MATERIALS HANDLING PROCESSES

Post 664  –by Gautam Shah

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Hand GrindingMany of the Materials handling processes in use today are essentially the same as those employed in ancient times. These processes evolved from day to day activities like farming, irrigation, cooking, hunting, storage, shelter-making and rituals. For a very long time, the process were not purpose-specific, but tools or means oriented. And as a result refinement has come from tools and rationalization of procedures. Many such processes are now highly mechanized saving time and energy, and some even are fully automatized, using programmed automats and robotics that allows faster, accurate and safer production.

American boys' handybook of camp lore and woodcraft (1920)Sommer,_Giorgio_(1834-1914)_-_n._11141_-_Museo_di_Napoli_-_Strumenti_di_chirurgiaSome of the traditional Materials Handling Processes

  • Removal of Materials for surface texturizing, levelling, form-making, polishing, finishing etc.
  • Addition of Material for levelling, filling-in, daubing, coating, plastering, rendering etc.
  • Joining of Materials by mechanical (screwing, tying), adhesion, proximate placement, knitting, knotting etc.
  • Downsizing of Material by breaking, cutting, splitting, chopping etc.
  • Extraction of Material by mining, excavation, selection, separation, sieving, winnowing, floating, fishing, cultivation, hunting etc.
  • Plastic Moulding of flours, clays, minerals etc.

640px-Right_Ground Roller Compactor Wikipedia Image byTechniques of Materials handling include: Shaping of the form is the prime technique for treatment of materials, by plastic moulding, casting, extruding, pressing, shaping, embossing, reforming, deforming, removal of material, stretching, compressing and forging. Materials like Clay with important quality of plasticity allowed the shaping at ambient temperature. Materials like Wood and Stone were shaped by removal of the mass. Metals were workable by heating, beating (forging) and addition or removal of the mass.Wattle_and_daub_constructionMaterials’ Depositions are used to add upon mass or surface, and create mixes with use of the same or foreign materials for alloying, embellishing, cladding, layering, fixing, daubing, coating etc. Materials’ Compositions are used in assembling, entwining, joining, tying, bracing, weaving, knitting, embroidery, stitching, etc. Forming Composites of materials is used through Matrix and Filler mixes, such as layering, particle composites, etc.Weaving_espartoCutting and crushing are the oldest of all material processes. Farming, irrigation, land levelling, minerals mining, cleaning the hunt and the hides, collecting and preparing fuel woods, skinning and shaving of hides, debarking timers, all require some form of cutting. Bare hands or sharp stones and sticks used as the cutting tools were aided by percussive tools like pounding sticks or stones and leveraged by long arms. Hammering was used for grinding foods, breaking and crushing nuts and compressing leather. Tools and arms served different purposes and required materials, creating processes of tying, wrapping, holding, fixing etc.

Peasant_in_the_vegetable_gardenShaving is done to remove material’s components such as outward hair or fibres, layers, etc. Leather surfaces are shaved to remove the surface hair and also for thinning. Leathers are also surface split to separate leather suitable for uppers and soles. The palm leaves are shaved to remove the stems and make them smoother for writing. Tree-barks are removed by axes and choppers to retard insect attack and increase moisture removal. Timbers are re-cut or planned with finer tools to achieve a smoother surface. Timbers are split very finely to create veneers. Wood planning is also a shaving technique. Carpets and rugs require close shearing by scissors to shave of protruding fibres.

Wet kneading shapingKneading soft or plastic materials to shape them, extract juices, forming homogeneous mixes were important material phase change processes. These were multi variant processes and gave magical capacity of material transformation. These were easiest and territorial universal processes. Using water for kneading, grinding, rubbing, levelling, polishing, coating, drilling, cutting, liquidizing, separation by flotation, emulsion-making, are processes used in food preparation, ceramics and metallurgical works.

Fireplace Cook Fire Wood Flame Heat Boil WaterFire processing of materials created a whole new set of chemistry. It began by cooking, but most important innovations included clay baking into ceramics and reshaping metal nodules by hot forging. Later it included refining metals, and processes of oxidation, carbonation, etc. Controlled burning allowed development of many processes and products, by selection of fuel material, distancing, exposure timing, environmental conditions, shielding, etc.

Controlled Burning Gasbbq

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STRATIFICATION of VISION

Post 663  –by Gautam Shah   (Lecture series: Space Perception’ -Article-II of 15).

