FRANK LLOYD WRIGHT and ILLUMINATION


Post-752 -by Gautam Shah
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The three masters, Architects, Frank Lloyd Wright, Le Corbusier and Mies Van der Rohe of the Modern Age, each had a different approach to Architecture of Window Design. In earlier age Andrea Palladio also designed a classical form of opening system. A comparative evaluation of modern day masters treatment of opening-system is discussed here.
An earlier post on LE CORBUSIER and ILLUMINATION, published here > https://interiordesignassist.wordpress.com/2020/12/24/le-corbusier-and-illumination/
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FRANK LLOYD WRIGHT:

FLW by 1893 was an independent architect, and began to design buildings with strong inclination to Queen Anne style. But soon enough he began to break away from the Victorian inspiration to a rational style. He devised own Prairie style houses.

Queen Anne Style

Prairie style of Houses by FLLW

The rectilinear window design was to set a varied direction for the next 25 years. Wright had once said ‘beautiful buildings I could build, if only it were unnecessary to cut holes in them.’ This was exemplified in the Prairie house windows. Windows were no longer punctures in the wall or an element of the wall, but rather began to be entities on their own.

8 Exterior_FLW_at_Crystal_Bridges_Photo_credit_Nancy_Nolan_Photography

He created a visual interest under the darkened space below the deep overhangs. There was little reflective gloss over the exterior glass surface, as covered by the shadows of elongated eaves. He also began to open up the interior spaces with clear glass doors and windows as in Prairie houses.
Wright began to negotiate corners with windows to break the box like Victorian architecture of the age. The interiors became one end-less flow of interconnected spaces.

21 Chicago Robie house FLLW interconnected free flow interiors 1908-1910 image by 21 Chicago Robie house FLLW interconnected free flow interiors 1908-1910 Wikipedia Image by Sailko

4 Deep overhangs 5960142855_23f2b74cfa_c

He never accepted the then current –‘poetry-crushing a guillotine’ double hand sash window, but used the long casement shutters, stretching as a single panel, uninterrupted by any mid bars, from lintel to sill level.

19 Frank Lloyd Wright Home and StudioTeemu008 from Palatine, Illinois

According to Wright the ‘long casement shuttersbrought the outside in more effectively than the double-hung sash’. He preferred long line of casement shutters as a single panel like a glazed wall. The open expanse of the casement shutters, its glass and the light from the back face, also, became the medium for illuminating the stained glass patterns.

11 Frank_lloyd_wright,_finestra_a_trittico_da_avery_coonley_playhouse,_riverside,_illinois,_1912

7 Chicago,_robie_house_di_frank_lloyd_wright,_1908-1910,_salone_al_primo_piano,_08_vetrata_originale_1

After a European tour that exposed him to the Modernist Movements of the time, Wright depended on straight parallel lines and repeated use of small squares as pattern.

19 Window from the Darwin D. Martin House, Buffalo Wikipedia image by Sailko

Wright’s glass designs in an earlier phase were influenced by William Morris and Louis H. Sullivan. He, instead of the opalescent picturesque effect offered by commercial glass designers like Tiffany and John La Farge, relied more on clear glass, abstract geometric patterns and discreet colouring to create what he called ‘light screens’, evoking the Japanese Shoji screens.

17 Wood masking over the glass Frank Lloyd Wrights Pope-Leighey House Cliff from Arlington, Virginia, USA

9 Glass masking with pattern 48937462216_f40e2b5b7f_c

In the later part of 1920’s, Wright also began to use wood muntins along with colourless frosting as tools for patterning. With the Usonian house in the 1940’s, the window patterns were created by perforating plywood panels and sandwiching the plate of glass between them.

10 Frank_Lloyd_Wright_Studio_window_DSCN9806

The extensive glass surfaces of the stretched casement windows were always occupied by straight lines patterns, through restrained and transparent stained-glass colouring, reminiscent of Japanese Shoji screens. In the later phase he began to use wood mid-members and opalescent frosting for pattern making.

3 Horizontl Emphasis in openings Unitarian Meeting House, Madison, Wisconsin, Frank Lloyd Wright,httpswww.flickr.comphotossswj4076412701027641270102_595b1e53c5_c

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Glass is recognized as having two distinctly different faces. Iridescent on the outside face due to reflections, and a ‘water-white’ flawlessly clear and non glossy-surface on the interior face.

22 Robie House Window Wall Wikipedia Image Sailko

This tradition of experimentation with windows and other forms of openings continued till the Johnson Wax building. Not only the windows and openings, along with the sources of natural illumination were restated. Same innovations were continued in formatting the interior spaces. In Johnson wax building, Wright wanted to create an internal building, without any worthwhile exterior view. The glass tubes in Johnson building negotiated curves, which would not have been possible through flat glass panes. It was a highly unique glazing approach, though not efficient in actual working. The glass tubes in replaced the stiff flat glass panels, but turned frosted or translucent. The natural sources of illumination in the interior space were more attuned with the form of architectural elements.

16 Frank_Lloyd_Wrights_Pope-Leighey_House_(3378314458)

18 FRANK LLOYD WRIGHT Glass Tubes WINDOWS

Wright migrated to Arizona each winter for health reasons, to escape the harsh Wisconsin winters. In 1937 Wright began to establish a place in the desert that integrated the terrain, climate and the users. He continuously improvised the entity. Wright used translucent canvas to act as a roof (later replaced by plastic because of the intense wear from the Arizona sun). In the south side rooms the walls did not reach the roof, but stopped at a lower level, though covered by long overhang as the sun-shade and light reflector.

12 Talesen West

14 Taliesen-Drafting-Studio

15 TWlivingroom

FLW used the deep shadows to eliminate the exterior iridescence and added colour staining and patterning to break the transparency. Corbusier used the opaque iridescence of the exterior surface to juxtapose the exterior masonry or cement surfaces. Mies, on the other hand, used the exterior mirror like gloss to reflect the changes occurring in the surroundings concurrently juxtaposing the interiors. This helped to reduce the massiveness of the built-form.

20 Springfield IL Front Entrance, Dana-Thomas House, Old Aristocracy Hill FLLW Flickr 4361033655

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SOLAR ENERGY -Series Climate and Comfort 2 of12


Post-750 -by Gautam Shah

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1 452444c441a757dbc28d468df4064eca68d4de02

The Sun is an extremely powerful energy source, as a result of the nuclear fusion reactions. Some of this (a small fraction) is transmitted to the Earth through the space, as electromagnetic radiation. The intensity of solar radiation at the Earth’s surface is actually quite low, because the Earth’s atmosphere and its clouds absorb or scatter as much as half of all the incoming sunlight. The strength of solar radiation at the outer edge of the Earth’s atmosphere (the solar constant), is 1.37 kW per sq.m. The intensity of energy actually available at the Earth’s surface is less than the solar constant, because of absorption and scattering of radiant energy. The process Climate starts with the arrival of radiant energy (radiation) from the Sun, near our planet.

3 egyptian-1823488_960_720

Energy enters into the precinct of Earth from many sources and in different forms. Earth receives electromagnetic energy from other bodies in space and it also experiences gravitational energy associated with their masses. However, the most important is the Solar energy. Earth receives only 0.002 % of the total radiation emitted by the sun and yet it provides the main energy input for the Earth system. The solar radiation from Sun consists of, on average 7% ultraviolet (short wavelengths), 50% visible wave bands and 43% infrared (long wavelengths) radiation. Almost all of the absorbed energy is matched by energy emitted back into space, forming a Balance. Some residual energy can lead to global warming. This has in past one century, increased, from 0.6 watts/sq mt to 0.79.

