement offered by the glazing bars was eliminated, and so horns had to be added to strengthen the junction of the meeting rail with the frame. In more expensive work, the glazing bars were made of iron or brass and painted to appear like wood.

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To slide open a sash shutter by sliding up or down, its weight is balanced by counterweight concealed within the window frame. The counter weight bar of lead, wrought steel or cast iron is connected to the window by a sash cord or chain running over a pulley at the top of the frame. The wheels were of wood or brass. In later versions spring balances were used. In earlier versions the weight boxes, set flush with the outer wall, seemed very heavy, but in later versions due to fire laws the weight boxes were concealed in side masonry, making the sash windows look much lighter.

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The glass used in early sash windows was not very clear, so the view through was fuzzy. The divided pane divided and framed the view into smaller bearable units. The presence of glazing bars, was a ‘relief’. As glass technology developed larger panes, free of the blur and blemishes were available requiring thinner or no mid glazing bars.

2 Archiepiscopal_Palace_in_Salvador_Southwest_Elevation_Window_2018-0191

The earliest sash windows were of natural wood colour, with brass and cast steel hones, joggles, weight covering plates etc. Curved horns, multi-arched heads, intricate mouldings, leaded lights and latticework started to appear in the sashes, which were often grouped into impressive bays and offset with ornate stone reveals. The shutter and the side box were made from different quality of wood. The sash window was a strange mix of materials and finishes. White painted sash windows provided single finish effect, very well contrasted by the brick masonry. The white colour over glazing bars also reduced their presence against the glass, making the windows look more elegant. The preference for white colour sash windows has continued till today even though materials have changed from wood to plastics, steel and aluminium.

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Before 1887 buildings tended to be painted in one colour, usually white, beige or gray. But later people began to paint their houses in lighter and brighter colours. The vibrant colours became a key identifiable feature of Victorian architecture. The latter part of the 19th C brought a new attitude toward colour, but sash windows continued to be painted in the Queen Anne style of white.

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Sash windows originated as an opening system with two distinct sections: the top was of fixed glazing (divided into smaller lites) and the bottom section had a casement or sliding (vertical) sash. Some exceptional buildings had exterior-wall flushed windows with sash sliding horizontally and parking on the side wall.

Divisions in Sash

The bottom and top sashes (two are not necessarily of the same size) were divided into 3 x 2 =6, 3 x 3 =9 or 4 x 2 =8 glass panes. Each vertical rectangle reflected the proportion of the whole window. The 3 x 2 = 6 glass pane divisions have been accepted as the classical pattern for sash windows.

Boston USA Historic houses

Windows with one movable sash are called single-hung sash windows, to contrast from double-hung sash windows, where both sections open by sliding against one another. Alternatively, one shutter opens by sliding and the other opens out or inward with simplex hinges. Simplex hinges allow the shutter to get locked on one side while the other side is freed for opening for escape or easy cleaning of shutters from both sides. Typical double-hung windows of Georgian architecture feature the lower sash in front of the upper sash. The fixed sash at the top allowed it to match the curvilinear arched openings.

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Triple and quadruple hung windows are used for tall openings, common in New England churches. Among the numerous types of 18th C sash windows, the tripartite or Venetian consisted of a central sash with two side lights, one pane wide. The side lights were often fixed, with the sash cord running over their heads from the central sash into the weight boxes.

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In tropical climates, double-hung sash windows were covered from outside by fixed louvered shutters. Some double-hung windows have a full window screen that needs to be positioned suitably over the open section. Sash windows were also built to appear as casements in Gothic and Tudor Revivals. These often involved elaborate detailing with moulded mullions and even concealing the boxes for pulleys and weights.

White Sash Windows geograph-2696053-by-Stephen-Richards

The growth in use of the casement increased during the Edwardian period, and by 1910 many houses were built with timber casements, with sash windows relegated to less important elevation. By 1939, the use of sash windows was confined to neo-Georgian buildings, particularly post offices, banks, public houses and local housing estates.

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Georgian Windows are classical double-hung sash windows. Early in the 18th C, Georgian window of 3 x 2 =6 panels per sash matured. This basic configuration ofsix panes over six panes’, remained in use even after the advent of larger panes in the 19th C. Georgian sash wood windows remained widely used form till the use of steel casement windows, as a cheaper and functionally superior option.

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8 Horizontal Sliding windows geograph-1620701-by-Alan-Murray-Rust

Horizontal Sliding Sash Windows have two or more sashes that overlap slightly but slides horizontally within the frame. In UK, these are sometimes called Yorkshire sash windows, presumably because of their traditional use in that area.

Box-head Sash Windows have shutters sliding vertically into the wall space above the header. Guillotine Windows have only one of the two sashes, usually the top one dropping down. The early versions of windows were without the counterweights or balancing system, and so had a tendency to come slamming down. Hanging Sashes are hung on a cord connected to counterweights.