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View_of_Central_Park_from_The_Metropolitan_Museum_of_Art_(425424361)

One of the most important functions of architectural openings is the composition of vision. And the fascinating aspect of the visual makeup, inward or outward, is the stratification of the view. The stratification is circumstantial, intentional or accidental.

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The view of outside or inside gains different dimension depending on how far or close, one is from the picture plane (face of the opening), what is covered within the nominal cone of vision, and the postural-gestural movements of the head and body to scan the view. Architectonic elements also mask, frame and filter the view.

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port hole

Regular architectural openings, and incidental ones like the crevices or holes, are effective when the surfaces like wall or roof are very extensive. Openings arouse curiosity to discover the realm on the other side. Windows, can be enlarged or reduced in size to regulate the scope of vision, but doors cannot be modified due to the basic anthropometric requirements. For visual makeup openings are transgressed outward and inward, through the floor or roof.

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Low Level Window

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Window in glass floor

The mechanics of vision depend on several factors, such as: a vision cones, extent of the framing element, sill and lintel level, shading devices, depth of opening, design or configuration, quality of glazing, level of maintenance, differences of illumination between outside and inside, amount of the glare, treatments on internal and external faces of openings, quality of external surroundings, internal reflections, tasks, orientation, climatic conditions, illumination conditions, need for protection and privacy, etc.

The visual makeup also depends on the position of the viewer.

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Visual scope and depth of openings: A viewer deep inside, away from the opening, gets a nominal straight or horizontal view. But as one comes closer, the scope of vision increases. The visual makeup is surmounted by architectural elements like overhangs, horizontal fins, the sill height, height of the opening in comparison to eye level (in supine-sitting-or standing position) and depth of opening.

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Visual scope for clerestory openings: For a person positioned close to the plane of opening, if the sill level is above eye level, the range of visual scope is small. This scope becomes larger as one moves away from the plane of opening.

Bed Bed Room Home Sky Lights House Room Modern

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Visual scope and the datum of floor: Tall buildings (multi-storeyed) have several floors, each of which offers different vistas. For a person positioned, approximately as deep as the internal height of the floor, the visual scape is nearly horizontal. So at lower floor one sees street and surrounding activities, from mid floors the view consists of horizon consisting of tree or building tops, but on upper floors the view is of the horizon. In the second and third categories, at night additional flickering brightness from bottom up sources is very distractive, such as from the head light beams of moving vehicles, street lights, road-light signals, illumination or glow from hoardings and neighbouring buildings. These reflections fall on the ceilings and sometimes on the wall, but distort the interior visual effects.

looking down

Ceiling_to_floor_windows_at_Jinnah_International_Airport

Surrounds of the openings, all four sides, jambs, sills, or bottom of the door-heads, alter the inward and outward vision scope. The sloped surfaces due to chamferring on the outward or inward faces, enlarged the perceptive size of the opening. It however made the perception depth ambiguous due to the foreshortening.

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Downward View Tracy_Caldwell_Dyson_in_Cupola_ISS

● The dividers or sub elements of openings, such as traceries, mullions, muntins, are primarily used as mid support in the frame or sash, and divide the glazing into smaller units. Early age glazing units were small but had fuzzy transparency and wavy patterns of making. These crude smaller units, however divided the view and made it bearable.

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Openings in moving vehicles offer dynamic scenery, where the objects could be both, stationary as well as moving. Uniformly shaped and sized objects, in nearby visual range seem more dynamic, but variegated objects in distance, seem to be less moving. These two fields when viewed through separated horizontal sections of an opening, pose distinctly different scenes. Such experiences are more common in carriages with additional windows at higher level.

Slit openings

Stratification is very important issue with openings of fixed glazing and shop front windows, both of which serve the function of a picture window that frames a scene or to displayed items.

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Fixed glazing windows show a scene consisting of several layers depending on the point of observation and floor datum. These layers, typically at lower section consist of ground level shrubs and movement of people and vehicles. At mid level the scene consists of mid-portion of trees (effects of breeze-wind) and perhaps deeper vista. At higher level, (the top lite) mainly sky and upper sections of very tall buildings (becoming impersonal due to greater inclination-distance) are seen. Of the three, the change is more pronounced at the lower section, and often curtained of with ‘parlour curtains’.