8 World Map of Global Horizontal Irradiation, Wikipedia Image by SolarGIS © 2013 GeoModel Solar

During its passage through the space, the solar radiation loses little energy. But, on entering the atmosphere, it encounters molecules of gases, liquids and solids. Ozone and water vapour are major absorbers of radiation, but affect specific parts of the solar spectrum. Ozone absorbs ultraviolet radiation, having a profound effect on the development of life. Water vapour absorbs an infrared sector. Gases and suspended matter disperse the incident solar radiation, into multi-directional radiation, some of which passes back to the space. In the visible spectrum the blue light is scattered to a greater extent than other wave lengths, resulting in predominantly blue sky. Scattering by suspended materials is termed as diffused selection. The amount of scattering that takes place depends on the size of the particles, particle density in the air and the distance radiation travels in the atmospheric layer containing the particles. Sahara dust storms can reduce the solar radiation transmission by 30% and causing a fall of 6.0 C.

10 image shows a map of earth with various color-coded regions illustrating the average amount of exposure to direct sunlight Wikipedia Image by xiloetekllc

Atmosphere absorbs approximately 17 units out of the total 100 units of the solar radiation. This small component contributes to an increase in the internal energy store of the atmosphere. Approximately 29 units are lost to the space by reflection, of which 6 units are lost by scattering and 23 units are lost by cloud reflection. 54 units are transmitted to the Earth’s surface of which 36 units arrive as direct radiation and 18 units by diffuse radiation through the scattering.

11 Image showing how energy enters the atmosphere from space and the earth and is absorbed or reflected from the greenhouse gas layer. httpswww.flickr.comphotosmitopencourseware3590277566

On average, the Earth receives 340.4 watts /square meter. All sunshine falls on the daytime side, and the numbers are much higher at local noon. Of this 340.4 watts per square meter: 99.9 watts are reflected back into space by clouds, dust, snow and the Earth’s surface. The remaining 240.5 watts are absorbed (about a quarter by the atmosphere and the rest by the surface of the Earth). Earth’s surface gets direct sunshine that is only, half of what the warmed atmosphere sends. But together (energy from sun and from the atmosphere) add up to 504 watts/sq mt. This radiation is transformed into thermal energy within the Earth system.

4 Temple relief of Akhenaten from East Karnak, 18th Dynasty Wikipedia Image by Einsamer Schütze

7 Munae Throne back depictung the Sun God Guatemala, Late Classic period (ca 750 CE). Wikipedia Image by Ymblanter

Solar radiation interacts with the atmosphere. Some energy is absorbed, re-radiated and reflected while some is transmitted to the surface of the Earth. The radiation that penetrates the surface and is absorbed and heats up the surface, evaporate the water, melt the snow, generates winds, and causes a variety of chemical reactions. Natural collection of solar energy occurs in the Earth’s atmosphere, oceans, and plant life. Approximately 30% of the solar energy reaching the outer edge of the atmosphere is consumed in the hydrological cycle, which produces rainfall and the potential energy of water in mountain streams and rivers.

5 Surya the Hindu sun god Asian Art Museum San Francisco Wikipedia Image by Ms Sarah Welch

6 Sun god inside Karni Mata Temple Bikaner Rajasthan India Wikipedia Image by Schwiki

The Solar energy received on Earth varies from location to location, due to, the solar flares and solar spots, relative position and so the distance of the Earth on the elliptical orbit around the Sun. The Earth receives slightly more radiation in January than in July (+ or -3.4%). Solar radiation received on Earth depends on the angle of an incidence of solar rays, which is determined by the tilt of the Earth’s axis with respect to its orbital plane or the angle of latitude. Regions beyond 23 N and 23 S, are exposed to Sun only for a part of the `Season’, due to the tilt of the Earth’s axis of rotation. The amount of solar energy that can be collected also depends on the orientation of the collecting object.

15 Variability of Solar Energy Wikipedia Image by CharlesMJames

The upper surface of clouds are good reflector of the solar radiation. The amount of reflection depends on the cloud cover, type and thickness. A dense cloud may reflect 50% where as a heavy storm cloud may reflect 90% of the radiation. If there is persistent cloud cover, as exists in some equatorial regions, much of the incident solar radiation is scattered back to space and very little is absorbed by the Earth’s surface. Water surfaces have low reflectivity (4-10%) and are the most efficient absorbers. Snow surfaces, on the other hand, have high reflectivity (40-80 percent) and so are the poorest absorbers. High-altitude desert regions consistently absorb higher than average amounts of solar radiation because of the reduced effect of the atmosphere above them.

13 View of a 'gradient board' measuring the vertical temperature gradient Image byThibaut Barreyre Under the sea, in the deep European Geosciences Union

Oceans like the atmosphere, play a very important role in redistribution of heat energy. Oceans in latitudes greater than 30 (N or S) gain energy, while oceans in other latitudes lose energy. Water absorbs a substantial amount of such energy and stores it for many different time limits, couples of moments to several thousand years. The oceans also represent a form of natural collection of solar energy. As a result of the absorption of solar energy in the ocean and ocean currents, temperature gradients occur in the ocean.

14 Global variations in _temperature over thae ages Wikipedia image by Ed Hawkins

Earth’s body is a very poor conductor of heat, therefore, surface energy influx does not significantly affect the interior. Daily variation seldom exceeds 1 C at a depth of 1 m, and seasonal temperature variations rarely affect depths below 30 m. Waters at a temperature of 4 C increases its mass, and being lighter, the cold water and ice float at the top. Even in arctic conditions, water rarely turns into ice below 2.4 mts depth. A cold current flows out toward a warmer region, either the ocean bottom or a tropical area.

18 Solar Resource Map Wikipedia Image SolarGIS © 2011 GeoModel Solar s.r.o.

Energy equal to what is received from Sun is transferred back to the space as radiation. Over a period of time a delicate balance is achieved. When such a balance is disturbed, ice ages or green house type of effect set in. Minor variations in radiation inputs on day to day, season to season or year to year basis provides a small but very important change in the climate. When such small variations persist over a long period of time, they cause vast climatic and related changes.

19 Annual CO2 emissions by region Wikipedia image by Our World in Data

The radiation, as reflected and generated by the Earth, are absorbed by the atmosphere, as an insulating blanket (the green house effect). Without this insulation the loss of energy to the outer space would be substantial and the temperatures on Earth would be lower by 30 C at night time. Earth also receives energy from its core as geo thermal heat flow, but the quantity is very small compared to the energy received from the space. The radiation from the Earth’s surface is infrared or long wave type. The surface of the Earth is an imperfect emitter and absorber of radiation. Ocean surfaces have an emission between 0.92 and 0.96, while land surfaces have lower than 0.90.

16 Global energy potential. comparing renewable and non-renewable energy sources by their potential Wikipedia Image by Delphi234

Energy balance is a global phenomenon, but regional climates occur due to different levels of solar input on various locations of the Earth. In Northern zone countries, due to high reflection from snow and ice, radiation absorption is of low level. Whereas on an equator region, if the sky is cloud covered, considerable reflection (re-radiation) occurs. The tropical areas get cooled as they export energy to mid and high latitude regions, which thus gain energy and are warmed. The transport between latitudes is accomplished by horizontal energy transfers using both the atmospheric (air -winds) and oceanic (sea water currents) circulation.

17 Various Types of Green Cover Image

Plants and other vegetation convert a substantial amount of solar energy into food through photosynthesis. The fossils of such vegetation also provide energy at another time and space.
The potential for solar energy is enormous. Each day, the Earth, receives from sun energy, equal to about 200,000 times the total world electrical-generating capacity. Even though solar energy itself is free, the high cost of its collection, conversion, and storage has limited its exploitation. Even in sunny parts of the world’s temperate regions, for instance, a collector must have a surface area of about 430 square feet (40 square m) to gather enough energy to serve one person for one day. Solar energy utilization devices are called passive or active devices depending on the stages of conversion that take place between collection and actual use. Solar energy devices are often categorized depending on how the energy is collected, that is diffused (normal) and concentrating collection systems.

1 SUN salutation YOGA Surya Namaskar

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CLIMATE- Series Climate and Comfort 1of12

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Post 749 -by Gautam Shah

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10 Insula apartment house Remains of the top floors of an insula near the Capitolium Wikipedia Image by user

Changes that we experience in things around us generally happen because of various effects of the climate. It affects all beings and things in small measures intermittently or continuously. A climate is the most pervasive, consistently variable and largely indeterminable phenomena.