 

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DOOR PROPORTIONS

Post 690 –by Gautam Shah

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1 Geometrie Proportion Portal

2 Door Geometrical Divisions

A door has some fundamental significance, Proportion (of Width vs Height aspects), Size (anthropometrics) and Scale (relative size to things around it). And all these imply different meaning on the exterior and interior faces. The door size, proportion and scale, relate to the architectural schema, fore-space and contours, interior of room, and functional passage requirements.

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Doors have shutters, gates, frames, portals, surrounds, heads, thresholds, and other architectural adjuncts. These elements affect the form of the door. The doors could be really or perceptively narrow, wide, tall, short, small, large, thin or deep. But proportion is one character that remains consistent in all scales.

18 Chapel Door by Sigurd Lewerentz httpswww.flickr.comphotosseier2340686947

PROPORTIONS

Most common set of proportions (Width : Height) have been: Two squares 1: 2, and Golden proportion 1:1.61. Other shapes include Square (Le Corbusier’s Ronchamp Doors), Horizontal Rectangle (Air hanger’s shutters). Sliding doors have a horizontal rectangle form. For twin shutters, each is of square shape. Multi panelled shutters have to maintain the horizontal bias for ease of movement. The real proportion of a door is seen when the shutter is open. A mid-pivot shutter may divide the opening in equal or unequal gaps. A door opening is more prominent if it is deep-set in the portal, or has contrasting colour+texture from its surround structure.

5 Square Ronchamp door by Le Corbusier httpswww.flickr.comphotosyellowbookltd3648223450

4 Entry Gate to Assembly Building Capitol Complex Chandigarh India Wikipedia Image by Lillottama

The vertical rectangular form makes the opening taller then its width. Small-width doors are technologically more efficient to construct and operate it ergonomically. Such narrow widths reduce the load on the hanging devices such as hinges and so are easy to open. Horizontal sliding doors, for easier movement, need to be wider then their height. Square doors are favourite with designers, but cannot be hung on side-end hinges. A square gap mislays its form when opened on mid or offset pivots. Very wide doors use vertical or horizontal pivots (garage doors) or sliding mechanisms (Japanese doors, Shop Rolling shutters).

Lincon Main Entrance

Historically Door Goal Portal Input Gate

22 Notre Dame Paris Multiple entrances httpswww.flickr.comphotos27398485@N0825558255261

Instead of a wide door, multiple (ganged) doors used at railway station are multiple units in a row. Similar effect occurs for multiple folding or stacking shutters for verandahs. Multiple doors and shutters provide spaced control for simultaneity, location, orientation. Where multiple tracks are not, feasible, shutters are joined together like the bellows of an accordion to form a sliding and folding stack. Folding or collapsible doors were first used in cabinets and cupboards, and diffuse the exchange over a wider zone.

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SIZE

A door is primarily sized for passage of humans, but often designed for mix of purposes. Some doors are exclusively for passage of goods and animals (hoppers, trap or flap doors), and so may not have any size relevance for human passage. Doors are functional elements of optimal size yet economics and technology govern its size and details. The critical aspect of door design is its width aspect. An insufficient width retards the speed, or even makes it difficult or impossible to transit through. But small width enforces discipline on chaotic traffic of entrants. Narrow width openings increase the integrity of the load-bearing structure. A very generous width fails to. Such wide openings need extra dividing barricades to channelize the traffic, or multiple narrower sub-gate systems. Bunker doors must be carefully small sized for increasing resistance to blast pressures.

Médinet-Abou. Porte du Grand Temple (Égypte) _

Door portal size and the size of the shutter, are two different things. Doors of extra ordinarily large sizes or monumental proportions have been used through ages. A large door metaphorically denotes unrestricted transit, grand reception, fearlessness or power, affluence, and dominance. Technologically a door shutter cannot be very large, so doors placed in large portals and with adjunct structures.

18 False Door dawn of civilization Egypt and Chaldaea

As a social concern in modern times, it is essential to provide doors widths suitable for disabled persons, using walking stick, crutch walkers, a wheel chair, stretcher or assisted by others. Widths of doors for, toilet, elevators, closets, store rooms, change rooms, and such other lone user utilities are considered more critical for such users.

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Some famous doors > Treasury of Atreus, Mycenae 9′-0” x 18′-0″, Parthenon, Rome 0′-0″ x 24′-2″, Erechtheion, Athens 8′-0″ x 17′-2″, S. Martin, Worms 5′-8″ x 11′-3″, Palazzo Pietro Massimi, Rome, main entrance door 6′-10″ x 13′-8″, National Archives in Washington, DC, Constitution Avenue bronze doors 37′-7″ x 10′ (and 11″thick), Vehicle Assembly Building VAB of NASA door height 456′.

10 Vehicle Assembly Building VAB of NASA door height 456'

Simple sliding doors allow variable and exact control over the width of opening. Automatic sliding doors such as for elevators and for entrances of public buildings open to width governed by the density and frequency of traffic. Revolving doors have optimum opening size to maintain the air lock and prevent anyone forcing a reverse movement. Folding shutter doors allow incremental width of the opening. Garage doors sliding up were devised to get a maximum width of opening.

