ILLUMINATION and COLOURS in SHADOWS -Issues of Design 38

Post 737 -Gautam Shah


This is the FOURTH article on series Illumination and Shadows

1 Claude Monet Garden at Sainte-Adresse 1866-1867

Monet said: ‘A Colour owes its brightness to the force of contrast, rather than to its inherent qualities’. He also said that primary colours look brightest, when they are brought into contrast with their complementaries’.

2 Alexander mosaic Absence of shadows (except at the bottom) by Magrippa at English Wikipedia

Colour contrast has drawn attention in drawn art forms as well as architecture, sculptures, ceramics, textiles and craft items. Colour contrasts emerge, when a different and lighter or darker colour is placed next to the other one. But colour contrasts also emerge, when a colour comes under differing levels of illumination or shadows. This realization was conspicuous in 3D forms. Such colour contrasts perceptions under natural or other illuminations and related shadows are affected by the ‘local’ reflections. The subtle grades of contrasts emerge due to varied brightness, from objects in different directions and in intensities due to many colours of the reflecting surfaces.

Colour Tones

8 Lion hunt. Mosaic from Pella ancient Macedonia) late 4th C BC, depicting Alexander the Great and Craterus. Housed in the Pella Museum

3 Fresco from the villa of P. Fannio Sinistore in Boscoreale, currently located in the Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York.

Colour contrasts were realized, first in mosaic arts as a form of ‘highlighting marks’. To make a mosaic figure or image to stand out from other similar entitles that needed emphasis (wider and darker-lighter edges). But mosaics had limited size and colour range, and this was not easy. Early drawn arts like Mosaics were equally ‘flat’. This was perhaps, as the medium of art Fresco, was a method of pigment impregnation onto wet plasters. The colours were zoned with scratched outlines and had little scope (time) for colour mixing or edge diffusion. Details were added in Tempera, for which one had to wait for the surface to thoroughly dry out. As a result fresco artist, used intense contrasting colours in demarcated zones of the fresco.

4 Terracotta funerary plaque 520–510 B.C.

7 Frescos in Cubiculum -Bedroom from the Villa of P Fannius Synistor at Boscoreale No shadows or Perspective

As the interiors became brighter with larger clerestory windows, there was a clear need to ‘add drama and mystery to the paintings’ through high contrast of colours. Painting themes were now not just depictive but narrative, and in the background included architecture, landscapes and non religious figures (political sponsors and donors). Holy figures were distinguished by bright ‘halo’. These halos and backgrounds, in brighter colours or gold gilding, made everything else seem darker, often gloomy. To lighten the perceived dark effect, many levels of sobered contrasts were added, and the result was a ‘flat’ composition. For the contrasts, the body contours, folds of fabrics, highlighting marks, differences between near-by and far-off objects, were formed of black or darker shades. The use of darker shades, for edge making, however, taught the value of shadowing with illumination.

9 Ajanta Cave 1 Ceremonial bath of Mahajanaka frasco India

10 Little or no use of body contour shadows Scene from Mahajataka King denounces worldly life at Ajanta Cave frescos India AD 475-500 Flickr Image 16580719987 f515f2b6fe_c

The shadows formed better depth contrasts. The shadows (related to illumination) were first placed with respect to the local needs. These ‘local needs’ in theme, created many shadows and sources of illumination, and also had as many directions. But soon shadows were modified as related to single the source of illumination. Such ‘related shadows’ made paintings lively and realistic.

12 ART by Fra Carnevale 1467 Light without source , but the shadows on the right side wall defy the logic.

5-1 Duccio di Buoninsegna Jesus opens the Eyes of a Man born Blind

Single source shadowing was very difficult in mosaic and very large mural paintings. There were few issues here. FIRST, Shadows were predominantly cast with a source of illumination from the left-top corner. This made objects towards the right-bottom corner suffused with long shadows. SECOND, The shadowing style adopted in artworks, did not match the actual illumination from the openings of the architectural space. THIRD, There was the belief that holy figures do not cast a shadow. These factors required a lot of experimentation. First, the problem required a painting to be narrow or the source of illumination shifted away from the extreme top-left corner. Second required a composition in consideration of the existing conditions of the architecture and the viewers’ position. Third issue was solved by forming graduated dark-light areas for body or dress contours and ignoring the shadows falling on the ground.

13 Jacopo Tintoretto's Wedding Feast at Cana at church of Santa Maria della Salute in Venice. The window sides remain dark but the illumination on the table is brilliant

From the days Painted Roman interior Murals, the Perspective was used to arrange ‘built or spatial’ elements in compositions. These were scaled for depth, but not specifically illuminated. Objects with visible sides were made darker towards the receding edge for greater effects of the depth. For greater perspective effect some of the parts of buildings or the spaces between the buildings were back lit, but shadows followed the front-based illumination. Illumination and shadows, did not come together in any purposive manner.

11 Feast in the House of Levi Paolo Veronese 1573 Use of Shadows for depth and contrast

21 Canaletto Venice Capriccio of the Courtyard of the Doges' Palace with the Scala dei Giganti AND 21 Viviano Codazzi and Domenico Gariguolo

It was from 1700s that Capriccio style of art for drawing fantastical architectural buildings and ruins, with inclusion of occasional staffage (figures), truly began to exploit the perspective. Areas of painting were illuminated through a direct single source of illumination or atmospheric distributed light. Areas that did not get illumination were treated to be mildly darker, thus creating a sense of contrast for depth. The illumination and shadows depended on tonal gradation, and this can be recognised and executed, if the areas are fairly large. Tonal gradation cannot be included in micro architectonic elements.


In Asia, perspective did not occur, though some inclined planes indicated the depth. Scaling of elements and figures was extremely illogical. The depth was through spatial zoning, like, frontal areas filled in with elements, dominantly involved in the narrative. The next mid-zone was for supportive elements like architectural and landscape features. The background, was used as a contrasting plane of lighter tones. The ethereal elements included here, served to balance the composition, by their ‘white space’ presence. There was complete absence of graded or directional illumination, and colour shades for shadowing.

16 Multiple sources of Illumination resulting in utter chaos Jacopo Tintoretto Last Supper 1592 1594

16-1 Joseph Wright of Derby 1768 An Experiment on a Bird in an Air Pump

28 Dramatic Colour Contrast

Illuminated and shaded areas are nominally differentiated with the tonal variations of the same colour (monochrome) or with different hues. But this effect was enhanced by texture contrast of physical roughening of the surface, like the gesso and impasto in art. Gesso is the base or foundation treatment, which imprints a texture on the art surface. Impasto effect is created by laying the paint in very thick layers, so that it can allow brush or painting-knife strokes to be visible.


It was in 1600s that artists were able to create textures, not just by scrapping the surface, but through directional or random texturing, as a simulated visual effect. The directional texturing became art of intaglio or gravure, and became style of impressionist art. The art of texturing a surface, also became Sfumato style of art, as forming a soft transition between colours and tones to achieve distinct realism.