5 Bird Houses 7519971640_12f21c2a80_c

15 steel mill worker foundry metal molten hot industry industrial 911599

Our survival and comfort, both are conditioned by the climate. It builds up all our experiences. It provides the dynamism that is Nature. The climate, affects with aspects that are determinate and indeterminate. With determinate aspects, we plan our actions and for indeterminate aspects, we discipline ourselves for unusual eventualities. Rocks weather, sea beds get silted, sea water evaporates to provide clean water as rain, etc. are manifestations of a climate. A farmer plants seeds, squirrel collects nuts, or a bird builds a nest, all expecting a certain pattern of the climate. All living beings have an inherent capacity to adjust continuously to various levels of climatic conditions. And more often than not, organisms manage to survive even in unpredictable climates. When climatic changes are very sudden, different or very intense in time scale, complete annihilation of live form may occur. But most climatic effects set in over a long period, and new living forms are evolved through such adaptions.

16 Desert Architecture USA Old No Person Park House 3251475

7 Himalayan Dwellings 3892300248_4fc5f6acdd_c

Our living is largely conditioned by the Climate of the place. We, through our instincts and intuitions find ways not only to survive, but carry on all functions in a manner that is easier than ever before. Unlike other living beings, humans have the capacity to think and plan their actions, and, so achieve a greater degree of adaptability for climate.

13 A favela is a shanty town, a slum area, but mainly due to shortage of Land httpswww.flickr.comphotosandreasnilsson1976375995878

Human beings generally become acclimatized to the normal climate of the area where they live and work. They also have some built in resilience for minor variations. Most societies adopt the climates, through physiological changes, material usage techniques, housing patterns, etc.

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Built form and climate, are inseparable issues. Through a continuous process of selection and elimination societies develop for themselves a built form and a matching life style, which, seems almost intuitive or natural for the particular environment. These lifestyles pass on from one generation to another, and consequently problems of climatic adaption do not occur, or are not so severe. In stable societies few people move, and fewer built forms are transmitted (copied) from their original environment. Migrants usually try to transmit the original built form, to the place of their migration. Today large number of people migrate from one place to another. However young migrants, who have had no opportunity to imbibe the accumulated knowledge of climate adoption from the place of their origin, find it difficult to establish in an alien situation.

8 Tents cover the mountainside in the Kurdish refugee camp of Yekmel Refugees are being tra[...]

Builders, Architects or Interior Designers face the problems of human comfort in their work. The problems arise at many different levels:

1 When a large migrant and mixed population is being housed in a new region
☐ migrants are from different climatic regions and their level of adaptability is varied.
☐ migrants have many other acute problems that require immediate attention, and acquisition of a new life style to suit the changed climatic conditions may not be a priority.
☐ migrants carry varied images of built forms from places of their origin.

4 Dhaka Bangladesh 6835892796_96d516a762_c

2 When families are being housed in new public or mass housing
☐ families find new building patterns and local materials, not conducive enough to continue their habitual (original) climate-tested life styles.
☐ time-tested life styles of their original living units were based on certain context like group, communal or neighborhood living, which may not be available now.
☐ certain building patterns, which were possible in old type of community, may not be physically or economically viable in the new setup.

6 Bird Nest of Garbage

3 When joint or large families divide, and some move to new environments
☐ moving out members (parents, newly wedded couples etc.), may have very rigid concepts, or may not have imbibed the traditional values that help a natural climatic adaption.
☐ separating members have strong aspirations for a different life style (perceived from media and other sources), so disregard instinctive or natural climatic adaption procedures, new members have excessive resources to overcome the climatic adaption problems through electro mechanical devices.

19 Street with washerwomen, Naples, Italy] view

4 Over a period of time our needs for comfort change
☐ people age,
☐ social conditions or living styles change,
☐ technological innovations percolate down to the economically backward section of the society.

17 Chazhur Kovilakam Nalukettu

11 Chettinadu house

The primary attempts to understand the climate were limited to determine the level of its predictability. For this purpose, since prehistoric times, rain fall, temperature variations, seasonal changes, etc., are recorded and interpreted. In the past, our experience of a climate was from the localized observations and recordings. However, with scientific advancements, we are better equipped to study the cause and effect relationship of various climatic phenomena. It has been our endeavour to study the climate factors simultaneously over a greater region. Radars, aviation tools, satellites, and superior communication means, etc. offer us a much wider perspective. We are not only able to view our Earth as one entity but are able to take in three dimensional recordings, all through various levels of atmosphere. Through super computers (multi tasking) we can now build a clearer picture (mathematical model) of events or happenings that are taking place in our atmosphere.

18 Weather-climte observation

Today, we have a better appreciation of components that format the climate, such as air currents, air pressures, heat transmission, absorption, insulation, evaporation etc. We also have better knowledge about how other beings and plants react to the climate. Their instinctive ways of adaptation provide us with a new vocabulary for our dealings with the climate. Study of human endurance in very acute conditions like space shuttles, arctic conditions, deep water diving, under sea explorations, high altitude mountaineering, provide us with a lot of feedback on how to deal with climatic variations. Our techniques of survival, adaptation and comfort are improvising day by day.

20 Cell phones are a common way to access agro-met information in many parts of India-Credit F. Fiondella (IRICCAFS). httpswww.flickr.comphotoscgiarclimate8000047029

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ABBOT SUGER -father of Gothic architecture -Part IV

Post 741 -by Gautam Shah

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53 Abbot_Suger

6 Plan of Abbey of st Denis showing original structure with multiple alterations in stages


6 Abbey Saint-Denis After, Abbot Suger’s death —


Suger had close relationship with the Royals. He was consulted on many issues of governance and political nature. His administrative and oratory skills were admired. He was appointed as the Regent of France, and asked to look after the royal administration, when the King, Louis VII, departed to join the Second Crusade. The construction on Saint-Denis came to near stand still.

63 IInd Crusade and Louis VII BattleOfInab

When Abbot Suger died in 1151, the western and eastern ends of the abbey were ready, but new Nave had only the foundations ready. St Denis abbey remained incomplete entity for eighty years. In 1231, Abbot Odo Clement, began work on the rebuilding of the Nave, and redefinition of upper structure of Suger’s Choir. The Nave and Choir were completed fifty years later, in 1281. The Nave with extensive glass windows and thin columns in Rayonnant Gothic style were awe inspiring. The spatial style became a trend setter for sacred church spaces across Europe. After 13th C very few changes occurred in the Abbey of St Denis, however some adjunct structures were built between 1701 and 1781.

64 sainte chapelle Flickr Image 1128995_960_720

Rayonnant Gothic architecture did not offer much in structural improvements. Builders were less concerned with rationalizing the structure, as the space perception was now an emerging issue. In a later phase of Rayonnant Gothic, the builders adopted geometrical patterns, which, over the years were to become complex. New architectural features such as mouldings, piers, rose windows, pinnacles and window traceries were added.

65 Flamboyant rib vaulting of Segovia Cathedral, nave (1525–1577)

66 Saint-Stephen Cathedral in a Rayonnant Gothic style https flickr.com photos 15216811 at N06 22681961873

A third style of Gothic architectural design emerged around 1280. It was known as Flamboyant Gothic architecture. This was even more decorative than Rayonnant, and continued until about 1500 AD. The Flamboyant Gothic architecture was superfluous imposition of patterns. The tracery patterns had S-shaped flame-like curve motifs. Such motifs were imposed on masonry and other architectural elements.

62 Underground Vaults Crypts https www.flickr comphotospelegrino 3724500005

The Structures perceived for St Denis Abbey were radically different well planned, but executed in haste. There were many underground vaults. The vaults were not substantial enough to bear the weight of the choir, so collapsed, (there was no mathematical calibration system, structures were designed through experience). These were replaced within a hundred years. Similarly, thin ambulatory columns required heavier replacement.