11 Shutting-Opening-Pushing a hinged, pivoted or sliding Door if large sized, can be a technological issue

Height of a door is checked for three parameters: the height available within the opening, the height of the door head, and the height of the threshold. The actual passage height of a door is affected by the level of terrain immediately inside and outside the door. Low level doors have been used to reduce the heat gain or loss (e.g. igloos), the storm water (e.g. sea front warehouses in America).

12 Multiple stacked doors for floors of West India Quay Canary Wharf Warehouse served by single pulley lift httpswww.flickr.comphotosell-r-brown6455291621

SCALE

The scale of a door is governed by the architectural scheme, impinging built mass and the surrounding terrain. The scale of a door is also referential. Proportionately a door or gate opening seems smaller, if the adjacent wall or barrier system is very evident. On the same scale a large or multiple openings make barriers less effective. The exchange occurring across a small opening is very intense, compared to a large gateway.

13 Door and Portal Buland Darwaza Fatehpur Sikri India Wikipedia Image by Diego Delso, delso.photo, License CC-BY-SA

14 Adjunct structures Gwalior Fort Entry Gate Wikipedia Image by Divyarthsuryavanshi httpscommons.wikimedia.orgwikiFileGwalior_Fort_Entry_Gate

Adjunct structures enhance the perceived scale and significance of the door. Fort gates and other gateways have not only very large doors but also have elaborate adjunct structures like portals, abutments, ramparts, bulwarks, bastions, Bastille, battlements, belvederes (Chhatri), buttress, campaniles (bell towers). Historically, very large (wide and tall) doors have been a necessity, for functional passage as well as for splendour. Doors are intentionally made smaller, if these are insignificant (backdoor, servant door, supply door), or need to be concealed, such as the secret or escape doors. Mid town gates are designed as multiple (three or five) openings to serve different levels of traffic. Doors are added with side and top lites, pediment, surrounds, free columns or half-pilasters to enhance the scale.

20 Hypostyle Hall of the Hathor Temple at Dendera (XI) httpswww.flickr.comphotosisawnyu8390823916

Egyptian temples had very tall openings, the lower section was shuttered and the upper section was a left over gap, which allowed entry of early morning Sun God Ra. Gothic churches had upper section of the door converted into a Rose window. Very tall doors, unless required for passage, are turned into transom lites. Very tall doors require a visual correction. Romans constructed tall doors with a wider base and narrower top. For very tall doors, the construction of strong shutter and relevant opening control mechanisms have been the greatest deterrent. Tall opening like effects are created with architectural door portals and alcoves where the functional door is very much smaller.

15 Pantheon Entrance Wikipedia Image by daryl_mitchell from Saskatoon, Saskatchewan, Canada

Low level doors have been used to reduce the heat gain or loss (e.g. igloos), the storm water seepage (e.g. sea front warehouses in America). Romans constructed tall doors that were wider at the base than at the top to correct the visual perspective.

16 Lateral stiffening of Dam Gates in Matsumoto city, Nagano prefecture, Japan. Wikipedia Image by Qurren

Large door shutters require lateral stiffening, as the usual thin shutter leaf construction is insufficient against buckling forces such as the wind, blasts, and often sonic boom pressures. Aircraft hangers’ and spaceships’ assembly workshops (Apollo, Columbia, USA) have very large doors with additional lateral framing. Hanger doors are designed to be sliding from top, bottom or both. Similarly dams and canal gates have to resist not only the pressure of retained water but dynamic pressures of waves and eddy currents. Such doors are designed as 3D entities. Stadia and such public spaces where people are likely to push against the gates, extra lateral stability is required.

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DISTANCE as an ELEMENT of DESIGN -Issues of Design 26

Post 689 –by Gautam Shah

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11 544px-An_artist_measures_a_model_of_the_human_body_from_a_distance_Wellcome_V0009476

There are several ways ‘distance’ impacts a design. The physical distance is essentially scaled to human body measures and work capacities. The sensorial measure of the space is the reach in space. All these, help us to equate the suitability and adequacy of spaces for different purposes.

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The distance, refers to a physical measure, a separation, and perception of proximity or remoteness from an extraneous location.

1 Measure Between

2 Separation

3 Perception

A physical space has filler elements like, people, objects and environmental affectations. These elements have their own sizes and also have medial spaces. The scale of the physical space, and the relationships between objects-objects, people-people and objects-people, are factored by the distance.

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ONE      We measure the space in terms of distances, at realistic level, between ‘us’ and things (A to B). Inversely, we also measure the space for the perceived (likely) distance (B to A) between things and ‘us’. The objective (A to B) and subjective (B to A) assessments, together, provide a comprehensive experience of the space. The spatial experience is a maze of relationships and directions. But a constant reference is provided by the Environmental affectations that mark the time and movement. The environmental affectations cause many aberrations of perception of spatial distances and relationships, due to the mix up of the actual and perceived distances. We can exploit such changes to project or contract our presence in a space.

