DESIGN STAKEHOLDERS

Post 660 -by Gautam Shah

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A Design is generated for many types of ‘people’. Some are ‘clients’, because they appoint and pay to the designer, and/or finance+manage the project. A user of the designed entity (building, interior design, products etc.) may be a real consumer or a hypothetical profile framed by planning-marketing consultant or team. It is possible that Design can have many levels of consumers like occupiers, regular and casual visitors and lay-people (uninvolved in design but ‘onlookers’, ‘pride feelers’ or citizens). All these, designers, financiers, project conveners, managers, consumers, occupiers, visitors and onlookers, are stakeholders.

Stakeholders meet

A stakeholder is a person, group or organization, having interest, concerns or grievances for the objectives, policies, plans of actions or effort. These persons are inside or outside the organization, but show a characteristic proximity, intimacy, knowledgeability, and have degree of physical affectations and urgency.

Women at farmers rally Bhopal India

Stakeholders Interests : Stakeholders’ interests are positive or negative but may show contradicting interests. Secondary stakeholders are sometimes indirectly affected, more distanced and may not acutely represent the urgency. Internal stakeholders, at organizational level are like staff, suppliers, consultants, financiers, investors, etc. The stakeholders’ interests could be economics, social, work conditions, safety and security, environmental concerns, public resources and enforcement of Government and other obligatory regulations. At other level the stakeholders could have political interest, propagation of ideology, support or negation of specific materials, processes or technologies.

Gujarat High Court Building Ahmedabad India

Managing Stakeholders : Stakeholders represent bridges of social connections, which if properly cultivated help public acceptance of designers’ works. The acceptances include new clients, approvals, grants, loans. The social bridges can act as buffers, to tide over the shortfall, on quality expectations, delivery schedules, budget overruns and professional competition. Stakeholders increase the business credibility of the organization, and personal social reliability.

Women_at_a_SHG_Meeting

How to deal with Stakeholders : It is easier to deal with stakeholders as a group than in isolation. Recognize stakeholders for their geographic and class of affectation. The real affectations could be economic, social, safety, encroachment or compromise of rights and opportunities for participation in the process. A stakeholder or the group may want public exposure, a media story or political gratification. Stakeholders are societal inluencers and demand certain respect, and this can be offered through participation or engagements. Both of these can be achieved by keeping them informed in design conception, planning, decision making, implementation, and evaluation processes.

Reagan sitting withstakeholders of Afghanistan-Pakistan

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PERCEPTION of CONTRAST -Issues for design -18

Post 659 -by Gautam Shah

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Contrast is a deviation from the expected. It is the realization of a thing against, the obvious, existing, notional or ideological percept. Contrast is seen between nominal or obvious things, versus abnormal or non-perceived conditions. Like a full vs empty streets, clear vs fuzzy, pleasant smell vs unpalatable taste, dark-hot vs bright-cool, vibrating but noiseless; These are some such expectations vs perceptions.

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Contrast is a comparison and occurs in some reference. The reference forming nexus is proffered in real or a hyper realm. But the ‘thing’ and its context are not always in the same space or time setting. Contrast makes a ‘thing’ stronger by juxtaposition of some weaker, duller or different elements.

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Contrast is detected by two distinctive processes. The perception, is a combined experience of different sensorial faculties. And it is also a process of cognition that defines the strongest experience forming the main object or foreground, and all other as the background. The backgrounds offer the context.

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Sensorial faculties have their own scale of strength, and some have bipolarity. Typically eyes and ears continuously back up the space-position details. Similarly nose and tastes buds in the mouth, are closely located, and so show time-simultaneity in definition of edible things. The space-time references are filled in by other senses. Multilateral nodes of touch support such a process.