67 Choir Ambulatory, Basilica of St. Denis by Abbot Suger 1140-44 Paris https www.flickr.com photos profzucker 7227722006

Suger’s successor, Abbot Eudes Clement, constructed a large new transept to replace the Carolingian nave with two important innovations. First, the old piers supporting the roof were replaced by pillars. Two, very large rose windows entirely filled the upper ends of the transepts.

68 Buttress Supports on Outside St Denis

It is believed that Abbot Odo, with the approval of the Regent Blanche of Castile and her son, the young King Louis IX, planned for the new nave and its large crossing to have a much clearer focus as the French ‘royal necropolis or burial place. That plan was fulfilled in 1264 under Abbot Matthew of Vendôme, when the bones of 16 former kings and queens were relocated into new tombs arranged around the crossing, eight Carolingian monarchs to the south and eight Capetians to the north.

The Abbey of Saint-Denis (1140) in Paris, was one of the earliest surviving Gothic structures. Other, near contemporary churches, were Notre-Dame de Paris (1163-1345) and Laon Cathedral (1112-1215). Gothic structures evolved out of Romanesque ones and lasted from the mid 12th C to late 16th C, in some parts of Germany.

78 Interior of the Laon cathedral Wikipedia Image by Szilas

78 Laon Cathedral (from North-East) 78 Interior of the Laon cathedral Wikipedia Image by Szilas https www.flickr.com photos cuthbertian 2083912005

7 Abbey Saint-Denis the changes in Glass —

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70 St Denis Rode window South Face Wikipedia Image by Zairon

Suger Abbot had marked preference for Blue and Red colour in stained glass compositions. The colours (Red -jasper Blue -sapphire), were the representations of passion, holy blood, and the colour of heaven, respectively. These two colours were too dark for interior spaces. During daytime the stained glasses on the exteriors are dead grey, and at night time the interiors are lifeless (in absence of significant street illumination). This required lighter and fewer colour shades, leading to adoption of Grisaille (monochrome) glass.

71 Basilica of St Denis, France chapel of the Virgin

The use of a light-coloured grisaille, and white backgrounds, became more common in the 14th C. The stained glasses were over-painted and overlaid with fine traceries that emulated the curves in the compositions. The figures in the composition though in colours, the backgrounds were in white glass to allow more light. The lancet or narrow windows had a single figure, accentuating the vertical. The quality of the glass became much better, due to the improvements in the materials and the process of glass-blowing. The white glass became lighter in weight and more translucent. The interior walls were increasingly covered with dense tracery and decorations, competing with the windows.

72 Patron sponsored Glass St Denis https www.pxfuel.com en free-photo-qdolw

The patrons were frequently pictured in the windows that they funded, praying or in the case of the craft guilds, shown at work. In the 12th and 13th C, the practice became very common. Donors like bakers, butchers, tanners, furriers, money-changers, and other professions were shown at work. There was marked preference for geometric motifs in areas with little religious importance. Many of the later day replacement have such motifs and lighter colours.

73 Later day work of staine glass but lighter colour built on the traditions of Suger's work Details https www flickr.com photos profzucker 7227725174

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8 Abbey Saint-Denis during French Revolution —

77 The violation of the royal tombs in 1793 French Revolution depicted by Hubert Robert

Catholic Entity, the Abbey of Saint-Denis, was a victim of French Revolution. Due to its connections with the French monarchy and proximity to Paris, the abbey of Saint-Denis was a prime target of revolutionary vandalism. The anger was marked against the royal tombs. The tombs were opened and all the remains were dumped into mass unmarked graves. The cellars and building parts were used as grain storage. Its many architectural parts were damaged, destroyed or stripped off. Last service was held on Friday, 14 September 1792, and the order was dissolved the next day.

74 The looting of the church in 1793, by Friedrich Staffnick.png

75 The grand transept of Cluny III - Cluny Abbey - The Chapel of Saint Martial https www.flickr.com photos ell-r-brown 3576335763958425

In 1790 during the French Revolution, the abbey was sacked and mostly destroyed, with only a small part of the Abbey surviving. Cluny Abbey was wiped off the map. Founded in 910, Cluny had been the largest church in Christendom until the completion of St. Peter’s 700 years later.

The revolutionary government, ordered the violation of the sepulchre, but agreed to set up a commission for identifying the monuments of historical interest for preservation. The church structure remained, ‘but was deconsecrated, its treasury confiscated and its reliquaries and liturgical furniture melted down for their metallic value. Some objects, including a chalice and aquamanile donated to the abbey in Suger’s time, were successfully hidden and survive to this day’.

The church was deconsecrated by Napoleon in 1806, and he appointed François Debret to restore the church as his family mausoleum. He added new windows to the transept depicting the renovation. The church was officially granted the status of ‘cathedral’ in 1966. It is now the world’s largest museum of medieval and Renaissance statuary. ‘Basilica’ is an honorary title given to many of the churches of all eras, popular for pilgrimage. A cathedrals are of superior rank.

76 Rue saint denis in Paris

75 Thomas Girtin 1775–1802 Aqua tinted Rue Saint-Denis in Paris

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ABBOT SUGER -father of Gothic architecture -Part III


Post 740 -by Gautam Shah

5 Abbot Suger and formation of Gothic Structure —

43 Basic features of the Gothic architecture, like Rib Vaults, Pointed arches, thin ribbed columns and height Ambulatory Vaulting, Basilica of St. Denis https www flickr com photos pro7227729490

Basic features of the Gothic architecture, like Rib Vaults, Pointed arches, thin ribbed columns and height, were in use before, but for the first time, all were assembled together. The density and darkness of the Romanesque buildings were due to the heavy load bearing walls required to support the masonry domes. The heavy walls also accommodated the displacement thrusts within their thickness. The heavy walls could not rise up to great heights.

36 The sense of Vertical The ceiling at the crossing, St. Denis https www flickr.com photos scottgunn 28857102347 b81658603a_c

Suger recognised the value of, than sporadically used concept of flying buttresses. Sugar also saw that buttresses placed outside the enclosure skin, made the interiors free of heavy walls. The technical improvements of external buttresses and pointed arch-based vaults reduced the ‘self or dead load’ on columns. The enclosure skin or exterior walls were more or less replaced with columns. These schemes created greater height and larger windows.

38 The apse or East side of Cathedral with flying buttresses in 1878

44 Reformed Nave Basilica St Denis France Paris Wikipedia Image by Britchi Mirela

37 Basilica of Saint-Denis, Paris, interior Wikipedia Image by Rita1234

The significance of Saint-Denis, then, was not that its master builders pioneered the new forms of construction, it was simply the first time that they were used together with the intention of creating a markedly different effect than that which prevailed in the abbey’s Romanesque contemporaries. By skillfully combining these pre-existing threads, a new architectural creation was created.

41 Abbaye de Saint-Denis years 1140-1144 1231-1281 httpswww.flickr.comphotospsulibscollections5781829546 cd246320b8_k

Gothic style as it evolved had the columns and the vaults. The new features, like, rib, pointed arches, and column to column windows, all accentuated the verticality. The Gothic architecture intentionally maximized the lightness of the space through height. The abbot was deeply affected by the results of his own alterations and ‘wished to reinforce the same through artistic glass works’.

39 Gothic vaulting reduced the roof loads and use of pointed arch and vaults allowed equal roof height for all span widths. St. Denis https www flickr.com photos scottgunn 28857101797

In the first phase Sugar had to see that during the construction original structure remained substantially functional. The original Romanesque nave, the central space was kept intact. Suger added two bays (of 3 spans and 3 stories each) on new western front entrance, and a new Narthex, with 4 additional bays. The new western extension was completed in 1140. As construction of the western façade was completed, the most important and emotional section for the pilgrims and rulers was taken up. Crypts now had an airy, illuminated and wider space, which made it less suffocating and easy to move area.