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TWO    When the perceiver is a separator, if somewhere between the two ends, or objects. Distance comparisons ensue, to find out the disparities. The physical distance on either of the sides defines the nearness or remoteness of a thing in space. It helps to know which one is available, useful, required size, intensity, etc. Such distance assessment is often personal and comparative as it depends on reach capacity, need, experience and group behaviour dynamics.

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THREE    Observing anything in space from an external location, the distance is realized as the degree of clarity. The clarity is governed by physical distance from the location of observation. The same distance, however, gets occluded by the intervening activities (chaos, noise, echoes, bounce-back, reflections, disturbances and intermingling of effects) and the environment (fog, smoke, dust). But these also offer a referential spatial scale. The field of perception increases or decreases with the mediating distance.

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Temporal distance refers to distance in time. Something that is temporally close is something that is near in time, whereas something that is temporally distant is far in time. Temporal distance to imagined future events modulates our evaluative representation of them. The greater the distance, the more likely the event is to be conceptualized in terms of a few abstract features. This is relevant in case of potential dangers or risks because this mechanism cognitively separates us from the reality of likely undesirable eventualities.

Psychologists from Walter Mischel to Nira Liberman and Yaacov Trope have labelled the psychological distance: that is, gaps between you and other people social distance, the present and the future temporal distance, your physical location and faraway places –spatial distance, or imagining something and experiencing it -experiential distance.

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When psychological distance is large, we tend to think in more-abstract terms, focussing on the big picture, the desirability of certain options, and why we want them. In contrast, when psychological distance is small, our thinking is more concrete: We focus on the details, the feasibility of options, and how we will use them -Rebecca Hamilton https://hbr.org/2015/03/bridging-psychological-distance

12 TERMS for DISTANCES

Distancing is a prime mechanism of offense and defence when methods and means of survival are inadequate, or unavailable. The distance operates at real level, as realized by us, and also as we feel the opponent is perceiving it. Shortening the distance serves an offensive role and enhancing the reach, a defensive purpose. The spatial depth is affected by the separation through occlusion or camouflage. It helps in fuzzing the identity and recognition.

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Anything that lies in ‘front’ (of sensorial nodes -eyes, nose, ears) is always at a ‘shorter distance’, compared to askew encounters, which have ‘greater distance’ (straight, up or down level exchanges). Short distance leads to possible physical contact with intimacy and often breach of privacy. Long distanced contact offers wider space for other actions including time for escape.

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The distance, direction and angle of eye contact affect the intimacy and so privacy. Executives want broad and deep tables to ‘keep the distance’ with the visitors. At a meeting or on a dining table, the chief occupies end-position, and with that no one can take frontal confronting stand.

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Any position against a static and closer backdrop is more assuring, then a backdrop whose depth cannot be fathomed. And for the same reason activities on the backside (stage, podium, office table, information kiosk, reception tables) are not desirable. In a space, one looks for anchorage in the presence of people (even, if unknown), architectonic elements, objects and opaque surfaces. Fixed and familiar things in space, even if physically distanced are better as support. Similarly the location and direction of an exit (door or any other egress point), or a path to it, at whatever the distance, are preferred.

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For an individual, a space segment that allows one to control the distance from others is a safe, predictable and reassuring territory. Here the occupants and objects have intense relevance to each other. In interpersonal relationships the distance delineates isolation, accessibility, domination, submission, agreement, dissension, insulation, engagement, etc.

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The distance and space, both form the notions of Intimacy and Privacy. One physically manipulates, or sensorially perceives the distance from other beings and objects. The sense of vision, hearing, smelling are dependent on the distance. but touch and taste.

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Intimacy is also a biological need, as it relies on compatibility, sexual needs, glandular secretions, social acceptability, etc. It is an attitude, mental conditioning or mental posture. Intimacy could be one-way feeling that is without reciprocal response. Intimacy is not always a function of physical proximity. One can feel close to a person who is long dead -an illusory presence or through notional links (clothes, odours, recorded sounds, etc.).

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Distance Etymology > Distaunce (13-14 C) =a dispute, controversy, civil strife, rebellion, disagreement, discord, strife. Destance (Old French) =discord, quarrel. Distantia (Latin) =a standing apart. Distantem (nominative distans) = standing apart, separate, distant. Distare =stand apart, from the root ‘sta’ =to stand, make or be firm. Modern Distance =remoteness of space, extent of space between two objects or places, an interval of time (originally distaunce of times).=remote part of a field of vision.