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The foreground-background divergence manifests in time-space reference. The juxtaposition, however, is not in the same space or time setting. The nexus could be in real or hyper a real realm. The hyper realm consists of experiences and resulting expectations. One has seen neither heaven nor hell, but both pose concurrently as extreme contrast. One of the two could be real and other through anecdotical knowledge. Here the contrasts are realized through recall. The contrast is relevant till foreground-background simultaneity remains within a fathomable range of perception. Architectural entities contrast in size, scale, style, placement, orientation, and environmental conditions, thematic content etc.

Chandigadh India

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The contrast offers a scale. Objects forming the contrasting zones have shapes, extent, proportion, and indicate a direction. The depth is the obvious phenomenon of foreground-background differentiation. Other two dimensions of the scale are formed by the shape and its extent. The fourth dimension of reality occurs with vivid scenes. Here, if the background is dull or static, the foreground contrasts intensely. And, where the foreground is dull or rapidly varying, the particulars of things and happenings fail to register effectively. The perceiver becomes confused and disinterested, if ‘back and foreground’ elements fail to present relationships in terms of now-then, here-there, far-near etc. In Design, there is always a conflict between context and contrast, requiring equilibrium.

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Contrast makes things conspicuous to attract the senses. And the contrast to be obvious, occurs with some reference. The reference is formed by a ‘thing’ that is stronger by juxtaposition of some weaker, duller or different elements, by its power of persistence in reality, and as a recall. Often clues are included in the composition for the recall. The clues could be similarities, leftover trails of the past happenings or subtle insertions relevant only to the person experiencing it or in that time and space. Other design elements that offer contrast include presence of directions, sequences, repetitions, occlusion by frames, thematic continuities, sensorial consistencies, associated fables and explanations.

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A design has internal and external context. Internal contrasts are part of the designed entity, so within the ambit of real experience. External contrasts occur through the embedded or implied metaphoric clues for connection.

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Architecture occurs in the context of its terrain, environment and stake holders (humans and tasks) and incorporeal parameters like weather, culture, economics, social and politics. These are universal posers, some find them suffocating in creation of outstanding and long-lasting contrast. So contrast is realized by negation of the contextual elements. Architects resort to attitudes like deconstructivist, monumentalist, eccentricist etc. Architecture has been for a very long time and substantially static formation, but now for evocation of contrast, not only the form is made dynamic but the perceiver-users are made mobile and hyperactive. These experiences began in rapidly changing environmental conditions, unsettled positions of perceptions, gyrating conditions, gravity less conditions, videos and movies.

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In art work like paintings aberrations of perception arise from how spaces are postulated by extent and depth, and time is suggested with metaphoric details. The way colours are seen or weights are felt is due to such contrasts. Our past experience and desires make us see or experience things before they happen at closer locations.

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A silhouette is a very specific condition of contrast. Here the proportion of dark-light is of course important, but the edge conditions like shapes, arrangement, sizes etc. determine the effectiveness of contrast. Silhouette work in two ways: One due to the stark difference between the background and foreground, and Two due the lack of details in the foreground object. A glare is a form extreme contrast which fuzzes the foreground.

Vatican Silhouette

Camouflage is in a way opposite of contrast. It forms from the skillful exploitation of the contrast, though the resultant scenario is cacophonous. The noise occurs from anomalous conditions between the perception and its cognition. It is also the difference between real experience and the expectations. Camouflage morphs the foreground with background, alternatively the foreground turns fuzzy due to the reflections, multiple impressions, askew positioning, colour intonation, altered scaling etc.

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Contrast occurs due to cascade of light, glare, echoes or reverberation, masking (of smell, taste), screening, covering, hiding reflections, and framing.