485028169_373693d56d_zShop front windows reflect the opposite side scene, in mainly two distinct strata. Upper part, if shadowed by solar inclination or overhang, has little reflection, but lower section has strong reflection (called ‘bounce-back’). Reflections at lower section do not allow view inside, unless interior portions have additional illumination.

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This is the II article (of intended 15) in series ‘Space Perception’ that will form a course of One semester.

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MODELLING of OBJECTS in SPACE -issues of design -20

Post 662 -by Gautam Shah

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Objects in space, like architectural features, architectonic elements, furniture, furnishings and often occupants, are all moderated by scaling, positioning, contextual setting, distancing angling and sensorial attributes. In modern sense modelling is considered to be gestural and postural positioning of static or dynamic nature where, ‘dressed or configured’ entities and regulated surroundings enact an intended effect.

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For a designer the purpose of modelling is to expose objects in a controlled manner. The controlled manner is either obvious or discreet. For a designer modelling offers individual recognition, inter-group relationships, comparison with others, signification and indication.

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For modelling all sensorial faculties are stimulated, but visual perception followed by aural and tactile senses are extensively used. Modelling is also considered as the representation of an ‘additional dimension’ in a ‘two-dimensional image’, or revelation of additional information.

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Modelling is a term closer to cartooning or cartoon making of the middle ages. Artists used to prepare full size replica-images of objects (trees, furniture, architectural elements) and common figures (saints, gods, angels, grotesque-forms) on starched fabric, paper or parchments, for tracing them out in murals and paintings. These were often leased out to others. But, most important modelling processes that of highlighting the form was not explored here.

Henry Moore Double Oval

Modelling at a very simplistic level has been used as a tool for highlighting individual objects by creating contrasting background, emphasizing the silhouette or by delineating the outer most edge with heavier line. Modelling by scaling is also much used method. Here important objects, story line actors or events are represented in larger scale, frontal position or on higher elevation, centric or perspective a focal point, or with brilliant detailing.

Modernism Concrete Le Corbusier India Ahmedabad

Important features of architecture were emphasized by designing illumination sources like openings and reflective planes. Le Corbusier always used reflective ceilings, walls or curvilinear planes (inside faces of cones, drums) against openings. These not only marked the opening emphatically but created a self-sustaining model. The same techniques were used in paintings. Henry Moore has in his sculptures explored the voids for modelling. Fashion shows for apparel are conducted on long raised walkways that offers bottom-up views for the connoisseurs, but few are inclined for ground level walkways, but rarely for zigzag movements. The later proposal makes it difficult for ‘modelling’.

Fashion Shows

Stage performance shows have audience exposure from limited range of angle, and modelling for such static position events are not very difficult. Media shows and soap-operas require very different norms of object modelling. The purpose of modelling is the view captured through the camera. There are multiple cameras with static or moving stations, different capacities of zooming and depth-width of field; all these need to be instantly fulfilled. But the illumination, positioning, depth, highlights etc. cannot be changed for each shot or frame, rather remains consistent. Instead online editing soft tools are used for the required modelling effects. Studio news casts are very fixed events, and so modelling remains equally static. To add life, live scene merging, morphing, voice-over, scene mixing etc. is used, but with poor results.

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Architectural modelling was a style of presentation or a manner of expression through surrogate like scaled model or drawings. But architects have been subtly or explicitly involved in ‘forming’ their work as an intended impression. The designed entity is made to fit in the existential conditions or the interventions (like landscape) stretch beyond the nominal domain. It has many parallels in Art.

Marina Hotel Dubai

Architectural modelling has three basic approaches. At one level the observer moves around an object, for different tasks, in variable environmental conditions, and at varying distances and angles. At another level the objects shift (including other occupants) for the stationary observer. And in some circumstances the observer and observed entity both switch their positions.

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Objects are scaled larger then functionally required (e.g. gates and door portals are large, but functional shutters are smaller). Objects are framed by larger but enclosing forms to emphasize smaller entities. Strategically placed openings not only capture a view, but are positioned as an object in the interior space. Top-heavy objects like shading devices, or bottom-heavy objects like pedestals, top-light entities like steeples, and bottom light stilted structures like gazebos or canopies were historical examples, but the language continues. In every building there are few points where modelling is obvious, like entrances, exits, stairs, escalators, receptions. Similarly some large areas like atrium, lobbies, passages, foyers, halls that need elemental modelling to divide-spread attention on multiple focuses. Distancing and angling are explored in public spaces like railway stations, airports, plazas etc. where spaces have multiple height connections.