This is the 26th article (in continuation of old series -new beginning) on ISSUES of DESIGN

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CASEMENT WINDOWS

Post 688 –by Gautam Shah

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Bay Casement Boothbay Maine Ocean Harbor Window

Casement windows were the most common house-windows, before the sash windows were devised. The shutters of casement windows are hinged on the side, and open either inward and outward. Casement windows provide a full open aperture compared to double hung or sliding windows. The casement shutters could be solid, opaque panelled or glaze panelled. Glazing panes are fixed to the shutter by beading or putty compounds.

Window Wood Rustic

Casement shutters opening inward cause obstruction if there is insufficient parking space for the opened shutter. Inward opening shutters also interfere with window treatments such as curtains, blinds, etc.

The shutters, if of small width open with a handle cum locking device, and if of large width require a crank or lever to open. A wind stay, or a friction hinge is necessary to keep the shutter open in windy conditions, and an espagnolette is used for locking. A casement window is easy to operate with its long armed handle mechanism and so ideal for difficult to reach situations, such as places above cabinets or counter tops. Casement windows open out on nominal hinges or offset hinges that open the shutter little away from the side to allow cleaning, glazing fixing and painting of the exterior face. These are critical issues for casement windows that have protection bars, or are located on upper floors.

Curtain Mountains Window Architecture Outlook

Single casement windows are used on side lites as besides a door or fixed window. Average width of wooden casement windows is 400 to 500. Larger widths up to 600 are possible with friction hinges. Very tall casement windows require patent bolts at both the top and bottom ends to shut a window or keep it open in heavy winds.

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Double casement windows are of two types: one where two shutters meet over a mid member, and the other, where the two shutters meet over each other. The later is called a French window, it opens unobstructed in the centre.

6 Lustron_Three section Window

The casement shutter could be single, opening on left or right side. Casement windows with double shutters, open on left and right sides, or in the middle like the pages of a book. Multiple casement windows have even numbers of shutters divided into sets of two each, all shutters open on one side, or symmetry is created by opening half numbers of shutters on either side.

7 Casements

Casement windows typically are hinged at the sides, but if top hinged are called awning windows, and if bottom hinged are called hopper windows.

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Hopper Windows: A hopper window is a bottom hung a casement window that opens similarly to a draw bridge or a coal-pit receptor or hopper, typically opening to the outside. Hopper windows are used as cellar or subterranean opening.

Hopper Light: Hopper Ventilator: These have inward-opening shutter hinged at the bottom, usually forming the upper section of a door or window.

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Awning Window: An awning window is a casement window that is hung horizontally, hinged on top, so that it swings outward like an awning or a weather shed. Awnings are transom lites, used in upper sections of doors and windows as a ventilator.

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French Window: A French window is really a type of door with a small threshold. It is also called a French door. Two casement sashes hinged on the sides to open in the middle. The shutters nearly extend to the floor and also serve as a door to a porch, garden, verandah, gallery or terrace. It is double shuttered, and both of which for the full height of the shutters, have single or multiple panes of glass. It may have a secondary set of solid or louvered shutters opening to the interior or exterior side.

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Folding Casement: Casement windows hinged together so they may fold into a confined space, such as within the wall thickness. Small width shutters also makes it easier to close without stretching out too much. Folding casements are often auxiliary shutters, such as storm shutters or Venetian shutters on the outer face or fly-mesh shutters on the inner face.

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All types of eaves and window casement shutters, projecting out, were banned to prevent spread of fire along the wall, after the great fire in London in 1707. And these forced adoption of Sash windows (opening upward or downward).

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STONES -viability now -1

Post 687by Gautam Shah

. Part 1 of Two articles

quarrying_granite_for_the_mormon_temple

We today have greater capacity to search over wider terrains and also reach at sub surface locations. Exploitation of stones as collection from the surface or extraction from various depths is not a major technological problem. There are other issues that are forcing reappraisal of Stone as the viable material of construction. The issues are > economics of transportation, wastage in production, and reuse of the material as debris and production residues.

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Stones, like the clays-soils are universal materials of construction and require very simple technology. There are Three essential sources of stone: 1 Surface collected stones, 2 Extracted stones, 3 Wastes and debris stones. Use of the surface collected stones in original size-form is easiest. Such stones, however, require down sizing and form dressing, before carriage to a place of use. Extracted stones are surface protruding and subterranean mass. These are often stratified or layered. Stone extraction causes ecological devastation due to removal of the top burden, large volume of reject-mass, and wastage of local cleaning, cutting and size dressing. Wastes and debris stones are man-made endeavours. Wastes occur at points of extraction and location of constructions, whereas debris occurs due to the demolition of structures. These need sorting, cleaning and transportation.

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To make Stones viable now, Technological Developments and Materials Management are required. Stones are used for their mass, surface and structural strength. These can be exploited further by new design, joint technology, assembly methods, formation of composites, improved structural geometry and conversion to different materials (chemicals).