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Cascading Light and camaflauge

Protective scaffolding over Taj Mahal AgraIndia 1943

Uniform colour

This is the 18 th article of 20 topics series on ISSUES for DESIGN

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PERSONAL AND BUILDING SAFETY –a List + Links to Blogs

Post 658 -by Gautam Shah

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Detectable_Warnings

ANTI-LIGATURE –Issues for Design -8 https://interiordesignassist.wordpress.com/2016/06/28/anti-ligature-issues-for-design-8/

ANTI-LIGATURE https://interiordesignassist.wordpress.com/2014/04/04/anti-ligature/

SAFETY ASPECTS of DESIGN https://interiordesignassist.wordpress.com/2016/04/15/safety-aspects-of-design/

Penhaligon_Burlington_Arcade_2431

SECURITY in BUILDINGS https://interiordesignassist.wordpress.com/2015/01/05/security-in-buildings/

DOOR SECURITY https://interiordesignassist.wordpress.com/2014/07/13/door-security/

SPACE PLANNING and NON VISUAL CUES https://interiordesignassist.wordpress.com/2015/04/17/space-planning-and-non-visual-cues/

MANAGING the RISKS https://interiordesignassist.wordpress.com/2014/11/03/managing-the-risks/ 

Risk on Brinks

DE-WINDOWING http://talking-interior-design.blogspot.in/2016/11/de-windowing.html

FENCES https://interiordesignassist.wordpress.com/2014/08/28/fences/

GUARD RAILS https://interiordesignassist.wordpress.com/2015/04/08/guardrails/

COMPONENTS of RAILINGS https://interiordesignassist.wordpress.com/2015/05/04/components-of-railings/

RAILINGS AND PARAPETS https://interiordesignassist.wordpress.com/2015/01/12/railings-and-parapets/

GRILLS https://interiordesignassist.wordpress.com/2014/09/30/grills/

TYPES of BARRIERS https://interiordesignassist.wordpress.com/2016/01/07/types-of-barriers/

MANAGING the RISKS https://interiordesignassist.wordpress.com/2014/11/03/managing-the-risks/

ECONOMICS of RISKS https://interiordesignassist.wordpress.com/2014/11/10/economics-of-risks/

Door of a traditional Indian House

Sheth ni Pol Ahmedabad --a gated community

City Gate Prem Darwaja Ahmedabad

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WORK PROCESSES -simplified overview

Post 657 -by Gautam Shah

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1280px-Alpha_Factory-Sewing_Floor_80-90

Workshops till middle age were craftspeople oriented. Mechanical power drives allowed heavy duty jobs and precision or micro work. Mechanical devices like gears, leather belt transmission and need for greater productivity by exclusive task assignment provided standardized products on a massive scale. Some degree of linear production planning was occurring. The power shaft forced organization of workshops on linearity. The line production methods promoted productivity through time management and sequencing of task procedures. In many instances tasks began to be assimilated and handled simultaneously in a single time slot.

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power shaft pulley beltsDuring the early part of the 20th C. machines became adjuncts to assembly-line production systems and multi tasking. For this machine became a device to handle a variety of tools, often simultaneously. The machines were operating at a faster speed requiring equally fast control system.

595px-Machine_shop_in_the_Government_Printing_OfficeMechanical power transmission systems were concurrent systems for the entire workshop, but the impediment was removed with the electric power. Electrical power offered local control through an electric motor (horse power) rating, speed variation through voltage control, and operational control like start-stop, etc. Independent electric powered machines with faster and multi tasking capabilities, however, were now difficult for human supervision. Control devices were actuators, for process regulation.

workers with shaft power transmission

Control devices or systems are of two types: A Feed-forward system has inputs or predicts unusual happening, but would not oversee or govern the actualization of the action. A Feedback system improvises strategy for future actions in many instances oversees actions being taken.

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Feed-forward systems: Jacquard weaving loom uses a feed-forward control as a programmed punched card to weave a pattern, but cannot stop the loom if there is a short feed of thread. Similarly a cutting machine cuts a large sized shape by moving the cutter tracing a small scale pattern through the arm of a pantograph.

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Feedback systems: A wind mill keeps facing the wind with the help of a tail wane. A pressure cooker seals itself with heightened internal pressure of steam. Pressure valves are weight calibrated opening themselves at certain pressure levels only.