42 Map of the tombs in Saint Denis Basilica

https://uk.tourisme93.com/basilica/map-of-the-tombs-saint-denis-basilica.html

46 Cathedral Basilica of Saint-Denis, Royal burial place for French Kings and Queens https www.flickr.com photos ninara 24596301962

‘About forty-two kings, thirty-two queens, sixty-three princes and princesses and ten loyal servants of the kingdom were buried in the Basilica of Saint Denis until the nineteenth century. The kings’ necropolis is one of the most important funerary monuments in the world. This was not always the case. Indeed, the Abbey in Saint-Denis was confronted with competition, especially from Saint-Germain-des-Prés, and only got recognition thanks to the obstinacy of Abbot Suger and the support of the Capetian dynasties’.

It was largely due to Suger, in the 12th C, the Basilica became a principal sanctuary of French Royalty. It was equally important place, like Reims Cathedral, where the Kings were crowned.

47 Basilique Saint Denis Model Wikipedia Image by Arnaud 25

To reconstruct such an important place, with a new structure (of double rows of columns + exterior colonnaded wall) was politically and religiously very risky decision. The old structure was preserved till the new 3 parts ribbed roof vaults became ready. The new external wall was full of stained glasses. The improvised new walls of stained glass, reduced the wall area, to minimum. This was completed after Suger’s death, and was known as Rayonnant Gothic or style Decorated Gothic.

48 Very difficult scheme of erecting new columns preserving the old ones for a while Ambulatory at St. Denis https www.flickr.com photos scottgunn 43745511422

Suger was able to design and strategize the first church in the Gothic style. He exploited the stained glass windows in St. Denis as a mural art to depict stories and messages far more brilliantly than the original Romanesque mosaic murals. The rich and famous, now wanted to contribute and participate in the reconstruction. They wanted their names to be included, and also suggested the themes for the compositions. This offered St. Denis huge sum.

49 Stained glass _window in the Basilica of Saint Denis Paris France

The themes of stained glass windows were of three types, dominantly religious, secular or ornamental. First two group are mixed, but the ornamental themes had entire surface.

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Suger had planned twin towers on west end, but, in his life, time only the southern one was completed. The northern tower was finished by one of his successors. The south one, twice faced lightening strikes in 1219 and 1837. It remained incomplete ever since.

51 Saint-Denis Basilique Fassade Wikipedia Image by Zairon

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ABBOT SUGER -father of Gothic architecture -Part II


Post 739 -by Gautam Shah

Part II of series IV
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4 Abbot Suger and Ideas on Illumination —

27 The The interior illumination and the new expanse of the space, was perceived as the metaphysical light or Christ’s divinity, not available anywhere else. https www.flickr.com photos scottgunn 2885710162

Suger, understood lux, as the external light, shining outside the cathedral, coming directly from the sun and nature. This was for everyone, ‘even the heretic and the wicked’. But, once it entered through the windows, it emitted in all directions, and transformed into lumen. It is a new metaphysical light through the tinted glass. This interior light was consecrated and holy, for ‘faith and divine inspiration’. The interior illumination and the new expanse of the space, was perceived as the metaphysical light or Christ’s divinity, not available anywhere else. The new ethereal wall and the illumination functioned much like the ancient temenos, a sanctimonious precinct. ‘Walk in the light, as He is in the light’.

28 Interior of Saint-Denis Wikipedia Image by Gilles Messian

Suger could, somehow, visualize three different Latin terms for Light: Lux, Lumen and Illumination. (The Three terms, perhaps derived from a book* by Avicenna, the Muslim philosopher and physician of 11th C). *Kitab al Shifa =’The Book of Healing or Latin title Sufficientiae’. This was a voluminous philosophical and scientific treatise or encyclopaedia. It covered, topics like logic, natural sciences, psychology, (the quadrivium or four subjects like, geometry, astronomy, mathematics besides music, and metaphysics).

29 Predominance of Blue- Red by Suger The heart of the sanctuary glows in splendour, which is united in splendour, radiates in splendour. Detail of 12th C glass, St. Denis https www.flickr.com photos scottgun.

Coloured glass had long been understood as a surrogate for the precious stones. It has been in use even before the Gothic era. The exploitation of colour contrasts (Red -jasper Blue -sapphire, where the red represented the passion, holy blood, and the blue, as the colour of heaven) was rather new interpretation. Incidentally, these two colours, form nearly the opposite ends of the visual spectrum.

29-1 Saint Denis Basilique Saint Denis Wikipedia Image by Pierre Poschadel

Delighted with the effect of light, Suger, inside the abbey church, engraved an inscription to the glory of Light. ‘The heart of the sanctuary glows in splendour, which is united in splendour, radiates in splendour’. He also said that ‘while light is necessary for the worthy glorification of God, the largest possible number of the faithful must also be able to pray without jostling, to approach and contemplate the Holy Relics on feast days’.

30 Inside view of stained glass, St. Denis Cathedral, St. Denis, France, upper choir Wikipedia Image by Ninaras

Suger transformed the cathedral space into a different place. ‘It was to like bringing heaven on earth’. He wrote, ‘the multicolored loveliness of the gems has transported me from material to immaterial things, sapphire glass of intense blue colour as having the same importance as gems.’ He identified the best Glass makers across Europe, and sourced the glass raw material for the new construction.

31 Windows light and organ at St Denis https www flickr com photos scottgunn 28857102537

The improvement of quality of glass, its popularity and widespread use occurred in this period, mainly because of reduction of colour tonal intensity resulting in increased transparency. A significant feature to emerge in the 13th C, was the development of grisaille glass windows. It is composed largely of white glass, generally painted with foliage designs, and leaded into complicated geometric patterns. Such glass was cheaper and easier to produce. Its introduction made interiors lighter and other art and architectural features, noticeable.

32 Dull colours and dominance to whites in stained glass allowed architectural features to be visually important Nave of the Basilica of St. Denis, Saint-Denis, France Wikipedia Image by Zairon

The Gothic Colours of stained glass are prone to mis-use in wrong hands. The interiors often became snazzy with too many colours, but of dark shades. During daytime the stained glass on exteriors are dead grey, and at night time the interiors are lifeless (in absence of significant street illumination). This forced adoption of Grisaille (monochrome) glasses.

33 Illustrations and cover of the treaty Diversarum Artium Schedula by Theophilus Presbyter - encyclopedia of technical knowledge in the Middle Ages in the field of art and craftsmanship.

The blown glass had technical imperfections such as air bubbles, striations, and ripples, this made the transparency lively, as the light seemed to refract through the mass. The church interiors were now glowing, not just with the light from expansive stained windows, but altars, crosses, other liturgical objects were all richly embellished with gems, draped with brightly coloured and gold lined fabrics, with the new donations.

35 Construction workers on Site in Bourges Bourges Cathedral Built atop an earlier Romanesque church from 1195 until 1230 Wikipedia Image by Gerd Eichmann

With the Renaissance, the stained glass was to become varied in colours, faultless, flatter, larger, thinner, but less vivid. The glass joints however could now be thinner and sparser. This thin joints were exploited, as less marked lines for zoning of colours, and more for the articulation of the thematic composition.

34 Lighter colours Flamboyant (late Gothic) style windows of the nave of the royal abbey-church of Saint-Ouen, Rouen (early 16th C. Wikipedia Image by Philippe Roudaut

The technique of making stained-glass windows was first documented in the Schedula Diversarum Artium, a compendium of craft-information probably written between 1110 and 1140 by the monk Theophilus.

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ILLUMINATION and COLOURS in SHADOWS -Issues of Design 38


Post 737 -Gautam Shah

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This is the FOURTH article on series Illumination and Shadows

1 Claude Monet Garden at Sainte-Adresse 1866-1867

Monet said: ‘A Colour owes its brightness to the force of contrast, rather than to its inherent qualities’. He also said that primary colours look brightest, when they are brought into contrast with their complementaries’.

