SEGMENTING the SPACES -Issues of Design 31

Post 711 -by Gautam Shah

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17 train-seats-transportation-travel-trip

Spaces are divided with partitions and also segmented through ephemeral means. The spatial definitions formed by partitions or physical barriers are permanent units, whereas the segmented spaces are mere recognitions that are transient and symbolic. Spaces need to be divided into smaller parts, as much as combined into a greater whole. The sub-unitized spaces are sometimes recombined by selective dissolution of the partitions and zoned identities are re-comprehended by redefining their purposes.

Patient recovery post-anesthesia care unit

6 Interconnected Rooms 16993145099_06b36824e3_c

The spatial entities have two sets of characteristics. 1 – A space with personal identity is a centred spread. It is focussed to the core and with variable peripheries. 2 – A space with identity of a group is of precise extent. It has an emphatic periphery. In the first instance the spatial quality emerges from the physiological and sensorial reach to others and objects. In the second instance, the group dynamics like customs of social distancing, sensorial responses for interactions and in recognition of age, sex and relationships between the people, define the space.

2 Amsterdam_Theatermuseum_chamber_theatre_backstage

The structural divisions in built-forms are finite zones for identity, isolation, privacy, security and environmental exclusivity. But these can be often too large or small. Small spaces need to be enlarged by transgressing to adjoining zones or even outsides, through the openings. These form convergent spaces with the adjoining zones, like verandahs, galleries, bay windows, etc. Large spaces have the scope for inverse or inward transgressions. The inward intrusions change the functional character and sensorial qualities by forming mew peripheries. Where sub-spaces are consistently used, these may be distinguished with built partitions.

5 GeneralFederation_of_WomensClubs_ca1910s_interior_LC

Partitions brand a space for exclusive use, private access and status quo. Once palace and manor kitchens had many roomettes like for cutlery, crockery, linen, cream and milk, bakery items, poultry, meat etc. The primitive cooking place was also meal taking place. These were structured storage units, but now have become segmented parts of kitchens, with better cabinets systems. And nowadays with continuous supply chain system very little storage segments are needed. Dirty kitchens forced dining to separate room. In modern times cooking is no longer dirty and cooking is not necessarily cook’s or housewives’ domain so cooking and dining both impinge on family rooms.

16 Winkles's_architectural_and_picturesque_illustrations_of_the_cathedral_churches_of_England_and_Wales_(1836)_(14780776171)

3 Church Pews 495312857_d80b33c790_c

To coalesce two structured spaces, the prime strategy is to relocate, resize or add openings between two. Next strategy is to combine the functions of two spaces. Family rooms and drawing rooms are no longer separate entities.

15 Venezuelan_Kitchen

Ephemeral divisions relate to delineation of areas for people, tasks, amenities, facilities, orientation and environmental affectations and sanctimony. Such delineated areas are customary and respected by the members of the family as much as by the community. Some areas are considered sacrosanct and require affirmation to rituals. The tasks conducted here in ephemeral divisions are variable in spread and transient in time. The spread is defined by the physical reach and the tools’ assisted range. Postural capacity and adjustability both rationalize the spread.

9 kitchen-fifties-sixties-seventies-style-retro

Ephemeral segmentation of space occurs with both, the Time and Space interventions. Time interventions allow use of same space for many different purposes. This avoids the conflicts of privacy, sanctimony, security, territorial ownership or access and sensorial mix-up. The Western Wall, Wailing Wall, Kotel or Buraq Wall, are different ephemeral divisions of Holy place in old Jerusalem. Spatial distancing and time delay allows reenforcement of individual identities but when at excessive scale creates alienation. The appropriate balance can have different meanings for the concerned persons, objects, activities, intentions etc.

10 Turkish culture-architecture-old-home

Defined or Abstract, space segments are recognition of the edges. The edges reflect three distinct spatial characteristics, namely, –Edge or Periphery, Core and the Adjunct.

In case of defined or structural divisions of a space, the edge as the barrier has a peripheral character. This is more so when the space spread is large enough to distinguish the core versus the periphery. The adjunct areas here have relevance, wherever the barriers are breached. In case of ephemeral divisions of a space, the edge is not real but just a recognition of extreme part of a spread. All ephemerally segmented spaces have unreal edges that converge with other domains. For segmented or partitioned spaces the periphery becomes the area of connections and variations. Besides the environmental variations and communication, it is also a point of control.