Volga-Don Canal

Modelling of static objects, where the observer moves around it, is comparatively easy due to the fewer dynamics. First strategy could be to restrict the distance, angle, speed and range of movements of the observers. Second way could be to restrict the schedule of exposure and take advantage of sunlight. Third approach may regulate the encounter by suitable framing and occlusion. Fourth system involves designing a set of experiences to precondition the observer.

Modelling La_ola,_Jorge_Oteiza

In real life experiences we see the architectural entity and the user-beholder, both as dynamic set. We encounter such things, at real level in rides of amusement parks, trains, buses, plazas, planes, helicopters etc. and in hyper reality of games, training consoles, non-invasive medical instruments etc.

Holographic-3d-avatar

Opening systems like windows, skylights, clerestories provide the necessary natural luminescence (brightness or intensity) to show the form, colour and texture of spatial objects. Objects are perceived mainly due to the direction of light and its ever-changing nature. These are often enhanced, contrasted or subdued by reflectance and also by artificial illumination. The size and intensity of the luminescence determine the shadow density and so affect the ‘modelling’.

Sun and shadows Wikipedia Image by Karen Green

The first traces of the word modelling derives from French modelle or modèle, Italian modello or Latin modellus or modulus, as something made to scale, manner or measure architect’s set of designs, likeness made to scale, measure, standard (from root> med -to take appropriate measures). The sense to showcase or display garments or fashion design is comparatively recent’.

Francois-Marius_Granet_Alchemist_FA_2000.003.041

This is the 20 th (last) article of 20 topics series on ISSUES for DESIGN …. but there are many draft articles on PC (Geometry in Design, Tactility in Spaces, Styling the styles, Designing Neighbourhood spaces, Brevity in Design), and that tempts me to continue.

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SOUND and SPACE -issues of design -19

Post 661 -by Gautam Shah

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Philharmonie im Gasteig, München Wikipedia Image by Andreas Praefcke

A space is perceived through three main senses -seeing, hearing and touching. The three senses mutually compensate and reinforce the perception. The perception occurs through coordinated stereo perception of sensory elements like two eyes and ears, and spatially distributed elements for touch. All three senses, scale the extent and depth of space. Physiologically, hearing diminishes with distance; seeing fades with reduction of illumination and touch becomes ineffective with the loss of tangency. Psychologically, however, the all three experiences remain associated with places, spaces, seasons, moods and people. The three senses format the perception of space. The space experience gets reinforced by the lingering effects like echoes, reverberation, and afterimages.

A group of musicians; representing the sense of hearing

Sound dwells in two distinct entities: space and time. The realm of a sound originator -the speaker, a singer, perceives substantial sound from the same space –the vicinity. The world of listeners is spatially separated and distinct, but has slight time delay. This duality is negotiated with some form of calibrations to arrive at common perception. The musicians and speakers tune and improvise once inside a space and begin to deliver. Oftentimes, we shout in to the telephone, believing the reception at the other end is equally bad. Similarly pauses in speech or music by the sound originator, if occupied by other ’disturbances’ (echoes, reverberated sounds, background noises, local absorption), the equation between the listener and sound maker fails. This is one of the reasons why it is nearly impossible to faithfully record a real out of the door profile of sound. What we listen in a place is ‘a convolution between the original sound and response of the room.

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Sound is a spatial entity. Sound-spaces are associated with shapes, sizes, materials and memories. In outdoor unbounded spaces the environmental elements like terrain, components of atmosphere and vegetation are modulators of the sound. In the long run these elements format the quality of speech and singing of people of the locality are affected by the surroundings. In ethnic societies the diction gets reinforced, whereas with migrants, it persists in traces for several generations.

The sense of Hearing in ART

The sound is also a temporal phenomenon, a dynamic happening. The sound-happening persist for a very long time and spreads through cutouts, chowks, openings like doors and windows, gaps, cleavages, holes and cracks. Sounds have an eerie feeling in empty spaces due to unpredictable time delays, amplification and directionality. The time-sound response in such spaces fudges the scale and materials. Cluttered spaces have loss of detail due to subjugation of background noises. The connect with external noises provide eventual reference to the personal domain.