2 Alexander mosaic Absence of shadows (except at the bottom) by Magrippa at English Wikipedia

Colour contrast has drawn attention in drawn art forms as well as architecture, sculptures, ceramics, textiles and craft items. Colour contrasts emerge, when a different and lighter or darker colour is placed next to the other one. But colour contrasts also emerge, when a colour comes under differing levels of illumination or shadows. This realization was conspicuous in 3D forms. Such colour contrasts perceptions under natural or other illuminations and related shadows are affected by the ‘local’ reflections. The subtle grades of contrasts emerge due to varied brightness, from objects in different directions and in intensities due to many colours of the reflecting surfaces.

Colour Tones

8 Lion hunt. Mosaic from Pella ancient Macedonia) late 4th C BC, depicting Alexander the Great and Craterus. Housed in the Pella Museum

3 Fresco from the villa of P. Fannio Sinistore in Boscoreale, currently located in the Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York.

Colour contrasts were realized, first in mosaic arts as a form of ‘highlighting marks’. To make a mosaic figure or image to stand out from other similar entitles that needed emphasis (wider and darker-lighter edges). But mosaics had limited size and colour range, and this was not easy. Early drawn arts like Mosaics were equally ‘flat’. This was perhaps, as the medium of art Fresco, was a method of pigment impregnation onto wet plasters. The colours were zoned with scratched outlines and had little scope (time) for colour mixing or edge diffusion. Details were added in Tempera, for which one had to wait for the surface to thoroughly dry out. As a result fresco artist, used intense contrasting colours in demarcated zones of the fresco.

4 Terracotta funerary plaque 520–510 B.C.

7 Frescos in Cubiculum -Bedroom from the Villa of P Fannius Synistor at Boscoreale No shadows or Perspective

As the interiors became brighter with larger clerestory windows, there was a clear need to ‘add drama and mystery to the paintings’ through high contrast of colours. Painting themes were now not just depictive but narrative, and in the background included architecture, landscapes and non religious figures (political sponsors and donors). Holy figures were distinguished by bright ‘halo’. These halos and backgrounds, in brighter colours or gold gilding, made everything else seem darker, often gloomy. To lighten the perceived dark effect, many levels of sobered contrasts were added, and the result was a ‘flat’ composition. For the contrasts, the body contours, folds of fabrics, highlighting marks, differences between near-by and far-off objects, were formed of black or darker shades. The use of darker shades, for edge making, however, taught the value of shadowing with illumination.

9 Ajanta Cave 1 Ceremonial bath of Mahajanaka frasco India

10 Little or no use of body contour shadows Scene from Mahajataka King denounces worldly life at Ajanta Cave frescos India AD 475-500 Flickr Image 16580719987 f515f2b6fe_c

The shadows formed better depth contrasts. The shadows (related to illumination) were first placed with respect to the local needs. These ‘local needs’ in theme, created many shadows and sources of illumination, and also had as many directions. But soon shadows were modified as related to single the source of illumination. Such ‘related shadows’ made paintings lively and realistic.

12 ART by Fra Carnevale 1467 Light without source , but the shadows on the right side wall defy the logic.

5-1 Duccio di Buoninsegna Jesus opens the Eyes of a Man born Blind

Single source shadowing was very difficult in mosaic and very large mural paintings. There were few issues here. FIRST, Shadows were predominantly cast with a source of illumination from the left-top corner. This made objects towards the right-bottom corner suffused with long shadows. SECOND, The shadowing style adopted in artworks, did not match the actual illumination from the openings of the architectural space. THIRD, There was the belief that holy figures do not cast a shadow. These factors required a lot of experimentation. First, the problem required a painting to be narrow or the source of illumination shifted away from the extreme top-left corner. Second required a composition in consideration of the existing conditions of the architecture and the viewers’ position. Third issue was solved by forming graduated dark-light areas for body or dress contours and ignoring the shadows falling on the ground.

13 Jacopo Tintoretto's Wedding Feast at Cana at church of Santa Maria della Salute in Venice. The window sides remain dark but the illumination on the table is brilliant

From the days Painted Roman interior Murals, the Perspective was used to arrange ‘built or spatial’ elements in compositions. These were scaled for depth, but not specifically illuminated. Objects with visible sides were made darker towards the receding edge for greater effects of the depth. For greater perspective effect some of the parts of buildings or the spaces between the buildings were back lit, but shadows followed the front-based illumination. Illumination and shadows, did not come together in any purposive manner.

11 Feast in the House of Levi Paolo Veronese 1573 Use of Shadows for depth and contrast

21 Canaletto Venice Capriccio of the Courtyard of the Doges' Palace with the Scala dei Giganti AND 21 Viviano Codazzi and Domenico Gariguolo

It was from 1700s that Capriccio style of art for drawing fantastical architectural buildings and ruins, with inclusion of occasional staffage (figures), truly began to exploit the perspective. Areas of painting were illuminated through a direct single source of illumination or atmospheric distributed light. Areas that did not get illumination were treated to be mildly darker, thus creating a sense of contrast for depth. The illumination and shadows depended on tonal gradation, and this can be recognised and executed, if the areas are fairly large. Tonal gradation cannot be included in micro architectonic elements.

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In Asia, perspective did not occur, though some inclined planes indicated the depth. Scaling of elements and figures was extremely illogical. The depth was through spatial zoning, like, frontal areas filled in with elements, dominantly involved in the narrative. The next mid-zone was for supportive elements like architectural and landscape features. The background, was used as a contrasting plane of lighter tones. The ethereal elements included here, served to balance the composition, by their ‘white space’ presence. There was complete absence of graded or directional illumination, and colour shades for shadowing.

16 Multiple sources of Illumination resulting in utter chaos Jacopo Tintoretto Last Supper 1592 1594

16-1 Joseph Wright of Derby 1768 An Experiment on a Bird in an Air Pump

28 Dramatic Colour Contrast

Illuminated and shaded areas are nominally differentiated with the tonal variations of the same colour (monochrome) or with different hues. But this effect was enhanced by texture contrast of physical roughening of the surface, like the gesso and impasto in art. Gesso is the base or foundation treatment, which imprints a texture on the art surface. Impasto effect is created by laying the paint in very thick layers, so that it can allow brush or painting-knife strokes to be visible.

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It was in 1600s that artists were able to create textures, not just by scrapping the surface, but through directional or random texturing, as a simulated visual effect. The directional texturing became art of intaglio or gravure, and became style of impressionist art. The art of texturing a surface, also became Sfumato style of art, as forming a soft transition between colours and tones to achieve distinct realism.

17 Georgio de Chirico Shadows (without tonal variations) and Colour Contrasts 1913-1917

Shadows depend on the strength and distance of the source of illumination. Candle, Lamp, electric or fire illuminations, unlike the Solar light, are at finite distances and of limited intensity. Both, however, form shadows with respect to the elevation of the objects. Solar light offers vast grades of reflections from nearby surfaces, but, other illuminations can provide small cone of receding strength. The skill to represent the colour tonal variations in shadows from the reflected light was grasped post Renaissance period. The nature of the colour within a shadow is mainly due to the intensity of reflected light and the colour (from the reflective surface).

18 Andrea Pozzo Plafond Ceiling Art The Apotheosis of Saint Ignatius

The ceilings (flat, dome, vault or other configurations) get illumination from windows and clerestory openings, in many directions. The ceilings and upper sections of tall walls were used for illusionistic paintings, with features like floating angels and clouds, foreshortened figures and pseudo architectural elements. The details were seen from distance, so drawn in an impressionistic manner with wild brush strokes. Such ceilings, known as Plafond art, had the lower edge, drawn in dark and contrasting colours and shadows, but the top central portion forming the upper limit of the room, were made with blue of the skies to look ethereal. Plafonds (17th to early 19 C) offered great lessons for treating architectural spaces with illumination and shadows.

24 Variations in Illumination through day-night

23 Single souce harsh Illumination George C Ault and Hopper

Mannerist painters and later Baroque artists used extreme intense contrasts between light and dark, almost obscuring their subjects to lend drama and mystery to the paintings’.