12 woman-sri-embroidering-embroidery

The housewife chooses a space segment, usually a verge, from where everything can be observed and controlled. The services area, cooking, dining and the entry, form such connected segments. In single room spaces like Bhunga or huts the door is such a control point.

14 Personal work spaces 17149638230_7d0cb3295e_c

The core is the place of task-handler, equipment or source+direction of environmental affectations and possibilities of control over other spaces. The core defining elements could even be sited abutting a structural element. Every other section beyond the active core is peripheral. A space gains a personal meaning when the activity conductor is the focus and everything is distanced from it.

18 ndian_Kathakar_Storyteller_1913

The societal intention of a space is not necessarily circular but rather a concentric one, where the periphery is the greatest distance before becoming irrelevant. The core and periphery are distinguished by the social distancing as a recognition of age and sex of the people. It can be personal at one level and also as accepted tradition or taboo. The personal need for segmenting a space is to accommodate the self, include other people.

11 Compartmental spaces india-rural-home-scenic

The personal space may not need compartmental divisions except for safety and security against displacement. Personal spaces flourish better with opportunities of interaction and participation in activities of others. This is possible if the spaces are only ephemerally segmented. The public spaces, if extensive, allow several segments to thrive.

8 Adjunct areas anguillara-rome-drying-laundry-housewife

13 Inward Adjunct spaces temple-ladakh-india-tibet-shrine-mystical

The adjuncts are sub core sections, which impinge the main spread, but in different time and space. The adjuncts spaces have nearly distinct identity and so are separable. Adjuncts share a similar architectural ethos, common sensorial experiences but with variegated environment. Verandahs, chowks, courtyards, terraces are such locations. Off-centric core areas occur for one person or point focussed concentration. These are cornered entities that only flourish with adjuncts acting as escape areas. Performance stages function only with side-wings and backstage support. Public spaces and plazas cannot survive without the adjunct streets. Public buildings exist with attached foyers. Multi-room homes are served by the lobbies.

1 Partitioned Stage theater-546611_1280

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This is the 31st article (in continuation of old series -new beginning) on ISSUES of DESIGN.

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PETER BEHRENS -Product Designer

Post 710 -by Gautam Shah

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1

Peter Behrens (1868-1940) was a German artist, architect and designer. His creative conceptual clarity, art, products, architecture and typography all have influenced a generation in Europe. He was born in Hamburg. He studied painting at the School of Art in Karlsruhe (1886-1889). He spent the 1890s in Munich as a painter and designer, practicing in than current Jugendstil or German Art Nouveau style. He was actively involved with the Berlin Sezession group of artists, architects and designers in 1893.

Peter Behrens Products

Sezession was an Austrian and German group of progressive artists, who in 1892 (first in Munich and then in Berlin) formed a separate entity, breaking away from the conservative artists. The secession was a space for people from different backgrounds to work together to influence a new culture of German Modernism. The First World War created a negative impact on the Sezession but Hitler’s rule removed it from the scene.

2 Glasgo School of art

Peter Behrens was the co-founder of the Deutscher Werkbund, whose aim was to link industrialists and artists, paving the way for design-led technology.

The Deutscher Werkbund (German Association of Craftsmen, German Labour League or German Work Federation was -ˈdɔʏtʃər ˈvɛrkbʊnd) was inspired by the Government, in 1907. Its initial concept was to bring together designers and manufacturers to integrate the traditional crafts and industrial mass production techniques. Its motto was ‘Vom Sofakissen zum Städtebau’ (from sofa cushions to city-building).

It became the most important group of artists, architects, designers, and industrialists, to support the development of modern architecture and industrial design. Werkbund was first led by Herman Muthesius. Other key members included Mies van der Rohe and Eliel Saarninen. This initiative later led to formation of the Bauhaus School of Design.

Werkbund members believed that unity and beauty of form was essential and saw industrialization as a force that demanded a re-calibration of the German aesthetic standards. They believed that German designers needed to shift their focus toward designing objects that could be mass produced, to object based on its functional logic, and that each object should be honest about its materials. Its mandate was to enhance the quality of German products in world markets, mainly England and United States in pre WW-I period.

3 Henry_van_de_Velde_-_Chair_-_1895

Peter Behrens (with Henry van de Velde and Muthesius) was also part of the original leaders who developed the philosophy of Gesamtkultur #a cohesive cultural vision where design was the central force for fresh, man-made environment. The visual language perceived for Gesamtkultur was bereft of ornamentation, in favour of simple and function. For the cohesive cultural vision and for re-configuring, optimizing and mechanizing their productions, they discussed all areas of design, graphic, typography, products industrial products design, architecture, textiles, etc. Hermann Muthesius had returned from England to Germany with Morris’s Arts & Crafts concepts, but here he was focussing on mechanizing the production with high-quality design and material integrity.