17 Georgio de Chirico Shadows (without tonal variations) and Colour Contrasts 1913-1917

Shadows depend on the strength and distance of the source of illumination. Candle, Lamp, electric or fire illuminations, unlike the Solar light, are at finite distances and of limited intensity. Both, however, form shadows with respect to the elevation of the objects. Solar light offers vast grades of reflections from nearby surfaces, but, other illuminations can provide small cone of receding strength. The skill to represent the colour tonal variations in shadows from the reflected light was grasped post Renaissance period. The nature of the colour within a shadow is mainly due to the intensity of reflected light and the colour (from the reflective surface).

18 Andrea Pozzo Plafond Ceiling Art The Apotheosis of Saint Ignatius

The ceilings (flat, dome, vault or other configurations) get illumination from windows and clerestory openings, in many directions. The ceilings and upper sections of tall walls were used for illusionistic paintings, with features like floating angels and clouds, foreshortened figures and pseudo architectural elements. The details were seen from distance, so drawn in an impressionistic manner with wild brush strokes. Such ceilings, known as Plafond art, had the lower edge, drawn in dark and contrasting colours and shadows, but the top central portion forming the upper limit of the room, were made with blue of the skies to look ethereal. Plafonds (17th to early 19 C) offered great lessons for treating architectural spaces with illumination and shadows.

24 Variations in Illumination through day-night

23 Single souce harsh Illumination George C Ault and Hopper

Mannerist painters and later Baroque artists used extreme intense contrasts between light and dark, almost obscuring their subjects to lend drama and mystery to the paintings’.

19 Monet art Without Shadows but colour differentiation between main and side faces

When Monet painted his series of haystacks, his main concern was to show that in reality, the colour of light and the colour of shadow, depending of the time of day, both, change simultaneously and dramatically. Artists of 19th C used comparatively, stronger dark shades for heightened impressionistic realism. This began to change with the onset of next century, when lighter colour shades (perhaps due to the Titanium Dioxide) were available. The subject matter changed from realistic to ‘objective’ abstraction. Here the source of illumination was unrecognizable, and so the shadows were nonexistent.

20 Edouard Leon Cortes Twilight hours illumination



Post 736 -Gautam Shah


7 Anglo-Saxon openwork silver disk brooch Wikipedia Image by Johnbod

6 Slightly convex bossed disc brooch of sheet silver with inlaid gold and niello ornament Mid 9th C

Niello is a metal embellishment craft. It is an inlay material, as well a surface treatment (as commonly called ‘oxidized’ silver). For both, silver is the preferred base-metal, and involves use of some form of sulphide. The Niello, is just deposition that affects the top layer of metal.

8 Oxidized silver not Niello 34195226975_66cee0f4bf_e

The infused colours for both techniques are various shades of Black. Objects treated with Niello, are also called nielli, and silver objects treated with Sulfides are called ‘oxidized’ or ‘blackened silver’ (though the word ‘oxidized’ is a misnomer). Niello (Italian), derives from, nigellum, nigellus neuter, niger, which all relate to the Black.

9 Egypt Box with cover

Niello is a black mixture of sulphur, copper, silver and lead, used as an inlay or filler material over engraved, chased or etched silver metal. It is added in powder or paste form and fired until it melts or at least softens. As it flows, is pushed back in the engraved pits. It cools, hardens and turns black, which with controlled application, provides colours like blues, purples, yellows, brown reds. The surface of silver is polished bright, leaving the Niello colour in the pits intact. The black colour of Niello is metal surface tarnishing but a hastened process, which left to nature would take years. Jewellers use a chemical called liver of sulphur’ (potassium sulfide).

11 Bassin Syrie

There are also several mixed-media techniques, often called metal-malerei (German =painting in metal), which involve applying gold and silver inlays or foils, over the Niello covered bronze. Niello was used as the adhesive base to apply thin gold and silver foils in place.

13 Hunting_Mycenaean_Dagger

1 Flickr 34082554962_d0a50261fb_c

The earliest use of Niello was in late Bronze Age, around 1800 BC. in Syria. Niello has been used in many parts of the world, including Russia, India, and Islamic countries. In Russia Niello is called Tula work.

4 Reliquary Casket with Scenes from the Martyrdom of Saint Thomas Becket

Gothic art from the 13th C saw Niello as a pictorial art. Use of Niello, which reached its high point in the Renaissance. Niello was popular because small goldsmiths used it for decorating simple ornaments. The art of Niello reached its peak in 15th C Italy.

5 Maso finiguerra 1452_(bargello)

During the Renaissance, at the height of its popularity, the technique was widely used for the embellishment of liturgical objects, cups, boxes, knife handles, sword hilts, bracelets, rings, pendants, and belt buckles. Later in Romanesque period Niello was used in densely engraved pieces.

2 Roman Silver 22534270923_f73016a24d_c

Renaissance goldsmiths in Florence in Europe, decorated their works in silver, by engraving the metal with a burin, and filled up the hollows with Niello, to achieve much higher visible contrast. Some pieces such as paxes (liturgical objects) were effectively pictures in niello.

10 Pax Niello style Print making

Niello was hardy and cheaper, and for that reason, in competition with costlier and superior painted enamel work. Painted Enamel, though offered wider colour range and very delicate details.

14 Snuffbox

Niello crafts-persons exploited their talent to make flatter objects like engraved plates, which before the filling in with Niello were used for print making on paper. These were known as ‘Niello prints’. Originally such paper prints were made by engravers to record their work. By the late 16th C soft mastic compounds were devised for engraving.

3 Niello print Italian 18th or 19th Horatius Cocles httpspicryl.commediahoratius-cocles-ac61fc Horatius Cocles


MOTIF PATTERN and DESIGN -Part 2 -Issues of Design 37

Post 735 -by Gautam Shah


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A Design comes into being with the realization of the order that forms the composition. Architectural drawings are not designs, but media for representation. A design is the comprehensive experience of sensorial, emotional or functional nature that one derives from an object. Some designs are simplistic that their experience is holistic.

6 Orchidiarium_-_Medellin_Botanical_Gardens

A Holistic composition itself, may present as a single entity. Such exploits are not common. Holistic compositions are ‘superfluous’ with extraneous body and no dissect-able content. Holistic compositions are too personal. It is not easy to convey to others, except as the sensorial experience (visual, aural, tactile, olfactory or taste). A Holistic feel does not convey or have any utilitarian purpose. The creator of the holistic entity may experience the design-order conceptually (mentally or schematically), but for others, to perceive that feel, it must wait for the actualization. Private creations tend to have holistic ideation, like an abstract thing or a sculpture without any capacity to convey a meaning.