19 Monet art Without Shadows but colour differentiation between main and side faces

When Monet painted his series of haystacks, his main concern was to show that in reality, the colour of light and the colour of shadow, depending of the time of day, both, change simultaneously and dramatically. Artists of 19th C used comparatively, stronger dark shades for heightened impressionistic realism. This began to change with the onset of next century, when lighter colour shades (perhaps due to the Titanium Dioxide) were available. The subject matter changed from realistic to ‘objective’ abstraction. Here the source of illumination was unrecognizable, and so the shadows were nonexistent.

20 Edouard Leon Cortes Twilight hours illumination

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MOTIF PATTERN and DESIGN -Part 2 -Issues of Design 37

Post 735 -by Gautam Shah

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A Design comes into being with the realization of the order that forms the composition. Architectural drawings are not designs, but media for representation. A design is the comprehensive experience of sensorial, emotional or functional nature that one derives from an object. Some designs are simplistic that their experience is holistic.

6 Orchidiarium_-_Medellin_Botanical_Gardens

A Holistic composition itself, may present as a single entity. Such exploits are not common. Holistic compositions are ‘superfluous’ with extraneous body and no dissect-able content. Holistic compositions are too personal. It is not easy to convey to others, except as the sensorial experience (visual, aural, tactile, olfactory or taste). A Holistic feel does not convey or have any utilitarian purpose. The creator of the holistic entity may experience the design-order conceptually (mentally or schematically), but for others, to perceive that feel, it must wait for the actualization. Private creations tend to have holistic ideation, like an abstract thing or a sculpture without any capacity to convey a meaning.

10 Deconstructivist Gymnázium v Orlové

11 Vitra Fire Station Deconstructivist Architecture 5402353925_29ec3f4cc4_c

Formal Designs are very large and complex organizations, serving many functions. A formal design serves functional, technological and, stylish relevance, besides being sited to a place. The conception of a comprehensive structure serving all these is not possible within a practicable period. The exigency of solution achievement does not allow it. The urgency derives from the fact that some other slightly superior solution can outpace it. In the circumstances, a design remains a workable entity, an assembly, where at any given moment ‘some sections may work well, and others remain time-space compromises’.

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Actualized designs have size, shape and other sensorial attributes. The composition in an actualized design emerges through these basic characteristics. But most importantly actualized designs need to confirm to some compulsions. Without this, a design remains a defunct sculpted form, or an assembly of materials.

4 ceiling_glass_roof_structures_patterns_modern_interior_curved-1359376.jpg!d

At Design ideation level, a solution may seem comprehensive and so nearly holistic. There, however, are some compulsions which must be considered before a design actualizes.

1 L'estremità_di_una_via_cieca._Casa_di_Gilda,_bozzetto_di_Mario_Sala_per_Rigoletto_(1903)_-_Archivio_Storico_Ricordi_ICON000120_B

1. A complex design entity is conceived with many systems, some of which are fairly independent, but most others are not only mutually dependent, but spatially convergent.
2 The convergence also occurs due to the few nodes that connect various systems to the outside resources and systems.
3 A design encounters directional solar and other environmental elements, and these have zonal identity.
4 A design creation to be stable and secure must affirm to natural forces like gravity and structural integrity.
5 A design, where possible will be conceived of replaceable elements that require fitment facilities and protocols. The replaceable elements, fitment facilities and protocols, need to be universal and modular which force continuance of traditional or time-tested things, rather than new ones. A design emerges as a dilemma between old and new things.

Modernist_building_with_chaotic_windows_in_Copenhagen

Cubists, Modernists and later Deconstructivists tried to take a reverse route to reach the state of ‘abstraction’. They tried to reach a state of Holism by elimination. To this end, attempts were made to ‘eliminate’ (often just cover-up, hide or dis-regard) ‘what was plausible’. It is not possible to escape the reality and create any thing unimaginable.

Design documented schemes and actualized entities reveal Patterns, at three levels, as holistic, sectional or part identity. The revelation of a pattern is related to the scale of the design. Design documented schemes are scaled to manage and manipulate the composition, whereas, actualized designs are experienced in varied conditions and references. In documented design the perception of a pattern depends on the quality of presentation, and in case of actual design, the pattern can be sensed depending on the quality of environment (intensity of background interferences like glare, noise, persistence of past experiences) and conditions of perception (distance, angle, occlusions, reference to past remembrances, framing, personal sensorial capacities, etc.).

8 The_exterior_of_the_Baron_Empain_palace

9 Brighton_royal_pavilion_Qmin

Patterns have primary relevance, if, its body can be realized, and the potential for reuse manifests. For the later intention, a pattern must be traceable. One must sensorially realize its presence or remember its body and be able to copy, recollect or recreate it. In the process, many things get lost, but what gets carried is the essence of the pattern. A pattern may recur in some other time-space conditions.

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The patterns, as a ‘pure design or image’ has no raison d’etre (cause or purpose of origin). Patterns may be entities independent of the surroundings and also flourish as attached to some context. Patterns are arrangements, oriented peculiarly, but could still remain relevant from many other sides.

13 Pattern recognition on steps Flickr 41093653282_f1300f9d88_c

Patterns are sectional or part identity of a design composition. The formation and recognition of the Pattern, is the first order of founding a Design. Some ‘designs’ not offer an ‘unusual pattern’ as a take home essence. Such patterns are often in holistic in form. Patterns can have the potential of being joined with similar or dissimilar patterns, reduced in scale and repositioned (reoriented). Patterns also have the inherent possibilities of becoming part of larger compositions. At this stage holistic compositions do not remain personal things.

12 Enhanced Pattern Recognition 8697403826_8b3c8b2e49_c

Patterns nominally have multiple Motifs, and all integrated in some manner. But a Holistic pattern is a motif. Such motifs (holistic patterns) are self-sustaining elements and stay unaffected by the happenings in the surroundings, so some order of connectivity is required. The order of connection is the manner of touch or overlap, scale, direction and orientation besides the physical commonality and partial distortions. These are the essential characteristics that offer inexhaustible possibilities of bridging. The bridges, have two ends and a ‘structure’ in between. In case of a pattern, the structure may be physical, but generally just hypothetical recognition.

14 freudenberg-4572410_960_720

A Pattern may look like a familiar object, but need not be a representation or symbol. It may not have any abstract conveyance, yet may carry an associated or interpretive meaning. Our cognitive processes surpass the sensorial perception, and so redirect the sensorial search. Pattern recognition is a matter of perception, and so a personal affair. Recognition of a pattern in nature remains impressionistic, and remembered, noted or expressed for posterity.

17 Sagrada-familia-arches2

The Pattern style is omni present but becomes valid with a culture (terrain, climate, religion, customs, technology). Nikos Salingaros for example considers ‘regularity to be a key property of a pattern whether the pattern is the external stimulus itself or some other percept residing in the mind of the perceiver’. Is the pattern objectively observable and measurable or is it a subjective experience?

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Pattern in Noise: The phenomenon of finding meaningful patterns in meaningless noise is called patternicity , and conversely, not perceiving patterns that are present in the visual stimulus is called apatternicity.

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In general terms, “a gestalt is a form, a figure, a configuration, or a pattern.” The Oxford dictionary defines form as “the visible shape or configuration of something.” The psychologist Gibson argues in his paper titled –What is a Form? -that much more precision is needed in the definition of such terms if they are going to be useful. He laments the fact that “the term form is used by different people to mean different things and by the same person to mean different things on different occasions.” According to Gibsonshape, figure, structure, pattern, order, arrangement, configuration, plan, outline, contour are similar terms without any distinct meaning”.

19 Pinakothek_der_Moderne_frontal

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BASIS for ESTIMATES

Post 734Gautam Shah

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9-Sharplan_40C

QUANTITY ESTIMATES
Quantity estimates form the prime database on which monetary estimate is scheduled. Quantities estimate, help us to compound simple measures like lengths, widths, heights, weights, numbers, etc. into quantities with fewer variables. Typically a volumetric quantity is more inclusive than linear or surface quantity. Similarly a numerical estimate far more comprehensive than even volumetric estimate.