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1 Extend the Surface Area: Stones are valued for their surface qualities and the prime need is to increase the surface area. The extended surface reduces the mass / weight of the stones. The surface area of the stones can be enlarged by two basic methods: by Thin Sectioning and by Amalgamation of bits and pieces, which otherwise end up as a collection and production wastes. Other methods of optimizing the surfaces are to endow new sensory qualities and surface properties. Many exciting technologies are now available.

parthenon, athens greece

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2 Exploring structural properties: Stones have certain directional structural properties which can be exploited and reinforced. The efforts start with new ways of excavation, extraction and conversion of the material. Other common processes are selection, orientation, rational sectioning and controlled aeration-seasoning. Structural potential of stones can also be exploited by developing new areas of usage and new techniques of construction.

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3 Stone’s Combinative formations: Traditionally stone composites have had lime and cement as the matrix component. The explorations now relate to composites with new forms of filler arrangements and new types of a matrix.

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4 Designing geometrical or spatial compositions: Stones shows great promise in offering radically different materials’ combinative formations. The formations include various ways of combining or ‘synthesizing’ materials of diverse nature, such as, with metals, polymers, ceramics etc.

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Stones have naturally variegated constitution and surfaces. These, provide with inexhaustible opportunities to work to many different forms, sizes, and finishes. Though, qualitative consistency of man-made materials poses a great challenge to multifarious nature of stone materials. Stones have structural attributes, often called Engineering characteristics, which regulate their usefulness for conversion to: Building or Dimension stones, Veneered or thin slabs and for crushing. Similarly stones also exhibit very distinctive sensory properties that govern their use as a facing material in the form of building blocks, cladding and flooring slabs.

The opportunities of intervention operate on two fronts: Improvisations over existing methods and Adoption of radically different technologies.

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Part 1 of 2 articles

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DESIGN, MOTIF, PATTERN -Part 1 -Issues of Design 25

Post 686 –by Gautam Shah

.motifs are strokes

Motifs are self-sustaining elements. Motifs can be linear outlines, solid filled-in planes, solid objects, or fractals. A motif may look like a familiar object, but need not be a representation or symbol. In other words, a motif may not have any abstract conveyance, yet may carry an associated or interpretive meaning. Motifs may have similarities, which are ‘here’ or in some remembrances. Motif recognition is a matter of perception, and so a personal affair. But there usually are many concurrences, and so some commonality is perceived.

2 motifs

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A Motif, as a self sustaining element, is nominally oblivious of the happenings in the surroundings. But motifs have the potential to be part of a pattern, a larger whole. Such a fate is evident, because a motif while retaining its ‘fundamental trope’ subsists through several of the avatars. The changes occur through scaling, orientation, colours, or even some degree of form distortions.

3 motif may seem familiar without being a symbolicimage or a representation

Metal Iron Railings Wrought Iron Ornament

Motifs are impressionistic configurations, captured from the surroundings. The impression is expressed for posterity or communication by in-forming it over a medium or moulding it with materials. In both the cases, the form-shaping motif is affected by the formative materials, specific tools, techniques and the body posture. The motif as the ‘stroke’ matures through several conversions. The process of maturation endows new meanings to the motif. The ‘stroking’ can become extraordinarily florid to turn into a style.

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Stylized Motifs have their own vocabulary of placement, associated linkages, scaling and permissible reformations. Such governance remains tied to the materials, craft-processes, associated persons (extended family, cast, creed, locality), and the period. The motifs begin to govern the pattern. The stylized motifs and patterns thereof, have a deep lineage. The stylized motifs, however, change when new materials and tools arrive to reform the techniques. New ‘strokes’ of motif creation offer different set of patterns. The changes first occur in the scale, line formation (thickness and consistency), the fill-in colours and textures, and shape twisting. The original and the differentiated motifs, both form a distinguished motif culture.

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green man images

The motif culture can be so overwhelming that other crafts begin to accommodate it. An evolved motif in Embroidery or fabric weaving, may enter diverse fields of jewellery, metal crafts, painting, pottery, interior decoration, architectonic elements etc. A motif in new environment (society, materials, crafts or tools) develops with new forms of ‘strokes’ of motif creation. These occur on sheer strength of the Graphical value. New patterns generated for the graphical value can reflect some links with the original civilization. The trace of the original flavour remains, where the motifs are adopted as a replacement of products, sensorial variation and for political, cultural or social incentive. But where the motif is accepted purely as technological input, a brutal severance from the original connection occurs.

complex pattern out of several motifs chikkamagalur amruthapura kirthimukha india wikipedia image by

Primary motif is a stroke of straight or single curvature. The stroke has two ends, and are the potential connections of first order. Other likely nodes are the tangential or the crossings. Multi-stroke motifs have closed ended or open-ended shapes. Motifs have potential nodes of connections and togetherness. Motifs with geometric strokes such as lines (vertical, horizontal, inclined) or curvilinear seem familiar. In comparison Stylized motifs are re-engineered forms of real objects. A motif cannot be abstracted unless it carries a meaning, as a symbolic representation. The symbolic representation is about ‘abstract or non-tangible concepts’ such as movement, vibrant, static, serenity etc. There is a tendency to find meaningful object in seemingly chaotic situation. In case of motif, the recognition of geometry (form), proximity (relationships), style or an abstract objective, all help in finding motive for it.