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Control devices and systems have led to automation of processes. Automation began in the late 1940s with the development of the mechanical devices for moving and positioning objects on a production line, though observation and manual intervention were necessary. During 1960s digital computers began to offer control systems in three different manners: For supervisory or optimizing control, Direct digital control, and Hierarchy control. In the first instance, for the supervisory control a computer sets parametric levels for optimizing the operations. In the second instance, for the direct-digital control, several devices feed data to a single processor, which then decides a strategy of operation. The advantage here is very fast and objective evaluation of the data. The third system the hierarchy control applies to all the plant-control situations concurrently, often with the actuation of the control mechanisms.

640px-FANUC_R-2000iB_series_robot_128

640px-Solar_wafer_manufacturing_(3347740790)

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SPACE IDENTIFIERS

Post 656 -by Gautam Shah

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Clock Tower Croatia Adriatic Sea Dubrovnik Old Town

A space is a recognized and improvised, or a designed configuration for a range of behaviour. The layperson recognizes and improvises, and the expert designs it, but can only surmise how it will manifest. The stack holders are often not aware of the basis of the recognition, improvisation or design. Yet everyone does arrive at common realization.

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Very vast exterior spaces are recognized for the markings that indicate sensorial ‘effects’. Other exterior spaces are finite, shaped and sized by bounding elements. Neighbourhood spaces are known through their bounding elements, which could be natural, and exploited or improvised. Spaces for inhabitation require greater degree of intervention then improvisation, and so are designed as enclosures.

Town Square by Armando San Salvador

Arches Groznjan Building Old Town Architecture

Markings are evident through physical elements like: edges, banks, thresholds, slopes, plains or fences and environmental effects thereon. We perceive only certain range of space. The reach varies with perceiver’s capacity, needs and environmental conditions, so is very circumstantial. The behaviour with reference to markings is perfunctory as it relates to the potential –what can one do with it ? A wild exterior space defined by the markings is an infinite realm.

630px-Edward_S._Curtis,_Canyon_de_Chelly,_Navajo,_1904

Bounding elements are definitions that dimension, grade, scale and proportion a space. These define the change like a drop in terrain, contour, variation colour or texture, illuminated or shaded objects, etc. The bounding elements indicate the purpose of the space, and in many cases even the nature of its ownership and structure of administration. Such elements restrict the perception or environmental effects. Neighbourhood spaces have recognizable geometric order or a predictable configuration, purposive locations for anchorage, well-defined zones, distinct routes and paths, good visibility (and other clarity of other sensorial perception) and recognition of the whole and its parts. The depth or scale of the space is defined by the sensorial reach of users, such as vision, hearing, smelling, touches etc.

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Enclosures, man-made or natural, are very evident from the change in environment they cause. The enclosures, like shell, roofs, coverings, awnings, curtains, partitions, ceilings etc. create a dimensional space. A space created by an enclosure is far more enduring then one defined by the bounding. A very strong enclosure creates an isolated space, with very limited relevance. However, translucency of the enclosure allows exchanges. Enclosures become vibrant through transgressions, as extrusive encroachment or intrusive yielding. It creates a wide variety of purposive settings.

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The virtual immediacy, of the interior and the exterior realms is like an antithetic zone to the other. It is also achieved by carrying across the impressions of the other.

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A space segment, a wild exterior with markings, a neighbourhood with bounding elements or an enclosure, cannot become a setting for habitation, till further sub-zoned into locations for various tasks and identified with the environmental qualities.

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MASHRABIYA -an opening system

Post 655 -by Gautam Shah

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Mashrabiya an extensive opening system, was very common feature of mid East or Arab architecture. Mashrabiyas were placed on upper floors of urban houses usually on street faces, but occasionally on the internal courtyard sahn side. Such openings were also used in palaces, public buildings such as hospitals, inns, schools and government buildings, but rarely seen in rural areas. Mashrabiya in farm houses and for out of the town buildings are more open, with reduced amounts of lattice work and without the lining of glass.