4 Haus Muthesius Musikzimmer

# Gesamtkultur, as a word was coined by 19th C German composer Richard Wagner, who saw his operas as a total work of art, synthesizing music, poetry, drama, theatre, costume, and set design. It is used for a work produced by a synthesis of various art forms.

18 Dining Room set Behrens

19 Behrens

Peter Behrens, began working as a painter, illustrator and bookbinder. He in 1899, under the influence of J. M. Olbrich moved from Art to Architecture. He was a self-taught architect. In 1899 Behrens accepted the invitation of the Grand Duke Ernst-Ludwig of Hesse to be the second member of Darmstadt Artists’ Colony. Here Behrens built his own house as a debut in architecture. He also designed furniture, furnishings paintings etc. for it. This building in Jugendstil style (German equivalent of Art Nouveau style), though Behrens never lived in it, is considered to be the turning point in his life.

5 PeterBehrens-Affiche1901

Behrens became director of the School of Applied Arts in Düsseldorf (1903-1907). At Düsseldorf, Behrens became interested in Theosophist geometry. The curvilinear forms that he once used in own residence were now replaced with the rectilinear geometry. At Dusseldorf Behrens designed a remarkable building, the Crematorium in Hagen (1906), using the plane surfaces and incised linear decoration with experimental cubic symmetry of geometric volume. He also designed several other buildings in now sober and austere style. This included the Exhibition hall for the Northwestern German Art Exhibition at Oldenburg (1905). With new prestige, he began to frequent the bohemian circles and showed interest in subjects related to the reformation of the lifestyles.

6 Musik zimmer Haus Behrens Schiedmayer

Deutscher Werkbund principles of quality, as formulated in 1907 was the first theoretical formulation for pursuit of Quality. These concepts were so remarkable that several decades later QMS ( Quality Management Standards, ISO 9000) of the ISO and the SA (Social Accountability Standards ISO 8000) had similar foundations.

7 La maison de Peter Behrens (Musée_de_la_colonie_d'artistes,_Darmstadt)_(8728647639)

Germany was embracing a new philosophy and visual style for its simplicity and exactness. The new products, with their high level of functional utility and beauty were expected to build a new future for German exports. Behrens, with his multi disciplinary experiences was capable of designing things in diverse fields. As a product designer, in 1898, he designed glass bottles and different types of wine glasses. In 1907, Behrens was invited for the post of an artistic adviser to Germany’s largest electric company AEG (Allgemeine Elektricitäts Gesellschaft, Berlin). He was required to form a monumental image for the prestige of the firm by arranging mass production with artistic expression. His job included design of electrical equipments, fixtures, branding packaging, catalogues, posters, architecture for factories and workshops.

8 Behrens Office

Peter Behrens, in Berlin office, between 1908-1911, designed five large industrial buildings. The Berlin office had during the period apprentices and design assistants like, Walter Gropius 1907-1910, Mies van der Rohe 1908-1910 and 1911-1912, and Le Corbusier, Adolf Meyer and Jean Kramer. Mies worked on interiors of two houses, AEG Small Motors Factory and Assembly Hall for Large Machines. Other works include Berlin Turbine factory, High Voltage Factory, AEG factory complex, two houses Cuno and the Schroeder, Osthaus -the site plan for a group of villas in Hohenhagen, Mannesmann Administration Building in Düsseldorf and the Gas Works in Frankfurt-Osthafen.

9 AEG Turbine factory facade.jpg

22 AEG Voltastraße Alte Fabrik für Bahnmaterial

25 Peter Behrens AEG High Tension Factory, Berlin

The Turbine Factory for AEG, of exposed steel, concrete, and large areas of glass was admired Le Corbusier as the ‘cathedral of labour’, in 1912. The Mannesmann Administration Building in Düsseldorf and the Gas Works in Frankfurt-Osthafen both, were designed in 1910-12.

17 Behrens Peter Hoechst administration offices 1920-27, central hall elevations

21 Behrens Hoechst administration offices 1920-27, central hall elevations

10 Project Mies

Behrens always made the final decisions and had total control of the design process. The clarity of the volumetric articulations is evidenced by the choice of the points of view. The buildings were always represented in relation to the environment. He showed an ability to express the materials in the facades through the representational graphics and in the reality of built form.