10 Deconstructivist Gymnázium v Orlové

11 Vitra Fire Station Deconstructivist Architecture 5402353925_29ec3f4cc4_c

Formal Designs are very large and complex organizations, serving many functions. A formal design serves functional, technological and, stylish relevance, besides being sited to a place. The conception of a comprehensive structure serving all these is not possible within a practicable period. The exigency of solution achievement does not allow it. The urgency derives from the fact that some other slightly superior solution can outpace it. In the circumstances, a design remains a workable entity, an assembly, where at any given moment ‘some sections may work well, and others remain time-space compromises’.

5 Fale_-_Spain_-_Cordoba_-_51

Actualized designs have size, shape and other sensorial attributes. The composition in an actualized design emerges through these basic characteristics. But most importantly actualized designs need to confirm to some compulsions. Without this, a design remains a defunct sculpted form, or an assembly of materials.

4 ceiling_glass_roof_structures_patterns_modern_interior_curved-1359376.jpg!d

At Design ideation level, a solution may seem comprehensive and so nearly holistic. There, however, are some compulsions which must be considered before a design actualizes.

1 L'estremità_di_una_via_cieca._Casa_di_Gilda,_bozzetto_di_Mario_Sala_per_Rigoletto_(1903)_-_Archivio_Storico_Ricordi_ICON000120_B

1. A complex design entity is conceived with many systems, some of which are fairly independent, but most others are not only mutually dependent, but spatially convergent.
2 The convergence also occurs due to the few nodes that connect various systems to the outside resources and systems.
3 A design encounters directional solar and other environmental elements, and these have zonal identity.
4 A design creation to be stable and secure must affirm to natural forces like gravity and structural integrity.
5 A design, where possible will be conceived of replaceable elements that require fitment facilities and protocols. The replaceable elements, fitment facilities and protocols, need to be universal and modular which force continuance of traditional or time-tested things, rather than new ones. A design emerges as a dilemma between old and new things.


Cubists, Modernists and later Deconstructivists tried to take a reverse route to reach the state of ‘abstraction’. They tried to reach a state of Holism by elimination. To this end, attempts were made to ‘eliminate’ (often just cover-up, hide or dis-regard) ‘what was plausible’. It is not possible to escape the reality and create any thing unimaginable.

Design documented schemes and actualized entities reveal Patterns, at three levels, as holistic, sectional or part identity. The revelation of a pattern is related to the scale of the design. Design documented schemes are scaled to manage and manipulate the composition, whereas, actualized designs are experienced in varied conditions and references. In documented design the perception of a pattern depends on the quality of presentation, and in case of actual design, the pattern can be sensed depending on the quality of environment (intensity of background interferences like glare, noise, persistence of past experiences) and conditions of perception (distance, angle, occlusions, reference to past remembrances, framing, personal sensorial capacities, etc.).

8 The_exterior_of_the_Baron_Empain_palace

9 Brighton_royal_pavilion_Qmin

Patterns have primary relevance, if, its body can be realized, and the potential for reuse manifests. For the later intention, a pattern must be traceable. One must sensorially realize its presence or remember its body and be able to copy, recollect or recreate it. In the process, many things get lost, but what gets carried is the essence of the pattern. A pattern may recur in some other time-space conditions.

3 50881829322_07108a7b9a_c

The patterns, as a ‘pure design or image’ has no raison d’etre (cause or purpose of origin). Patterns may be entities independent of the surroundings and also flourish as attached to some context. Patterns are arrangements, oriented peculiarly, but could still remain relevant from many other sides.

13 Pattern recognition on steps Flickr 41093653282_f1300f9d88_c

Patterns are sectional or part identity of a design composition. The formation and recognition of the Pattern, is the first order of founding a Design. Some ‘designs’ not offer an ‘unusual pattern’ as a take home essence. Such patterns are often in holistic in form. Patterns can have the potential of being joined with similar or dissimilar patterns, reduced in scale and repositioned (reoriented). Patterns also have the inherent possibilities of becoming part of larger compositions. At this stage holistic compositions do not remain personal things.

12 Enhanced Pattern Recognition 8697403826_8b3c8b2e49_c

Patterns nominally have multiple Motifs, and all integrated in some manner. But a Holistic pattern is a motif. Such motifs (holistic patterns) are self-sustaining elements and stay unaffected by the happenings in the surroundings, so some order of connectivity is required. The order of connection is the manner of touch or overlap, scale, direction and orientation besides the physical commonality and partial distortions. These are the essential characteristics that offer inexhaustible possibilities of bridging. The bridges, have two ends and a ‘structure’ in between. In case of a pattern, the structure may be physical, but generally just hypothetical recognition.

14 freudenberg-4572410_960_720

A Pattern may look like a familiar object, but need not be a representation or symbol. It may not have any abstract conveyance, yet may carry an associated or interpretive meaning. Our cognitive processes surpass the sensorial perception, and so redirect the sensorial search. Pattern recognition is a matter of perception, and so a personal affair. Recognition of a pattern in nature remains impressionistic, and remembered, noted or expressed for posterity.

17 Sagrada-familia-arches2

The Pattern style is omni present but becomes valid with a culture (terrain, climate, religion, customs, technology). Nikos Salingaros for example considers ‘regularity to be a key property of a pattern whether the pattern is the external stimulus itself or some other percept residing in the mind of the perceiver’. Is the pattern objectively observable and measurable or is it a subjective experience?

16 Chaotic 40596141501_1c65d02936_c

Pattern in Noise: The phenomenon of finding meaningful patterns in meaningless noise is called patternicity , and conversely, not perceiving patterns that are present in the visual stimulus is called apatternicity.

15 new-dehli-380043_960_720

In general terms, “a gestalt is a form, a figure, a configuration, or a pattern.” The Oxford dictionary defines form as “the visible shape or configuration of something.” The psychologist Gibson argues in his paper titled –What is a Form? -that much more precision is needed in the definition of such terms if they are going to be useful. He laments the fact that “the term form is used by different people to mean different things and by the same person to mean different things on different occasions.” According to Gibsonshape, figure, structure, pattern, order, arrangement, configuration, plan, outline, contour are similar terms without any distinct meaning”.

19 Pinakothek_der_Moderne_frontal



Post 734Gautam Shah



Quantity estimates form the prime database on which monetary estimate is scheduled. Quantities estimate, help us to compound simple measures like lengths, widths, heights, weights, numbers, etc. into quantities with fewer variables. Typically a volumetric quantity is more inclusive than linear or surface quantity. Similarly a numerical estimate far more comprehensive than even volumetric estimate.

1 weight_kilogram_old_measurement_balance-591282.jpg!d

It is generally experienced that certain form characteristics, dimensions (widths, depths etc.), etc. of parts and components remain constant not only through a project, but across projects of similar nature. Such constants are recognized and minor variables are levelled out within certain dimensional ranges. Dimensional ranges become effective in modular dimensions and through the methods of taking measurements. (See section on Modules of measurements and Modes of measurements). Modest qualitative differences are evened out through flexible and wider rang of specifications.