Spain_Andalusia_Seville_BW_2015-10-23_12-30-25_stitch

Sound in architecture is heard through the physical presence and sensitivity. Sound induces emotional connect and sensual responses. Inside or outside, materials, scale, memory and familiarity, all create a ‘sense of sound. The sound acquires a personal identity. Sound is both a ‘tangible and intangible sensational atmospheric quality’. It allows the individual to physically hear, as well as feel and sense the characteristics present in architecture. So, Sound like the illumination helps in cognition of the spatial information, and these processes occur concurrently and reinforcing each other. Hearing and seeingenable us to communicate, to orient ourselves, and to recognize danger.

Familiar Spaces Hunter's home, by Henry Voordecker

Peter Zumthor outlines that, “Interiors are like large instruments, collecting sound, amplifying it, transmitting it elsewhere. That has to do with the shape peculiar to each room and with the surface of materials they contain, and the way those materials have been applied.” (Atmospheres, p. 29).

Peter Zumthor

The simultaneity of images and sounds is most important aspect of communication for cinema, advertisements, multi-media presentations, games, products, telephony etc. to construct or mask the reality. Typically pressing buttons needs concurrency of tactile, audio, and visual experiences, and these may not be real or life-like but one that arouses satisfaction of an action happening. In certain aural-visual environments like games, films, TV programmes, telephony, medical examination equipments, the visual data is too consistent, but is variegated by addition of sounds as feedback or feed forward clues. Similarly addition of beats or predictable rhythms adds measurable familiarity.

Marionettes from the Swedish Cottage Marionette Theatre, New York, USA production of Cinderella Samba

Sound is transitory, so the rate of fading and its directionality, as ‘aural impressions’ must become elements of design. But rarely architectural spaces are created for the ‘sound-scape’. Many sound-space installations are created, some in bounded and many in open areas. Bounded spaces are handled with uncertain volumetric maneuvers and surface manipulations’, or with gadgetry to alter the quality of sound production. Open spaces are more scary as the volume is not maneuverable and surfaces beyond the echo-reverberation range. Here too, the gadgetry is used to alter the quality of sound, but effects are sporadic.

Instrument Musical Clarinet Sound Music

A street or neighbourhood reveals itself more at night. The sounds impinging into the interior space with little variations of illumination (of moon light, street light glow, and vehicles head lights) bring forward the depth of the spatial surroundings. But human settlements are designed for visual and aural spaces of day-time only. The public spaces turn unfamiliar (and unfriendly) at night. At night the aural space seems more holistic then visual space, because sound seems to transcend many obstacles or barriers.

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This is the 19 th article of 20 topics series on ISSUES for DESIGN

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DESIGN STAKEHOLDERS

Post 660 -by Gautam Shah

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A Design is generated for many types of ‘people’. Some are ‘clients’, because they appoint and pay to the designer, and/or finance+manage the project. A user of the designed entity (building, interior design, products etc.) may be a real consumer or a hypothetical profile framed by planning-marketing consultant or team. It is possible that Design can have many levels of consumers like occupiers, regular and casual visitors and lay-people (uninvolved in design but ‘onlookers’, ‘pride feelers’ or citizens). All these, designers, financiers, project conveners, managers, consumers, occupiers, visitors and onlookers, are stakeholders.

Stakeholders meet

A stakeholder is a person, group or organization, having interest, concerns or grievances for the objectives, policies, plans of actions or effort. These persons are inside or outside the organization, but show a characteristic proximity, intimacy, knowledgeability, and have degree of physical affectations and urgency.

Women at farmers rally Bhopal India

Stakeholders Interests : Stakeholders’ interests are positive or negative but may show contradicting interests. Secondary stakeholders are sometimes indirectly affected, more distanced and may not acutely represent the urgency. Internal stakeholders, at organizational level are like staff, suppliers, consultants, financiers, investors, etc. The stakeholders’ interests could be economics, social, work conditions, safety and security, environmental concerns, public resources and enforcement of Government and other obligatory regulations. At other level the stakeholders could have political interest, propagation of ideology, support or negation of specific materials, processes or technologies.