23 Peter Behrens Bau Oberhausen

11 The Mannesmann house

Design is not about decorating functional forms – it is about creating forms that accord with the character of the object and that show new technologies to advantage.’ –Peter Behrens.

13 Crematorium

The transition between this naturalistic period and his later activities, in the Berlin office show a search for new linguistic conventions based on abstraction, anti-naturalism and expressionism with a degree of monumentality. Peter Behrens remained head of the Department of Architecture at the Prussian Academy of Arts in Berlin. In 1922 he became a professor of Architecture at the Academy in Vienna, and thereafter little works of consequence emerged. Behrens became associated with Hitler’s urban dreams for Berlin. Hitler also admired Behrens’s Saint Petersburg Embassy.

14 Behrens's Saint Petersburg Embassy

From 1920 and 1924, he was responsible for the design and construction of the Technical Administration Building (Technische Verwaltungsgebäude) of Hoechst AG in Hoechst. In 1926, Behrens designed a home for Englishman Wenman Joseph Bassett-Lowke in Northampton, UK. It is regarded as the modernist house in Britain. In 1928 Behrens won an international competition for the construction of the New Synagogue, Žilina.

12 Peter Behrens Neologic Synagogue in Zilina 1928-1931

15 Behrens Mausoleum 1925, elevation + Plan

Behrens was AEG’s chief artistic advisor from 1907-1914 and is now considered the Father of Industrial Design. He designed several domestic products for use of electricity. The domestic products were conceived for mass production, utility and not have ‘impersonal’ identity. The objects include fan or Ventilatoren in 1908, light fixtures and electric teakettle. The Fan evolved from the first electric fan, created by Schuyler Wheeler in 1886, with variations in speed setting and wind direction. The electric kettle was the first product with immersion heating elements, integrated into the body of the kettle rather than placing it as an adjunct element. The kettles were produced in several shapes (cylindrical, octagonal or oval), materials (chromium and brass), and surface finishes. Of the possible 216 configurations only 30 were produced. He devised, the Sans serif fonts for the reductive graphic style. Behrens is credited with Schrift (1901-7), Antiqua (1907-9) and Medieval (1914), through Klingspor Type Foundry.

26 Behrens 1930 Berlin Bernauer Strasse subway

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ADDITIVES for CLAYS’ SURFACE FINISHES and PRODUCTS MAKING > Part -II

Post 709 -by Gautam Shah

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Earlier article in the series CLAY MATERIALS for SURFACE FINISHES and PRODUCTS MAKING > Part -I (https://interiordesignassist.wordpress.com/2019/11/02/clay-materials-for-surface-finishes-and-products-making-part-i/)

5 Mixing Hay for Adobe

Clays and soil materials are universally and abundantly available with negligible cost of procurement. Nearly one-half and two-thirds of the world’s population still live or work in buildings made with raw clays, baked into brick walls and floors and use several other baked products like firebricks, storage and cooking utilities like pots and vessels. Variety of mixed soils are used as natural raw materials for structural, building, surface finishes or craft items.

10 Gully Erosion of Soil Dead Sea CoastalErosion

The soils or clay materials display high organic contents as top soil, to nearly mined soils with nearly zero organic component and washed or ground residual products containing mixed organic and mineral substances. Soils have adjustable plasticity, mould-ability, insulating qualities, high thermal capacity, non toxicity, eco friendly nature and simplicity of application. Soils have besides plasticity and shrinkage on drying, issues of deflocculation, coagulation, dry and wet strength of clays.

15 River Silt

Soil colloids are the most active constituent that determines the physical and chemical properties of the soils. These are very small particles which are one-thousandth of a millimetre (0.0001 mm, 0.0004 in). Like other soil particles, some colloids are minerals, whereas others are organic. Mineral colloids are usually refined clay particles. When these particles are mixed with water, they remain suspended indefinitely, turning the water murky. Organic colloids are tiny bits of organic matter that are resistant to decay. Colloidal particles are always in motion because of charge particles. Colloidal particles are transformed from a liquid into a soft semisolid or solid mass by adding an opposite charged ion. Colloidal particles have ability to absorb gases, liquid and solid from their suspension. Colloidal particles never pass through a semipermeable membrane. Colloidal particles have the properties of cohesion and adhesion’.