2 Terrains_de_polo_et_de_football_(US_compliant).svg

There could be several levels of conversions before a quantity estimate becomes relevant. One of the most important conversions is through monetary rating. Such conversions are carried out by many different agencies, without the author or the originator of the quantity estimate being aware of it, or being informed about it.

3 calculator-483807_640

Monetary estimates result out of a process called costing. Costing or cost-finding is done for the item as deliverable by a single agency, or for its parts, which have market equivalents, and so definite prices. However, where parts have no readily available market equivalents, these are evaluated for the cost of their constituent raw materials, labour and other inputs required for the assembly or construction.

4 geometry-1023844_960_720

Monetary estimates are based on items or jobs which no matter how complex are, consist of only few elemental parts, or very simple tasks. The elemental parts and tasks are usually comparable to many others used in different items or situations. Elemental parts, though similar in form and constitution, acquire a unique personality depending on the position of the component in the whole, nature of use, method of installation or erection and time schedule of installation.

5 Godorf_Cologne_Rhineland-Refinery-Cooling-Towers-during-demolition-02

In a monetary estimate, the parts of different types are categorized on the basis of external factors like a guarantee mechanism, life span, utility, depreciation, finance, cost, return, energy consumption, waste output, hazards, ecological value, replacement schedules, etc.

Non monetary estimates, follow a process called Valuation. The valuation or value providing creates a basis for judgement of an item. The value may be real and may match the monetary estimate of the item. The value could be a hypothetical one based on a perceived use, commonness or exclusivity, observed affectation, future cost of acquisition or disposal, etc.

6 Flickr Image 15757420086_bdca0cb9e5_c

Non monetary evaluations help define projects from many different aspects for which monetary costs are available. Yet, appropriateness and success of a design depend substantially on decisions made through such evaluations.

7 Non Monetary valuation Lyons_Architects_Office

Non monetary evaluations are like: Average space provided to a clerk, average area per resident in a hostel, proportion of area between rooms and a corridor, proportion of usable vs. service areas, energy consumption per user, load per bearing area, garbage outputs per resident, noise level per vehicle, water consumption per unit, etc.

8 Johnson, PhilipIDS Center Investors Diversified Services Center with Crystal Court 1969-72 49091064521_3c3480c036_c





Post 733 -by Gautam Shah


$ 20 Bronze man and centaur mid-8th century B.C.

Human and Animal body limb combinations constitute a very large set of images, revered by people across cultures and ages. Remarkably, lone human body forms, were less frequently revered, but the human and animal combinations were revered as deities, minor divinities, magical and mythical figures. These are found as figurines, statues, drawn and sculpted forms, narratives, descriptions, masks, costumes and outfits for performing arts. The personifications include whole body, parts, limbs, static and in-action poses, as stand-alone symbols, patterns, motifs.

24 Michelangelo (1475–1564), The Torment of Saint Anthony (c 1487–88)

The body-limb compounding offered greater potency and exclusivity. In many instances there are multiple anecdotes, how these forms came to be joined together, begotten from ordinary humans and live life like normal human beings. So the form or image was more a symbolic one, either angelic or diabolic, but always a latent super human.

$ 18 Lion_man_photo

In spite of so many varieties of humanoid or animalistic forms, there are no known incidences of compounding with minor insects and vegetation. Vegetation and derivative forms(Green-Man) were part of abstract or non-iconic worship of nature. The Green Man with a foliated head appeared in pagan period across Europe. Deities in Asia, are worshipped against such natural forms, or as related incarnations. Animals are shown in their original shape, usually executing abnormal feats like flying in air, spouting fire, water or poison.

$ 7 Granite statue of the lion-headed Egyptian deity Sekhmet from the temple of Mut at Luxor, dating to 1403–1365 BC,

$ 4 Meresimen Osiris four sons horus

Revering the nature was taking place with the classification of the material world in many part of the world, like, ancient India, Egypt and Greece. These were all real matters, Air, Earth, Fire and Water. These real matters originated as philosophical thoughts, first worshipped in an abstract manner, without any association or identification with human or animal forms. But, over a period of time these were personified in multiple deities, in different regions, at nearly same time. The assigned images and related mythological narratives had a great deal of convergence.

$ 25 Cinese dragon-1116306_1920

The inclusion of a metaphysical element, the sky (space -Avakash) and ether, was a strange thing. The real matters were easier to deify, but a metaphysical element (sky-ether) that could not have any iconic imagery, was difficult to handle.

$ 8 Water Demon Image by Vincedq at in Water Demon at JediMUD Wiki

There have been eulogistic mentions of the basic four/five natural elements, the earth, water, air, fire with later day inclusion of sky or ether.

$ 26 Cellarius_southern_scenographicFXD

The Indian beliefs were elements of nature, as the basis of existence (Sansāra –Sanskrit=world of existence). These elements were self-centred or sufficient (Ātman –Sanskrit=within), complete in own-self. The European conceptualization was of a deified superficial creator. The image as a representative or a formal deity was the belief in the existence of an external supreme being.

$ 21 tree-of-life

There are several instances where the natural elements have deified in the form of animals, birds or humans. Was it because the natural elements had no representable image?

$ 3 Winged Creatures

In various mythologies, there are numerous forms of human-animal and animal-animal combinations. Animal head and Human body constitute a very large set of combinations. These occur as descriptions, in performing arts’ narratives, drawn and sculptural forms. The animalistic or humanoid forms have been used as stand-alone symbols, deities, minor divinities and motifs. Egypt, India and Asia Minor have very large number of such representations. In India Vishnu has several avatars, representing the stages of evolution of life on the Earth. Egyptians have more such gods than purely of human forms.

$ 27 Dasavatar of Vishnu, 19th C Andhra Pradesh, India

Contrary to this, the Greek-Roman mythologies, have Animal body + Human head to dominate the scene. Many such forms gradually disappeared from worship practices with Christianity. But some reappeared with arrival of Goths. These forms, however, continued as part of folklore and performing arts. Some of the features were used to generate satanic scenes and narratives.

$ 16 Basantpur Nepal Kaal Bhairav Animalistic Expressions e83530e7130140c324fc10d8b503506b09e355cc

The ‘Green Man’ with a foliated head appeared in pagan period. The Green Man images occurred in wood and stone carvings in churches, chapels, abbeys and cathedrals in Europe. Green Man remained a mysterious design motif, flourishing with cultural and regional transformations.

1 Animal or Bird Head > Hathor (woman with a cow’s head), Thoth (ibis, baboon, or moon head), Satyrs (goat head), Anubis (jackal head), Siren (bird-woman), Inpu or Anpu (jackal or canine head), Amun (ram head), Bastet (lion or cat head), Horus (falcon head), Sobek (crocodile head), Taweret (hippo head), Avatars of Hindu Lord Vishnu (Matsya-Fish, Kurma -turtle, tortoise, Varaha -boar, wild swine, Narasimha -lion, Vamana -dwarf, Ram, Krishna, Buddha, Kalki, Hanuman (monkey head), Ganesh (elephant head).