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Mashrabiya openings are presumed to have formed during 12th C in Baghdad. Iraq and Egypt are two countries where many examples survive. These are more common in Eastern (mashriq) parts of the Arab world, then the Western (maghrib) parts. Basra is often called the city with Mashrabiyas. Such openings were later introduced in France from their colonial sources, and called Moucharabieh.

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The word Mashrabiya has varied origins. It denotes drinking or absorbing. The name perhaps has derived from a wood lattice enclosed shelf located near or against a window to cool the drinking water pots. The shelf evolved as a full enclosure to cover an entire wall of the room. Mashrabiya also has originated from verb Ashrafa =to overlook, ignore or to observe.

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Mashrabiyas have carved wood latticework and often stained glass. Lattice designs differ from region to region. The latticework, though commonly formed of elements of a lathe carved long wood sections, called bobbins. Lower sections of the opening are opaque, or with denser lattice work. The smaller openings in the lower section obscured vision from outside, and reduce the air draft. Larger openings in the upper parts allow better air draft and illumination. Mid part of the Mashrabiya is provided with sliding or side-hung shutters. Such clear gaps were used for drawing up the purchases from street vendors. Sections of Mashrabiyas are also lined with coloured or stained glass to form an enclosed balcony, and an adjunct space to the room.

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Mashrabiya adds space to rooms on the upper floors without increasing the foot print area of the building. These have also been used for correcting the shape of upper floor front room. Mashrabiya allows air from three sides to enter, even if the drought outside was parallel to the house facade. Mashrabiyas also provide shade for the ground floor openings. As a projected opening system, it offers a longer sideways view in a narrow street.

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Mashrabiya work as an independent enclosed balcony or as a space attached to a room. Egyptian Mashrabiyas project out at a slightly raised level, providing for a Dakkah. A Dakkah is also a masonry platform attached to the front part of a house, covered with a rug. It is used for informal talk and tea in Arab rural areas. A Dakkah is an arrangement similar to Ota or Otla in a traditional Indian house.

Shanshil Iraq

Shanashil is net or wood screen-covered verandah or porch over looking a street or garden. The meaning of Shanashil is ‘the hanging silk’. First Shanashil was found in 1800s Iraqi houses of Basra and Baghdad. Shanashil and Mashrabiya have little difference except chiefly the depth aspect. Shanashils are covered galleries so have greater depth compared to Mashrabiya, and former ones are in level with the interior floor.

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There are several equivalent forms of openings. Oriel and bay windows have been used to enlarge the room space and receive more light and from many directions. Similarly Indian projected opening systems Zarokhas have been built in wood and stone with open and lattice covered form like Mashrabiya. Both reduce the glare, provide privacy and offer extended space. All these forms transgress outward and undulate the exterior surface. A caboose is an extended opening used in Automobiles and railway carriages for gaining side-way view of the street or estate. This has, though smaller size of width and projected depth. A caboose also occurs as a projected niche.

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SCALING the SPACES -Issues for design -17

Post 654 -by Gautam Shah

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An architectural space becomes relevant through the scaling. Scaling creates relational organization, where sub-elements get corollary connection and a holistic domain. A scale is for measurement, comparison, sequencing, progression, de-gression, etc. and so it is crucial factor for equivalence, balance, proportions, parallel, symmetry, analogy, proximity etc.

Dune_de_sable_au_parc_Culturel_De_l'AhaggarSize of a space and Scale of space are two distinct terms. Space size is fundamentally related to the human body, and represents the work capacities, reach distance and spread for the users. Size is a relative or comparative fact, which invests the space with functional and quantitative reference. The natures of cognition, physical extension, communication and exchanges are also functions of the space size. The levels of intimacy, the loss of objectivity and subjective involvements that occur in a space, are governed by its size. The size is seen as the facility of accommodation and also future potential for alternation, improvisation, and personalization.