9 Peat Blocks

Generally, such soils have numerous problems due to the low strength, high compressibility and high level of volumetric changes. Clays need to be improved before these can be used even for soil-based structures like roads, dams, embankments, landfills etc. Improved mix and layering can solve issues of plasticity, swelling, angle of repose, load-bearing behaviour, stability and workability of the clays.

11 Rummu aherainemägi2

Soil Erosion is the displacement of the upper layer of soil, it is one form of soil degradation. Rainfall, and the surface runoff which may result from rainfall, produces four main types of soil erosion: splash erosion, sheet erosion, rill erosion, and gully erosion.

Clay is a fine-grained soil, but not all fine-grained soils are clays. Clays are distinguished from other fine-grained soils by differences in size and mineralogy. Silts are fine-grained soils tend to have larger particle sizes than clays. Mixtures of sand, silt with less than 40% clay are called loam. Loam. Loam makes good soil as a building material.

8 House made of mitti

Clay and Soils are used for forming raw or baked products. Such materials have fewer problems such as shrinkage on drying (cracking), less of homogeneity in dry state, high water permeability -hygroscopic, low weatherability, poor bonding to a substrate -peel off, vulnerability to white ants and insects and colour.

12 38293897802_c842ec3ece_c

Clay products forming processes are, both corrective and additive, unlike wood working, which is basically a deductive process (unless one uses joinery techniques). Clay earthenware processes, at a later stage suffused the stoneware, porcelain and glass making, due to involvement of ‘earthy’ minerals and the heat treatments. In building construction clay products competed against stones, and metals for household items. Stones are not available in all locations and metals need higher technology, compared with the universal material, the Clay.

13 Silt on the banks_of_the_River_Severn_-_geograph.org.uk_-_686914

Plasticity of clay is one its plus quality that is available in no other materials except the flour dough. Clays nominally attain plasticity by addition of moisture, but for high-end ceramics shape forming is through densification by pressure. The plasticity is not a critical criterion, as ceramic soil materials show flow properties at high temperature forming inter-particle bonding.

6 Extruded hollowed Clay blocks being air-dried before going to furnace

Soils are exploited by tackling issues with fillers and additives that are local, low cost and technologically simpler. Fillers and additives are primarily natural materials such as other clays, sands, granules, pozzolana, minerals, crushed baked products (like surkhi, ceramics, coal ash, etc.), dried-rotted agriculture wastes, hairs, natural gums, etc. At the other end, fillers and additives are processed materials like pigments, synthetic fibers, polymeric compounds and resins, oxides, carbonates, Portland cements, calcined lime, etc.

4 Caesarea_Concrete_Bath

Fillers mainly change the physical quality of the soil by adding to the bulk, altering the plasticity and changing the economics profile of raw materials. Additives play an effective role in changing the chemical properties of the mix. Majority of fillers are inferior clays or earth-based products. Additives are proportionately of small volume or weight, like gums, binders, cement, asphalts, pozzolana, lime, bitumen, alkali-acid controllers, colourants (pigments), constituted minerals, baked clay crushing, etc.

14 stacked soil for wall

Fillers and Additives often serve mutually supportive as well as mutually un connected purposes, for one or many of the following reasons.

  1. to improve the quality of basic soil material
  2. to reduce or enhance the moisture content
  3. to control moisture removal
  4. to control plasticity
  5. to achieve a desired colour / texture
  6. to produce specific type of castings / mouldings
  7. to improve weatherability of the final product
  8. to improve upon insect vulnerability
  9. to improve substrate adhesion in wet and dry states.

1 Clay Extracting and mixing water to produce bricks

Clays can take large amounts of water to achieve a fluid, watery mass or pasty form. It can be moulded to any shape, massive, thin wall or with intricate details. The formed clay, when dries out, must still retain the shape and its surface can be modifiable to different finishes, by way of dry engraving, polishing, coating and colouring.

The air-dried forms of clay, on firing becomes permanent and the mass achieves greater soundness. All clay forming processes are energy efficient as use less energy and labour for conversion than the metal shaping-forming processes.

3 Sun dried Adobe Blocks 2815570468_023f24cda7_c

Clay items can be made by poring in, strip or coil stacking, moulding, wet engraving, shaping on a wheel and casting and deductive (carving-engraving) or additive processes. Clay can be liquidized and poured into moulds with very fine details such as hair, costume, drapery or facial features. Such details are difficult with metal castings. Compared to stonework, the finished products of clay are far lighter in weight, and easier to paint. Terracotta products shrink on drying, which is both an asset and drawback. Shrinkage on drying allows easy removal from casting moulds (like bricks, cups, saucers, toilet-wares), but the same in heavy mass items can causes cracking. Clay products on drying have porous mass due to the cavities left out with water evaporation. Such cavities provide light weight mass, greater heat retention, insulation and bonding with joint materials and external surface finish. But for electric and electronics products greater density is achieved by dry mass, greater compaction casting and non plastic raw materials. Clay is considered the most sustainable and eco-friendly material.