There are many combinations of Human and Animal (birds, fish, insects) body+limbs, such as,

2 Animal or Bird Body > Sphinx, Centaur, Greek Echidna (snake body), Harpies (bird body), Minotaur (bull body),

3 Mixed Animal Head + Animal Body > Griffin (Bird head -lion body), Chimera (lion + goat + dragon), Cerberus (multi-headed dog), Hydra (multi headed serpent monster), Pegasus (bird-winged horse), Seth (beast composite of aardvark, donkey, jackal, fennec, fox), Khepri (exclusively beetle).

$ 10 Aztec Serpent Moon God

$ 9 The altar where serpent deities are worshipped in a temple in Belur, Karnataka, India

There were few combination forms which were not venerated, but part of the folklore, such as Mermaid (fish body), Vegetable lamb (plant-animal), Barnacle goose and mandrake (plant-man). The combination forms also reflect mixed progenies, caused by the curse, relations of convenience, or forceful sex. These, however, have scarce stories of origin. To complicate the scene, some transient or fluid forms, such as the Proteus (shepherd of the sea’s flocks or seals) who, changed the character, scale, shape or form, have also flourished.

$ 22 Folklore

Folklore is full of body-form transformations, from humans, plants and animals, into the mammals, birds, aquatic creatures, insects, reptiles, amphibians or plants. Stories, such as, Beauty and the Beast, Metamorphoses (a man into a donkey by Lucius Apuleius), Frog King, Swan maiden, Werewolf or Vampire, are part children’s stories. Few such transformational changes relate to veneration.

$ 11 Buraq an animal said to have conveyed the Prophet Muhammad to heaven in a journey called the Miraj. The Buraq has been described as a white animal, half-mule, half-donkey, with wings

Performance arts have extended the anthropomorphic range, (anthropomorphism involves a projection of human characteristics onto something non-human), because what was not possible to draw or sculpt is acted out with descriptions, sounds, masks and other theatrical effects. Mask allowed transformation into a new character, and freedom to perform sexual acts and ghastly sacrificial acts.

$ 19 puppet-93568_960_720

Animalistic expressions have been morphed on Human characters primarily through masks, makeup, adornments, and descriptions. The demons, Raksasa (India), devils, dragons, Guardians of Doors (China and India), and warriors, etc. are examples of fearful expressions.

$ 15 Thai Golden Garuda Statues

$ 6 Mosaic Morphed Animal+Human features

Zoolatry is the worship of animals. The Egyptian culture has several anthropomorphic deities, animal and human gods. There are several distinguished classes. The animal was revered as with powers, different and greater than of the human being. 2 The exclusive image of the animal (or bird, etc.), could not have a spiritual connection, and so the image had to be a mix of several animals and with human beings. 3 The common practice was to transplant the head of an animal over the human body, but occasionally head and body of different species were combined, and human head was joined with animal body. 4 The anthropomorphic image was enhanced through elaborate details in the folklore and additional decorations during rituals. 5 Many such images were accepted as tribal benefactor.

Several articles on related Topics have been published in my Blogs.

REVERING THE NATURE – Part-I Human-Plant Lineages


860 MASCARON -sculpted human head forms







BEHAVIOUR in SPACES -a re-look at various lecture versions (2008-2017)

Post 731by Gautam Shah


BEHAVIOUR in SPACES has seen many changes Since 2008 or perhaps earlier date when it all began. There are several Print and NET-based versions ( Some are linked here.

A > These were rather un-organised or Random Topics on Behaviour in Space with 2013 (tentative outline for the series) I used to talk-discuss in 2013
1 Behaviour
2 Inhabitation
3 Interior Spaces
4 Behaviour in Interior Spaces
5 Domains
6 Domains and Spaces
7 Task Settings

B > This was little more formalized in 2016
1 Human Behaviour
2 Inhabitation
3 Place identity
4 Domains
5 Domains and Spaces
6 Exterior and Interior Spaces
7 Spaces Sizes and Shapes
8 Behaviour in Spaces
9 Manifestation of Behaviour
10 Expression and Communication
11 Privacy and Intimacy
12 Task Settings
13 Amenities and Facilities
14 Space Planning
15 Real and Virtually Real

C > But the series had started in 2014 with following topics
Blog 15Mar2014
2 LONELINESS and Space Design
Bog 19Mar2014
Blog 185
Blog 30May2014
Blog 2June2014
Blog 8Jun2014
Blog 159
Blog 251
blog 321
Blog 343
Blog 347
Blog 361
Blog 410
Blog 417
Blog 512
16 PRIVACY and INTIMACY as spatial behaviour
Blog 524
Blog 562

D > LINKS to BLOGS on BEHAVIOUR in SPACE (16 DEC2015-APR2016 One semester Lecture Series) These all at INTERIOR DESIGN ASSIST .

Blog 566
Blog 567
3 Behaviour in Interior Spaces PLACE IDENTITY PLACE IDENTITY Blog 569
Blog 572
Blog 574
Blog 576
Blog 579
Blog 581
Blog 585
10 EXPRESSION and COMMUNICATION -as behaviour in space
Blog 587
Blog 589
Blog 590
Blog 591
Blog 594
Blog 597
Blog 600

E > This is a Series on Behaviour in Space DEC2016 to DEC2017

3 SPACE and the PLACE
9 – HUMAN BEHAVIOUR in Expression and Communication



Post 729 -Gautam Shah


1 esther-jiao-ADv0GiMBlmI-unsplash

8 marcello-gennari-KA89yJKYtjE-unsplash

Architectural objects are stationary, but their shadows move and shift around them. The directional variability of the solar illumination offers many different light-shadow conditions. The intensity of solar illumination varies during day hours, seasons and atmospheric circumstances (like cloud cover, mist, dust, etc.), and creates many grades of dark surfaces. These has taught the architects, how to exploit the utter darkness of the cast shadows along with the many grades of intermediate darkness of the back-face surfaces. There are other grades of darkness over surfaces re-illuminated with reflections from surroundings. Such variable contrasts conditions were exploited in many ways. It helped in scaling the darkness of deep set spaces, to grade the near and far-off distances, and add greater realism to nearer objects.

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3 tiplada-mekvisan-n_vdmdtNh6M-unsplash

Architecture is an inside and outside place of visitation, allowing many sided experiences of the object, with cast shadows and intermediate grades of darkness over the ’back-face’ surfaces. These was unlike the Art, where only a fixed extent of intended image is represented, be it a canvas, book page, wall fresco, stained glass, mosaic, or architectonic decorations. The shape of an object and size and form of its shadow, though continuously variable, reflect each other.