Essen_Germany_Interior-of-BMV-Church-01

The Scaling endows qualitative character to the space. Scaled spaces have multiple elements. The scaling occurs as duality, a comparison or juxtaposition between two things, or as numerosity that orders sequencing, arrangements, patterning, array, composition, progression, de-gression etc. Scaling is a factor crucial for acknowledging equivalence, balance, proportions, parallel, symmetry, analogy, proximity etc. At a simple level scaling interprets a space to be Large-Small, Wide-Narrow, Tall-Shallow, etc. Scaling also allows for recognition of the compositional geometry and intrinsic relationships, and for taking cognizance of the space in absence of mathematical tools. The constituent elements of a space are distinctly realized compounding of sensorial experiences (visual, touch, smell, taste, aural) and environmental effects (echoes, reverberation, reflection, illumination, glares, directionality etc.). The synthesis creates a conversionary scale, one that is ever-altering the form, size and functions of the space. Same space is perceived to be of different nature depending on the recent experiences, moods, physiological conditions and concurrence of other feelings.

 

 

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Size of a space is an absolute factor of utility, like functional adequacy, anthropometric needs and sensorial reach capacities. These factors also show the effort and duration required to possess, occupy, use and even dispose off (de-possess, de-occupy) the spatial entity. Size of a space and the environment are interrelated. For a lay person, spaces within the known size and environment are manageable. Such spaces however, cannot always be created. For managing the strangeness or alienation of an even known space, it needs scaling elements like: repetitions, rhythmic evolution, structured patterning, sensory gradation, acceleration-de-acceleration, graduated changeovers, linkages, relationships through modulation and proportioning, etc.

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Scaling of a space occurs as duality, a comparison or juxtaposition with another element, or as a composition of multiple elements. But, in both cases, the other element/s need not be present contemporaneously. The other element/s may manifest as remembrance. The spaces can be scaled in hyper-reality. A space of a real world is measured, compared, juxtaposed, interpolated, or judged with an image composed of reality, dreams, desire, myth or mystery.

Palace Mumbai Taj Mahal Hotel Balconies

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New built spaces, such as ‘buildings’, are very empty, and go without recognition or serve any exact purpose. Such spaces need to be scaled by elemental interventions of inhabitation. These elements make the spaces functionally purposive and ‘humane’. Such exercises are after the occupation of the space, and so involve the user. Built spaces also have variations of environment and cognition, but in addition, permit personalization.

Japan Buildings Asia District Geometry Shiodome640px-Little_Moreton_Hall_(6451326683)

 

Personalization of a space adds missing or enhancing elements to mark up, or occlude them to format scaling. The scaling of spaces chiefly occurs by occupancy and installation of amenities and enrichments. For temporary space occupation, the responses to space are perfunctory. It may cause alienation, worries, physical discomfort, and attempts are made to adopt or domesticate the space.

640px-Armenian_Genocide_Memorial_-_Yerevan_(2903021240)

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Spaces are scaled to users’ needs based on sex, age, social profile, access through subtle or obvious declarations and exclusive placement. The spatial elements are arranged with visual and aural considerations, grades of proximity, physical distancing, functionality, framing, masking, referencing, matching and contrasting. There are several social phenomena like vulnerability, isolation, privacy, seclusion, participation, groups dynamics, ethos, heritage continuity, etc. that help in spatial scaling.

Street_shops_and_lives_in_BhutanNeighbourhoods’ spaces are scaled to whatever is within reach of access through touch, vision, hearing or smell. The spatial elements are evident with variation of environment, level of cognition, adequacy for occupation and scope for interpersonal relationships.

 

Under_the_arches,_Chappel_Viaduct_(geograph_3984035)

At Absolute level a space is perceived as the difference between the Length and Width. It is seen as a narrow or wide entity. The height confers its own scale of narrowness or broadness to the space. Height accentuates or de-emphasizes the character of the space nominally contributed by the relation between the Length and the Width. The equality of Length and Width of space marks a balance. The orientation of smaller or larger size gives a feel of a deep and shallow space. All these terms also give a sense of direction (long vs short) in the space.

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This is the 17 th article of 20 topics series on ISSUES for DESIGN

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