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The phenomenon of finding meaningful patterns in meaningless noise is called patternicity , and conversely, not perceiving patterns that are present in the visual stimulus is called apatternicity.

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A motif coexists with other motifs, and is perceived if within a field of perception. Basic togetherness is of proximity. Other coexistence occur through the incidences of similarity, scaled identity, mirroring images, reverse positioning (upside down), direction, hierarchical order and density of placement define the nearness. Motifs overlap, partially converge, or merely touch at the edge. Such connections ensues pattern making relationships.

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A motif establishes several sets of relationships to form a pattern: mutual distancing (density), position from the field edges, and confirmation of the operative environmental forces (gravity, magnetic field, air, temperature stresses). The density is defined by size, scale and form of the motifs. A pattern is recognized through following characteristics: Congruity (rotations, translations, reflections), Similarity (scale, orientation), and Isotonicity (similar interpretive or metaphoric meaning). A motif need not be central to a pattern, but rather recurrent element.

11 complex image goya painting the third of may

A motif, its pattern, whatever we visually perceive, is subjective, situational and circumstantial experience. The visual perception is formed by degree of familiarity, need, environmental conditions, foreground-background contrast, the visual frame, context, etc.

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In literary narrative, a word or an expression, when used frequently and in synonymical manner, creates a pattern. But since such choices are of the author, it becomes a personal statement, a pattern. An author habitually uses these as an allusion. The motif or pattern, both allegorically indicate a thought, idea or concept. The symbolism behind the motif persists in the cultural setting but for a time. Beyond this the motif however remains simply a crafted stroke.

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In oral expressions, speech or music, the Vowels, Consonants, Octave or Sur (Indian) etc. as motif are placed together form a unique note or pattern. And the same conducted with different time interludes, become varied set of speech or music pattern. To this set of variations, the speaker adds phonetic variations, whereas the musician adds own mannerism of playing or singing. The music instrument and the space add peculiar reverberations. The motif and pattern of the sounds change with the ‘playing’ and broadcasting tools, both favouring certain frequency range and tonal (bass-treble) quality.

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‘A form constant is one of several geometric patterns which are recurrently observed during hallucinations and altered states of consciousness Klüver noticed that mescaline produced recurring geometric patterns in different users. He called these patterns ‘form constants’ and categorized four types: lattices (including honeycombs, checkerboards, and triangles), cobwebs, tunnels, and spirals’. (-Wikipedia).

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Motifs have a form, often with intelligible process of creation. But we try to interpret and reformat it through logic of mathematics. Man made motifs as repeatable strokes are simple but the ones ‘experienced’ in nature are often inexplicable. Natural motif forms do not exactly replicate. Some believe these can be ‘learnt’ through fractals (fractals are mathematical patterns that are scale invariant). The motif-forms at simple level are like spirals, circles, waves, meanders, crystals, snowflakes, bubbles etc. But complexity arises with sequenced repetition, axial rotation, mirroring or reflection. The motif, as single element may not offer much but as placed in various patterns it gains meaning.

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This is the 25th article (in continuation of old series -new beginning) on ISSUES of DESIGN

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EXTERNAL or INTERNAL ‘REVEALS’ of OPENINGS

Post 685 –by Gautam Shah

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6 French door in thin wall httpspixnio.como

Walls are chiefly load bearing entities. The thickness is the third dimension to the nominal planner structure. The third dimension has a functional depth, and architectural character. The Architectural expression of the wall-depth modulates the facade and gives a massing flavour. The functional depth frames the view, and regulates the illumination in the interior space.

2 Squared edge openings in Thick walls 32723717541_b24cbfb0ca_z

Openings in thicker walls have external or internal ‘reveals’ surrounding the frame. The bottom section forms the ledge of the sill. Openings placed on the outer face create deep an inner side or intrados (originally intrados meant, the inner curve of an arch or vault). Similarly openings placed on the inner edge form exterior side or extrados (originally extrados meant, the outer curve of an arch or vault).

15 Siuntio._In_the_halls_of_the_manor._-_panoramio_(1)

The deep interior sides, ifsquare-edged (at a right angle to plane of the window), made the perceived size of the opening smaller, then it actually is. This type of setting on interior sides, was not a major issue, where the room spaces were comparatively narrow, and so reflection from opposite walls was available. The narrow spaces were due to the technological restrictions and for functional requirements, such as in long halls and church buildings. In squared buildings the illumination was balanced from windows in the drum perimeter of the dome.

3 Abbaye_de_Silvacane_-_galerie_nord_06

The deep exterior sides, if square-edged (at a right angle to plane of the window), made the perceived size of the opening smaller, a desired arrangement to enhance the wall area and de-emphasize the presence of gaps of openings. It reduced the ingress of winds and snow-rainwater. To emphasize the presence of gaps, portals were added as the opening’s treatments.