9 ehimetalor-akhere-unuabona-iRaeBSeh4uQ-unsplash

Within an art work, the objects’ shape and the size-form of the shadows may not proportionately reflect each other. The selective framing and point of scene capture, chops the objects and their shadows. As a result, proportions, if any are not revealed. The process of selective elimination from art paintings began to be exploited further in architectural creations.

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27 temple-lord-venkatrama...manjugani-745809

In architectural works, extensive shadows conceal objects or architectonic elements that must be nominally seen for realization of the composition, form, size and proportion. The dominant and extensive shadows could, however, may be ‘concealed’ behind objects that are placed in the frontal most planes. Such dominant and extensive shadows, though are relevant for fixed hours and points of views. One of the classical examples of this is the Greek Columns forming the facade.

Column heads

25 supreme_court_building_usa_washington_front_columns_courthouse_government-770070.jpg!d

Shadows massing form building fronts of two classes. Buildings that are comparatively of flatter plane, though with pockets of shadows of various depths (depth read as the downward length of the shadow). Some of the shadows indicating the depths get mixed up with darker colours of the facade surfaces like glass. This is an area, where seasoned designers fail to perceive the true dark-light play over the facades. Another class of shadows massing over building fronts occur due to the projecting out mass of elements. These projections over the facade are well illuminated but their shadows fall on plane surfaces as well as on undulating masses. The uneven masses, if, angular or with inclination, the complexity of the shadows increases manifold.

4 manuele-sangalli-MFKFp3-s3Rg-unsplash

6 abhyuday-majhi-bW-vRGOF5EI-unsplash

Shadow massing affects the buildings’ around public or open spaces. Such buildings, if form a flatter plane, whether, due to the repetition of architectural motifs (elements of facade language) or due to the extensive scale of visual perception, dilate the surface shading effect of the sunlight. Buildings forming such ‘visually flat planes’ were socially throughly failures.

17 Puerta_del_Sol_(3)

The ‘fixed-view’ or panoramic architectural configuration for the Plazas and Public spaces are of two basic types, 1 a large open public space dilutes the surface shade-shading effect of the sunlight, because of the large scale, whereas, 2 a very compact frontal space, seems spatially so articulated that there are too many varieties of surface shade-shadings of the sunlight. In the later case few designers had resources, experience, opportunity or time (historically, decades, if not centuries, for the long process of improvisation) for any corrective action. So whatever, was locally plausible, was accepted.

15 switzerland-840974_640

26 Brussels grote markt-belgium-1546290

In case of an architectural entity, the field is infinite but can be visually scanned by movement of the eyes, forming a seamless scene. But that was not so, with older style cameras that captured visual scene that seemed jarring. In case of human eyes the proportion of object to shadow is variable, but with artificial devices the object to shadow is shifting and so jarring. To reduce such variability of scenes, architects have resorted to selective framing for fixated observations, through windowing or deep set perspectives (that focussed the points of views). In architecture limited observations were also enforced through smaller or occluding openings, open ended-deep spaces, overhangs, serrations, cavities, etc. The selective framing chops the objects or their shadows.

18 Almoina

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At a first glass, the shadows as dark entities seem very dark in the context of bright exteriors. Eyes however, soon dilate themselves and begin to perceive finer details within the shadows. Architectural features, human beings and their shadows often create captivating compositions of scale and proportion, but this can be perceived by an observer or camera. So scene capture like photograph remains a ‘neutral’ observation.

5 tai-jyun-chang-4zmC6Ni--qM-unsplash

Shadows have natural relationship with the source, direction and type of illumination, but more importantly, it is the quality of objects and the surfaces on which shadows occur. Cast sun light shadows show a horizontal line as horizontal, but a vertical line as an inclined entity. Consistent exposure to these has come to be accepted as nominal phenomenon. But shadows of inclined elements such as stairs, ridge of the roof, etc. have a different character.


11 City Center, Fort Worth, Texas Site plan with shadows] - PICRYL Public Domain Image

16 bologna-516526_640

Architectural shadows are defined by the geo zones. Nominally between 23° N and 23° S have brighter sunlight. The strong light here gets reflected in darker shadows, but that again is affected by the dominant colour of terrain, density of vegetation and surface colours of building materials. Tropical areas such as Southern countries of Europe have had deeper and elaborate architectural elements. The shadows are used as an architectural instrument of form, composition, and visual effects.

32 ART by Ottavio Viviani Capriccios of Light and Shasdows

This is the 35th article (in continuation of old series -new beginning) on ISSUES of DESIGN.


ISSUES of DESIGN -List of 34 Blog articles


Post 728 -Gautam Shah


This Blog Series ISSUES of DESIGN began on 30MARCH 2016 with plan to include 20 Topics. But, later 20 more Topics were planned. Now, after FIVE years it has reached to 35 Blog articles. 6 More articles will be included by JUNE end 2021. –Gautam Shah

01 (603 30 Apr2016) BODY POSTURES – Issues for Design -1

02 (605 13May2016) INTERVENTIVE SPACES – Issues for Design -2

03 (606 17May2016) PERCEPTION through SCALES and CONVERSIONS -Issues for Design -3