Gujarat High Court Building Ahmedabad India

Managing Stakeholders : Stakeholders represent bridges of social connections, which if properly cultivated help public acceptance of designers’ works. The acceptances include new clients, approvals, grants, loans. The social bridges can act as buffers, to tide over the shortfall, on quality expectations, delivery schedules, budget overruns and professional competition. Stakeholders increase the business credibility of the organization, and personal social reliability.

Women_at_a_SHG_Meeting

How to deal with Stakeholders : It is easier to deal with stakeholders as a group than in isolation. Recognize stakeholders for their geographic and class of affectation. The real affectations could be economic, social, safety, encroachment or compromise of rights and opportunities for participation in the process. A stakeholder or the group may want public exposure, a media story or political gratification. Stakeholders are societal inluencers and demand certain respect, and this can be offered through participation or engagements. Both of these can be achieved by keeping them informed in design conception, planning, decision making, implementation, and evaluation processes.

Reagan sitting withstakeholders of Afghanistan-Pakistan

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PERCEPTION of CONTRAST -Issues for design -18

Post 659 -by Gautam Shah

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Contrast is a deviation from the expected. It is the realization of a thing against, the obvious, existing, notional or ideological percept. Contrast is seen between nominal or obvious things, versus abnormal or non-perceived conditions. Like a full vs empty streets, clear vs fuzzy, pleasant smell vs unpalatable taste, dark-hot vs bright-cool, vibrating but noiseless; These are some such expectations vs perceptions.

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Contrast is a comparison and occurs in some reference. The reference forming nexus is proffered in real or a hyper realm. But the ‘thing’ and its context are not always in the same space or time setting. Contrast makes a ‘thing’ stronger by juxtaposition of some weaker, duller or different elements.

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Contrast is detected by two distinctive processes. The perception, is a combined experience of different sensorial faculties. And it is also a process of cognition that defines the strongest experience forming the main object or foreground, and all other as the background. The backgrounds offer the context.

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Sensorial faculties have their own scale of strength, and some have bipolarity. Typically eyes and ears continuously back up the space-position details. Similarly nose and tastes buds in the mouth, are closely located, and so show time-simultaneity in definition of edible things. The space-time references are filled in by other senses. Multilateral nodes of touch support such a process.

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The foreground-background divergence manifests in time-space reference. The juxtaposition, however, is not in the same space or time setting. The nexus could be in real or hyper a real realm. The hyper realm consists of experiences and resulting expectations. One has seen neither heaven nor hell, but both pose concurrently as extreme contrast. One of the two could be real and other through anecdotical knowledge. Here the contrasts are realized through recall. The contrast is relevant till foreground-background simultaneity remains within a fathomable range of perception. Architectural entities contrast in size, scale, style, placement, orientation, and environmental conditions, thematic content etc.

Chandigadh India

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The contrast offers a scale. Objects forming the contrasting zones have shapes, extent, proportion, and indicate a direction. The depth is the obvious phenomenon of foreground-background differentiation. Other two dimensions of the scale are formed by the shape and its extent. The fourth dimension of reality occurs with vivid scenes. Here, if the background is dull or static, the foreground contrasts intensely. And, where the foreground is dull or rapidly varying, the particulars of things and happenings fail to register effectively. The perceiver becomes confused and disinterested, if ‘back and foreground’ elements fail to present relationships in terms of now-then, here-there, far-near etc. In Design, there is always a conflict between context and contrast, requiring equilibrium.

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Contrast makes things conspicuous to attract the senses. And the contrast to be obvious, occurs with some reference. The reference is formed by a ‘thing’ that is stronger by juxtaposition of some weaker, duller or different elements, by its power of persistence in reality, and as a recall. Often clues are included in the composition for the recall. The clues could be similarities, leftover trails of the past happenings or subtle insertions relevant only to the person experiencing it or in that time and space. Other design elements that offer contrast include presence of directions, sequences, repetitions, occlusion by frames, thematic continuities, sensorial consistencies, associated fables and explanations.

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A design has internal and external context. Internal contrasts are part of the designed entity, so within the ambit of real experience. External contrasts occur through the embedded or implied metaphoric clues for connection.