1 weight_kilogram_old_measurement_balance-591282.jpg!d

It is generally experienced that certain form characteristics, dimensions (widths, depths etc.), etc. of parts and components remain constant not only through a project, but across projects of similar nature. Such constants are recognized and minor variables are levelled out within certain dimensional ranges. Dimensional ranges become effective in modular dimensions and through the methods of taking measurements. (See section on Modules of measurements and Modes of measurements). Modest qualitative differences are evened out through flexible and wider rang of specifications.

2 Terrains_de_polo_et_de_football_(US_compliant).svg

There could be several levels of conversions before a quantity estimate becomes relevant. One of the most important conversions is through monetary rating. Such conversions are carried out by many different agencies, without the author or the originator of the quantity estimate being aware of it, or being informed about it.

3 calculator-483807_640

MONETARY ESTIMATES
Monetary estimates result out of a process called costing. Costing or cost-finding is done for the item as deliverable by a single agency, or for its parts, which have market equivalents, and so definite prices. However, where parts have no readily available market equivalents, these are evaluated for the cost of their constituent raw materials, labour and other inputs required for the assembly or construction.

4 geometry-1023844_960_720

Monetary estimates are based on items or jobs which no matter how complex are, consist of only few elemental parts, or very simple tasks. The elemental parts and tasks are usually comparable to many others used in different items or situations. Elemental parts, though similar in form and constitution, acquire a unique personality depending on the position of the component in the whole, nature of use, method of installation or erection and time schedule of installation.

5 Godorf_Cologne_Rhineland-Refinery-Cooling-Towers-during-demolition-02

In a monetary estimate, the parts of different types are categorized on the basis of external factors like a guarantee mechanism, life span, utility, depreciation, finance, cost, return, energy consumption, waste output, hazards, ecological value, replacement schedules, etc.

NON MONETARY ESTIMATES
Non monetary estimates, follow a process called Valuation. The valuation or value providing creates a basis for judgement of an item. The value may be real and may match the monetary estimate of the item. The value could be a hypothetical one based on a perceived use, commonness or exclusivity, observed affectation, future cost of acquisition or disposal, etc.

6 Flickr Image 15757420086_bdca0cb9e5_c

Non monetary evaluations help define projects from many different aspects for which monetary costs are available. Yet, appropriateness and success of a design depend substantially on decisions made through such evaluations.

7 Non Monetary valuation Lyons_Architects_Office

Non monetary evaluations are like: Average space provided to a clerk, average area per resident in a hostel, proportion of area between rooms and a corridor, proportion of usable vs. service areas, energy consumption per user, load per bearing area, garbage outputs per resident, noise level per vehicle, water consumption per unit, etc.

8 Johnson, PhilipIDS Center Investors Diversified Services Center with Crystal Court 1969-72 49091064521_3c3480c036_c

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ILLUMINATION and ARCHITECTURAL SHADOWS -Issues of Design 35

Post 729 -Gautam Shah

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8 marcello-gennari-KA89yJKYtjE-unsplash

Architectural objects are stationary, but their shadows move and shift around them. The directional variability of the solar illumination offers many different light-shadow conditions. The intensity of solar illumination varies during day hours, seasons and atmospheric circumstances (like cloud cover, mist, dust, etc.), and creates many grades of dark surfaces. These has taught the architects, how to exploit the utter darkness of the cast shadows along with the many grades of intermediate darkness of the back-face surfaces. There are other grades of darkness over surfaces re-illuminated with reflections from surroundings. Such variable contrasts conditions were exploited in many ways. It helped in scaling the darkness of deep set spaces, to grade the near and far-off distances, and add greater realism to nearer objects.

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Architecture is an inside and outside place of visitation, allowing many sided experiences of the object, with cast shadows and intermediate grades of darkness over the ’back-face’ surfaces. These was unlike the Art, where only a fixed extent of intended image is represented, be it a canvas, book page, wall fresco, stained glass, mosaic, or architectonic decorations. The shape of an object and size and form of its shadow, though continuously variable, reflect each other.

9 ehimetalor-akhere-unuabona-iRaeBSeh4uQ-unsplash

Within an art work, the objects’ shape and the size-form of the shadows may not proportionately reflect each other. The selective framing and point of scene capture, chops the objects and their shadows. As a result, proportions, if any are not revealed. The process of selective elimination from art paintings began to be exploited further in architectural creations.

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In architectural works, extensive shadows conceal objects or architectonic elements that must be nominally seen for realization of the composition, form, size and proportion. The dominant and extensive shadows could, however, may be ‘concealed’ behind objects that are placed in the frontal most planes. Such dominant and extensive shadows, though are relevant for fixed hours and points of views. One of the classical examples of this is the Greek Columns forming the facade.

Column heads

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Shadows massing form building fronts of two classes. Buildings that are comparatively of flatter plane, though with pockets of shadows of various depths (depth read as the downward length of the shadow). Some of the shadows indicating the depths get mixed up with darker colours of the facade surfaces like glass. This is an area, where seasoned designers fail to perceive the true dark-light play over the facades. Another class of shadows massing over building fronts occur due to the projecting out mass of elements. These projections over the facade are well illuminated but their shadows fall on plane surfaces as well as on undulating masses. The uneven masses, if, angular or with inclination, the complexity of the shadows increases manifold.

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Shadow massing affects the buildings’ around public or open spaces. Such buildings, if form a flatter plane, whether, due to the repetition of architectural motifs (elements of facade language) or due to the extensive scale of visual perception, dilate the surface shading effect of the sunlight. Buildings forming such ‘visually flat planes’ were socially throughly failures.

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The ‘fixed-view’ or panoramic architectural configuration for the Plazas and Public spaces are of two basic types, 1 a large open public space dilutes the surface shade-shading effect of the sunlight, because of the large scale, whereas, 2 a very compact frontal space, seems spatially so articulated that there are too many varieties of surface shade-shadings of the sunlight. In the later case few designers had resources, experience, opportunity or time (historically, decades, if not centuries, for the long process of improvisation) for any corrective action. So whatever, was locally plausible, was accepted.

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In case of an architectural entity, the field is infinite but can be visually scanned by movement of the eyes, forming a seamless scene. But that was not so, with older style cameras that captured visual scene that seemed jarring. In case of human eyes the proportion of object to shadow is variable, but with artificial devices the object to shadow is shifting and so jarring. To reduce such variability of scenes, architects have resorted to selective framing for fixated observations, through windowing or deep set perspectives (that focussed the points of views). In architecture limited observations were also enforced through smaller or occluding openings, open ended-deep spaces, overhangs, serrations, cavities, etc. The selective framing chops the objects or their shadows.

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At a first glass, the shadows as dark entities seem very dark in the context of bright exteriors. Eyes however, soon dilate themselves and begin to perceive finer details within the shadows. Architectural features, human beings and their shadows often create captivating compositions of scale and proportion, but this can be perceived by an observer or camera. So scene capture like photograph remains a ‘neutral’ observation.

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Shadows have natural relationship with the source, direction and type of illumination, but more importantly, it is the quality of objects and the surfaces on which shadows occur. Cast sun light shadows show a horizontal line as horizontal, but a vertical line as an inclined entity. Consistent exposure to these has come to be accepted as nominal phenomenon. But shadows of inclined elements such as stairs, ridge of the roof, etc. have a different character.

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Architectural shadows are defined by the geo zones. Nominally between 23° N and 23° S have brighter sunlight. The strong light here gets reflected in darker shadows, but that again is affected by the dominant colour of terrain, density of vegetation and surface colours of building materials. Tropical areas such as Southern countries of Europe have had deeper and elaborate architectural elements. The shadows are used as an architectural instrument of form, composition, and visual effects.

32 ART by Ottavio Viviani Capriccios of Light and Shasdows

This is the 35th article (in continuation of old series -new beginning) on ISSUES of DESIGN.

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