04 (607 24May2016) SPACE PERCEPTION – Issues for Design -4

05 (609 6Jun2016) MOVEMENT and BALANCE – Issues for Design -5

06 (610 10Jun2016) NON VISUAL LANGUAGE -Issues for Design -6

07 (612 20Jun2016) DESIGNERS and QUALITY -Issues for Design -7

08 (614 28Jun2016) ANTILIGATURE -Issues for Design -8

09 (617 22Jul2016) SCALING the SPACES -Issues for Design-9

10 (621 18Aug2016) REAL and VIRTUAL -Issues for design-10

11 (623 Sep122016) METAPHOR Issues for Design -11

12 (629 8Nov2016) CONTEXT -Issues for Design -12

13 (639 4Feb2017) SOLIDS and VOIDS -issues of Design -13

14 (642 4Mar2017) OBJECTS in SPATIAL FIELDS -Issues for Design -14

15 (649 9Jul2017) REFERENCING buildings -issues for design -15

16 (653 6Jun2017) RHETORIC in DESIGN -issues for design -16

17 (654 14Aug2017) SCALING the SPACES -Issues for design -17

18 (659 2Oct2017) PERCEPTION of CONTRAST -Issues for design -18

19 (661 4Nov207) SOUND and SPACE -issues of design -19

20 (662 16Nov2017) MODELLING of OBJECTS in SPACE -issues of design -20

21 (661 3Mar2018) GEOMETRY -Issues of Design -21

22 (669 27Mar2018) SUPPORT SYSTEMS -Issues of Design-22

23 (674 14Jun2018) SIZING and SCALING the SPACES -Issues of Design 23

24 (684 14Dec2018) DYNAMIC CURVATURES -Issues of Design 24

25 (686 9Jan2019) DESIGN, MOTIF, PATTERN -Part 1 -Issues of Design 25

26 (689 15Feb2019) DISTANCE as an ELEMENT of DESIGN -Issues of Design 26

27 (692 15Mar2019) VANDALISM -Issues of Design 27

28 (702 26Nov2019) DISTANCE MEANINGS -Issues of Design 28

29 (707 19Nov2019) SPATIAL MEMORIES –Issues of Design 29

30 (708 28Nov2019) ELEMENTS of BUILDING SYSTEMS -Issues of Design 30

31 (711 23Jan2020) 711 SEGMENTING the SPACES -Issues of Design 31

32 (714 24Mar2020) DESIGN PROCESSES -Design Handling –Issues of Design 32

33 (720 3Sep2020) DEPTH and DISTANCE PERCEPTION -Issues of Design 33

34 (727 15Jan2021) ILLUMINATION and SHADOWS -Issues of Design 34

Other topics likely to be included >


36 ILLUMINATION and ART WORKS SHADOWS -Issues of Design 36

37 ILLUMINATION and COLOUR SHADES -Issues of Design 37

38 TRACING -Issues of Design 38

39 DESIGN, MOTIF, PATTERN -Part 2 -Issues of Design 39

40 COLOUR HUE TINT -Issues of Design 40



Post 726 -Gautam Shah


1 -14109129322_6e96eac4a2_c

Greek architecture is broadly divided in two eras, the Hellenic period (900 to 300 BC) and the Hellenistic period (300 BC to 30 AD.). During the Hellenic period, after 600 BC, many buildings of refined details and an improvised layout appeared. In the later phase Greek style spread out, as a result of conquests by Alexander and the rise of the Roman empire. During the late 5th– 4th CBC, town planning became an important issue for Greek builders.

2 -14112214875_7ef602f86d_c

Architecture, at that point of time was more of the inclusive process, of construction management, construction engineering, chemical engineering, civil engineering, materials engineering, mechanical engineering, military engineering and urban planning.

3 -13916660339_5329f03c78_c

It was a Greek sculptor, not an architect, who said that successful attainment in art is the result of meticulous accuracy in a multitude of arithmetical proportions’.

3a Doric Capital Details

4 -Paestum Basilika

The word architect meant an expert proficient in building design, execution management, construction, the practice of sculpting and many other skills. The Greek Architects of 5th CBC onward would have been lost in antiquity, but for the resurrection through the critical mentions, by Vitruvius, in the book ‘De architectura’ (known as ‘Ten Books on Architecture’). Marcus Vitruvius Pollio (80–70 to 15 BC) was himself, a Roman author, architect, civil, military engineer and acoustic expert.

9 Temple of Olympian Zeus in Athens (Attica, Greece) A.Savin (Wikimedia Commons WikiPhotoSpace)

Vitruvius in the book(s), discussed about proportions, human body measures, and the architectural elements. He considers buildings to have three attributes: firmitas (strength), utilitas (utility), and venustas (beauty)’.

Some of the few, of several Greek architects (builders) of the period 5th CBC onward that find mentions in various records were, Antistates, Callaeschrus, Antimachides, Pormus, Cossutius, Hermogenes, Pytheos, Chersiphron of Gnosus, Metagenes, Demetrius, Paeonius or Paionios of Ephesus, Ephesian Daphnis, Ictinus, Philo, Cossutius, Gaius Mucianus, Antimachides, Kallaeschros, Porinos, Hippodamus of Miletus, Arcesius or (T)arcesius, Hermodorus of Salamis, etc.

5 The Temple of Olympian Zeus, Athens, (174 BC–132 AD), with the Parthenon (447–432 BC) in the background

Greek architects of the period were innovative and meticulous in detailing. This, perhaps emerged, from the acute professional competition and need to get public confirmation of their works. The Later process was a perquisite before the work started. It was a period, when the architectural or construction drawings were rare, and scaled models were rarer. They relied more on description substantially oral and occasionally written. Such design confirmative process did not survive, but for the mention by Vitruvius. He made a point that ‘the work of some of the most talented are unknown, while many of those of lesser talent but greater political position are famous’.

18 Lyon Lugdunum Théatre Romain

6 Olympie temple d'Héra, façade Est.

15 Screenshot_2020-12-28 (458) Pinterest

14 Greek Columns Schema_Saeulenordnungen

Doric and Ionic were not successive Greek orders, but, possibly appeared in different regions, rather concurrently, (Doric in eastern Greece and Ionic in the west and mainland). In Ionic architecture, (from 480 BCE onward), there is greater variety in details. Corinthian order, first came up in the late Classical period (400-300 BCE), but was widely used during the Hellenistic era (300-30 BCE).

12 House of the Masks in Delos, Greece Wikipedia Image by Bernard Gagnon

Greek builders used mathematical formulations to determine the height, width and other characteristics of architectural elements. They went on to refine a perfect column by making it slender and increasing the number of flutes, altering their sectional shape, column base, capital, and the distance between the columns. The efforts also included the optical refinements and corrections.

22 Baalbek-Bacchus-Details

10 Ancient ruins of Apollonia near the Albanian city of Fieri Wikipedia Image by Decius German Wikipedia

By the end of Hellenic period (900 to 300 BC) and beginning of the Hellenistic period (300 BC to 30 AD.), Classical form of the Doric temple was out of favour. Few Doric style structures being built were elaborate in plan and detail. The changed Doric style robed the simplicity of the order. The new Hellenistic age saw new temples’ construction in the eastern parts of Greece. Here, the favoured Ionic style was getting replaced with resplendent Corinthian form. The balance and precision of the earlier periods were getting lost in new forms of structures being built.

13 Erechtheum_Acropolis_Athens

The Hellenistic period also witnessed involvement of architects in new architectural forms and development of urban facilities. The new architectural forms were agora, colonnaded stoa, gateways, propylaeum (entrance to the Acropolis or temples), circular temples (tholos), hippodromes (horse-chariot racing), gymnasiums (palaestra), senate houses (bouleuterion), lighthouses (Pharos), libraries, clock towers, fountains, and mausoleums. A variety of administrative and court buildings were without front colonnades. Palatial architecture experimented with new forms, as officials aspired to grandiose buildings of palatial pretensions. In new forms of buildings the need for real or decorative columns was no longer important. The pristine walls were formatted with ornamental surface decorations. At places the arch and vault began to manifest.

27 Parthenon, Acropolis, Athens Wikipedia Image Sharon Mollerus(10045594164)

Parthenon Constructions: ‘The Parthenon embodies an extraordinary number of architectural refinements, which combine to give a plastic, sculptural appearance to the building. Among them are, the upward curvature of the base along the ends and repeated in the entablature; an imperceptible, delicate convexity (entasis) of the columns as they diminish in diameter toward the top; and a thickening of the four corner columns to counteract the thinning effect of being seen at certain angles against the sky’. –from Encyclopaedia Britannica.