9 Squared edge window_shadow_open_window_window_sill_wood-89674.jpg!d

The square’ edged openings have high contrasting brightness. Such windows require counter illumination to reduce the glare. To distribute the light better in the interior space, inner sides (-intrados with the window fixed on the outer edge) and an outer side (-extrados with the window fixed on the inner edge) were splayed by chamferring. The angled side surface was further carved, fluted with ornate borders or architraves.

1 3 M thick walls and chamferred internal edges of Guard room at Burg Meersburg on Lake Constance in southern Germany Wikipedia Image by Tobyc75

4 Canterbury_Cathedral_11

5 Norwich Cathedral 5987419099_94fe78d27d_z

Inner vertical sides, window heads and the sill, all were sloped to enlarge the reflective surface area. The chamferred sides on the outer face allowed more light by increasing the sky component, and allowed wider view of the outside.

20 Murals need evenly distributed illuminated wall Basilica di Sant Apollinare in Classe Wikipedia Image by Flying Russian

The effects of square and the chamferred sides of openings were well known to the mural artists (working with different mediums such as tempera, mosaic and frescoes painting), who accordingly composed the stories, shading in the scene, perspective angle, colour’s  hue and tone of artwork.

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14 Romanesque_church. panoramio Wikipedia Image by More pics than views…

In Romanesque and early Gothic architecture the windows were fixed on inner face, creating a plain and undisturbed interior surface. But by the time this was perfected, the Gothic walls were completely diminished, and windows were as wide as the gap between two columns.

Stained Glass in Windows

19 Basilica_di_aquileia,_interno,_navata_centrale_02_controfacciata

13 Exterior flush windows deep set on interior side Santa_Maria_in_Cosmedin-templom_belso

Side walls of Gothic buildings became thinner due to the arrangement of flying buttresses and use of load-bearing columns. But the same advantage was not available in case of un-buttressed Front wall. The entrance doors of Gothic churches were flush-set on the inner face, and that allowed better view across and fuller distribution of light. But the doors set deep in the thick walls, needed chamferring with serrated sides.

21 Chartres Cathedral serrated door portal .flickr.comphotos69184488 N061189397807

In Baroque architecture the depth of opening was concealed with the projected facade elements like columns, pilasters, cornices, or pediments. In Italian Renaissance the facade had an applique lattice like a pattern that united several openings. In post medieval period, windows began to protrude out of the buildings, over into the narrow street. Bay and oriel windows, Mashrabiya openings in the middle East, and Zarokhas in India transgressed out, mainly to gain sideways view and air. The multi sided mass of the projection became a personal statement.

8 Deep set openings Hindola_Mahal,_Mandu,_India

In post medieval period, window projections created serious fire hazards and issues of encroachment of public lands. Both of these were corrected through improved fire laws and defined easement rights. Fire laws required windows to be within the wall (without any projections like ledges or hanging shutters). Later the Window tax curtailed the number of openings in a building.

22 Openings

Gothic architecture had already shown how to divide large openings with traceries of mullions and muntins. Large windows in thin walls require framing and masking, but small depth did not allow formation of integrated architectonic elements, or scooping out for niche creation. Architectural add-on elements such as half columns, extrados, porticoes, etc. were additives placed to frame and highlight the opening.

24 Gothic window surfave articulated by Mullions, muntins in tracery 5987964570_01c2171afd_z

The surface of the window was strongly stated by articulated divisions, contrasts between glazed and other surfaces like rusticated masonry. Windows were also placed in inward or sunken bays. The mid-wall between the windows was treated as very shallow niche or bordered frame for murals, paintings or placing a fireplace or library cabinet. Building’s facades of thin walls were also undulated by outward bay windows, ledges and other projections.

10 Protected Opening Tim 1965 1601_I_Street_NW_-_Washington_DC_-_window_detail

Thick walls accommodate the shutters of doors and windows within the gap. But shallow window gaps offer no shading. Some form of external shading system is required. Such shading systems have been used for creating architectural facade system, as in Chandigarh Secretariat building.

16 Chandigarh_Secretariat

Glass curtain walls are thin body construction, often without any projections for solar protection. This now sought through the glass technology, and the ventilation through separate HVAC system. Thin walls save floor space, and so are economic in spite of the compulsory recourse to other compensatory facilities. The nominal architectural play of depth and shadows for 3rd dimensional visual depth is not available with openings in very thin walls. This is now recreated by volumetric play of the building mass, or by variegated surface finishes. For such surface modulation, other means include visual reflectance and glows (illumination from within).

Modern Windows Exterior Building Architecture

23 Industrial Age Window 6064685431_fd7d7b189c_z

The vividness of stained glass windows or the colourful lanterns of Gothic eras are now recreated through see through LED glass. At another level the touch screen provides the same fare. The mix of the two will become part of architectural and interior face of buildings.

26 Virtual Window 15370207660_617f953a34_z

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