Poblenou-Contrasts

Architecture occurs in the context of its terrain, environment and stake holders (humans and tasks) and incorporeal parameters like weather, culture, economics, social and politics. These are universal posers, some find them suffocating in creation of outstanding and long-lasting contrast. So contrast is realized by negation of the contextual elements. Architects resort to attitudes like deconstructivist, monumentalist, eccentricist etc. Architecture has been for a very long time and substantially static formation, but now for evocation of contrast, not only the form is made dynamic but the perceiver-users are made mobile and hyperactive. These experiences began in rapidly changing environmental conditions, unsettled positions of perceptions, gyrating conditions, gravity less conditions, videos and movies.

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In art work like paintings aberrations of perception arise from how spaces are postulated by extent and depth, and time is suggested with metaphoric details. The way colours are seen or weights are felt is due to such contrasts. Our past experience and desires make us see or experience things before they happen at closer locations.

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A silhouette is a very specific condition of contrast. Here the proportion of dark-light is of course important, but the edge conditions like shapes, arrangement, sizes etc. determine the effectiveness of contrast. Silhouette work in two ways: One due to the stark difference between the background and foreground, and Two due the lack of details in the foreground object. A glare is a form extreme contrast which fuzzes the foreground.

Vatican Silhouette

Camouflage is in a way opposite of contrast. It forms from the skillful exploitation of the contrast, though the resultant scenario is cacophonous. The noise occurs from anomalous conditions between the perception and its cognition. It is also the difference between real experience and the expectations. Camouflage morphs the foreground with background, alternatively the foreground turns fuzzy due to the reflections, multiple impressions, askew positioning, colour intonation, altered scaling etc.

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Contrast occurs due to cascade of light, glare, echoes or reverberation, masking (of smell, taste), screening, covering, hiding reflections, and framing.

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Cascading Light and camaflauge

Protective scaffolding over Taj Mahal AgraIndia 1943

Uniform colour

This is the 18 th article of 20 topics series on ISSUES for DESIGN

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WORK PROCESSES -simplified overview

Post 657 -by Gautam Shah

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Workshops till middle age were craftspeople oriented. Mechanical power drives allowed heavy duty jobs and precision or micro work. Mechanical devices like gears, leather belt transmission and need for greater productivity by exclusive task assignment provided standardized products on a massive scale. Some degree of linear production planning was occurring. The power shaft forced organization of workshops on linearity. The line production methods promoted productivity through time management and sequencing of task procedures. In many instances tasks began to be assimilated and handled simultaneously in a single time slot.

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power shaft pulley beltsDuring the early part of the 20th C. machines became adjuncts to assembly-line production systems and multi tasking. For this machine became a device to handle a variety of tools, often simultaneously. The machines were operating at a faster speed requiring equally fast control system.

595px-Machine_shop_in_the_Government_Printing_OfficeMechanical power transmission systems were concurrent systems for the entire workshop, but the impediment was removed with the electric power. Electrical power offered local control through an electric motor (horse power) rating, speed variation through voltage control, and operational control like start-stop, etc. Independent electric powered machines with faster and multi tasking capabilities, however, were now difficult for human supervision. Control devices were actuators, for process regulation.

workers with shaft power transmission

Control devices or systems are of two types: A Feed-forward system has inputs or predicts unusual happening, but would not oversee or govern the actualization of the action. A Feedback system improvises strategy for future actions in many instances oversees actions being taken.

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Feed-forward systems: Jacquard weaving loom uses a feed-forward control as a programmed punched card to weave a pattern, but cannot stop the loom if there is a short feed of thread. Similarly a cutting machine cuts a large sized shape by moving the cutter tracing a small scale pattern through the arm of a pantograph.

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Feedback systems: A wind mill keeps facing the wind with the help of a tail wane. A pressure cooker seals itself with heightened internal pressure of steam. Pressure valves are weight calibrated opening themselves at certain pressure levels only.

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Control devices and systems have led to automation of processes. Automation began in the late 1940s with the development of the mechanical devices for moving and positioning objects on a production line, though observation and manual intervention were necessary. During 1960s digital computers began to offer control systems in three different manners: For supervisory or optimizing control, Direct digital control, and Hierarchy control. In the first instance, for the supervisory control a computer sets parametric levels for optimizing the operations. In the second instance, for the direct-digital control, several devices feed data to a single processor, which then decides a strategy of operation. The advantage here is very fast and objective evaluation of the data. The third system the hierarchy control applies to all the plant-control situations concurrently, often with the actuation of the control mechanisms.

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