Screenshot_2020-12-29 Temple of Dionysus, Teos Ancient City

Karpion was a Greek architect and architectural theorist active in the 5th CBC. He and Iktinos (also spelled Ictinus, Iktinus), co-authored a treatise on the proportions of the Parthenon (the major building was Temple of Athena on the Acropolis of Athens). Many of the temples, including the Parthenon, were rebuilt during the so-called Golden Age of Athens (460–430 BC). Phidias, an Athenian sculptor, and Iktinos and Callicrates, two famous architects, were responsible for the reconstruction. Iktinos was also an architect of the Temple of Apollo at Bassae and the Telesterion at Eleusis, a gigantic hall.

Ionic Column Capitals - Initial two way to Four way evolution

Hermogenes of Priene was a Greek architect (3rd– 2nd BCE), of the Hellenistic period. Hermogenes favoured the symmetry of the Ionic over the Doric. He, in his books, codified, not just the Ionic order, but rules on symmetry and proportions. He canonized the proportional relationships based on the diameter of the column, as the module. Vitruvius called it an architectural ideal, ‘eustyle’ (eu stylos =right column).

22 Baalbek-Bacchus-Details

Doric order originated in Greek mainland, sometime during 7th BCE and remained major order till 5th BCE, whereas, Ionic order developed in Ionia during the mid of 6th BCE. Ionic order had volutes on front-back side of the capital but to make it symmetrical (visually more so, on corner or end columns), four-sided volutes were devised. the Corinthian capital was, however equal on all four sides. itruvius associates the Doric representing the masculine, and the Ionic with feminine proportions.

25 The Great Court of Roman Heliopolis was built in the 2nd century A.D., covered an area 134x112 meters and contained the main installation of the cult. The Baalbek temple complex

Most famous works of Hermogenes include the Temple of Artemis in Magnesia, One of the largest Temple of Dionysos (in hexa-style peripteral) in the Ionian city of Teos, Vitruvius is expressing when he writes “in the members of a temple there ought to be the greatest harmony in the symmetrical relations of the different parts to the general magnitude of the whole.” One element in a classical system cannot be changed without changing the other proportions too.

3 Temple of Dionysus, Teos Ancient City

Pythius (Pytheos) of 350 BC, built the Temple of Athena. He is cited by Vitruvius as –Pythius, the celebrated builder of the temple of Minerva at Priene. He too disliked the Doric order, for the ‘faults and incongruities’ caused by the inconvenient placing of triglyphs.

Satyros or Satyrus was a Greek architect in the 4th CBC who designed and oversaw the construction of the Mausoleum at Halicarnassus.

28 Mausoleum - Halicarnassos, Greek Architecture, History of Architecture, pg 149 Sir Banister Fletcher's

Antistates, Antimachides, Kallaeschros, and Porinos, during 560–527 BC, designed the temple of Jupiter Olympius, Athens. The project was revived in 174 BC, with substantial changes, like Corinthian order in design, and as Decimus Cossutius in charge of it. The project, yet, it remained incomplete in 164 BC.

Paeonius or Paionios of Ephesus (350–310 BC), with Demetrius (300 BC) and, also, possibly, Deinocrates, were responsible for the Temple of Artemis at Ephesus. Metagenes was a Cretan architect, who along with his father, architect Chersiphron, is also considered responsible for the construction of the Temple of Artemis at Ephesus. Similarly, Paeonius with Daphnis of Miletus designed the Ionic temple of Apollo at Didyma. Both were huge structures.

29 Temple of Apollo, Didyma Wikipedia Image by Bernard Gagn

Hippodamus of Miletus (498-408 BC) was an ancient Greek architect, urban planner, physician, mathematician, meteorologist and philosopher. He is considered to be the pioneer of European urban planning, Hippodamian Plan with grid layout.

30 Hippodamian Plan with grid

Arcesius or (T)arcesius (probably the same as Argelius) was an Ionian architect who worked in Ionia during the 3rd CBC. He was assigned the Temple of Asclepius. He wrote a critic on Doric order for being ‘faulty and inharmonious’.

Hermodorus of Salamis was a Greek architect from Cyprus, active in Rome (146-102 BC). He designed, the Temple of Jupiter Stator, Temple of Mars and the Port Navalia.

Anthemius of Tralles was a Greek geometer and architect in Constantinople. With Isidore of Miletus, he designed the Hagia Sophia for Justinian.

21 Exterior views of the Altes Museum Berlin

20 Neoclassical building in Liverpool Wikipedia Image by Carole Raddato from FRANKFURT, Germany (15988721502)

The Greek respect for proportion, scale, details, imaging the comprehensive structure, began to dilute with new varieties of buildings and professional competition for projects. Some of these architectural concerns, affected the Roman architecture, and later in the neoclassical architecture of Renaissance onward.



Post725  -by Gautam Shah


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For Corbusier history of a window was a struggle for illumination. He typically wanted, at least in the initial years, openings to bring outside in. This was due to childhood memories of Northern Europe day lighting, inferior quality of glazing and interior spaces that had small windows and required artificial illumination often during the day time. He, as a cubist saw the glazing plane as an opaque surface slightly receding due to its placement and surface quality.

Corbusier Early Projects


Glass was a shimmering plane against the dull surface of the structure. He liked the configuration for illumination to be unbroken, and so preferred a separate ventilation system. For the same reason he did not like framing for the window. He would rather place the glazing plane directly into the masonry. This was continued in many of the later buildings like Ronchamp and Shodhan Villa Ahmedabad.


Corbusier started placing more then adequate openings, like the ribbon windows of Villa Savoy, and invited complaints from the client. The extent openings became more rational in later projects. To cut the excessive glare he began to use an architectural baffle, a brise-soleil, for the first time, in the Algerian office-blocks (1933). Later he experimented with mechanical baffles for an office building in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, but mainly used masonry and cement concrete brise soleil for buildings at Chandigarh and Ahmedabad.

5 Unite_d'Habitation,_Marseille



For him daylight was a living light, continuously variable, whereas the artificial light was static and local. Corbusier experimented with the distribution of daylight by positioning an interior plane adjacent to the window. The planes were first in the form of a right angle wall or ceiling, but later became inclined as well as doubly curved. Slit windows close to flat ceilings were used in many buildings. He began to use the same technique for distributing illumination of electric lights by large parabolic reflectors.

6 Casa Curutchet

7 ATMA_House_186

8 -Secretariat_Chandigarh


Corbusier placed openings to frame specific land views as picture windows or often just apertures. Ends of the ramps, stairs, passages, were marked by such openings. Such linking of openings was also used with apertures or cutout in ceilings. These occurred with another smaller or larger cut out below or with a water body to reflect it.