Nukus - Khiva, view from Ayaz Qala

Broad classification of Fillers for clays are, 1 Addition of bulk, 2 reinforcement, 3 adjustment of viscosity for shape forming, homogeneity, 4 Bonding, 5 moisture resistance and 6 substrate bonding and workability for surface applications.

Clays have been used from palaeolithic age or earlier. These were earth structures formed, repaired or improvised by dressing, slope forming and shape contouring the lands for forming terrains, flood protection, burial sites, fishing, and water management. These were in the form of embankments, dykes, canals, bridging paths, etc. Various grades of soils and clay were exploited or the purposes of alteration of the angle of repose, drainage, safety from colloidal clay spreads, dousing of bush fires, etc.

2 Soil mixing, raw bricks casting and stacking for drying Image by Bild von Siva Nanthan auf Pixabay

For building of walls, for homes and protection structures clay blocks were cast. For casting viscosity and to prevent cracking on drying reinforcements fillers were required. For both of these purposes’ husks, fine chopped hay, grass and stems, dried leaves, animal excreta, bird droppings, ashes from fires, jute or coir like vegetable fibers, human and animal hair were used. Hay, grass and dry leaves are vulnerable to white ants, but rice-husk due to presence of toxic oils is almost immune from it.

17 Cow Dung Soil mix allowed to mature for few days before using it surface Finish Village women Bangladesh

Cow dung is the most popular filler for clay type of surface finishes, in India. Typically dry season fresh cow dung consists of, 33% solids and 67% of water+gases etc., by weight. The solids in a cow dung are as follows:

  •                   Soluble organic             7.5 parts
  •                  Insoluble organic         76.0 parts
  •                  Soluble inorganic          4.5 parts
  •                  Insoluble inorganic       12.0 parts
  •                  Total                              100.0 parts by weight

A matured or rotted dung is better filler then a fresh one. Rotting and consequent decomposition leaves an odourless mass that does not leach out with the addition of water. Rotting also generates fungicidal and insecticidal agents like gallic acid and tannin. Best way of maturing dung is to mix it thoroughly with 1/3 of all the soil to be used and then allow the slurry to remain in a dark, warm, impermeable pit for at least 72 hours. The clay to cow dung proportion vary according to the type of use such as:

  • Quality of dung           dry of summer or wet of monsoon
  • Type of soil                  organic or mineral
  • Type of plaster            plain, decorative, mural
  • Substrates                    smooth or rough

Dung to clay ratios of 1:4 to 1:8, is common for plaster work, but 1:1 ratio is often used for flooring and art work. Cow dung provides homogeneity, improves workability, retards shrinkage on drying. Clay+cow dung surfaces are fairly impermeable to water.

Dungs of other animals, like horse, donkey and other domestic and wild animals are drier and more fibrous due the quality of diet. For this reason such dungs are more suitable as fillers for excessively plastic clays. But such dungs do not rot or decompose as readily as cow dung.

Scrapping of old Clay+Dung floor and wall surfaces, are added to clay to control the plasticity. Such scrapping from Chulhas and Tandoor are fire baked products, and dust of bricks (Surkhi in India) have cementious siliceous compound. Surkhi is added to clays for floor and wall daubing besides being used for clay tennis court, country cricket pitches, paths and low traffic country roads. Surkhi may need addition or presence of lime in clay to form a cement like compound. Properly rotted, Clay+Dung mixtures have been found to be low-cost eco friendly water seepage resistant base for freshly dug pits and canals.

16 Volcanic Ash Yogyakarta_eruption of Kelud

Pozzolana is volcanic ash. It is an active siliceous material that reacts with hydrated lime to form a gel, which on drying becomes insoluble and stable. Slag is a siliceous waste taken off from the molten ores of metals. If slag is quenched immediately on its removal from a furnace, crystallization of silica into glassy structure is stopped. Slag also needs hydrated lime to harden. Slags however contain sulphur and can be used to neutralize alkaline soils. Surkhi is a manufactured siliceous compound to which addition of lime is not required. These materials are used with organic plastic clays (which tend to be acidic) to achieve initial setting and with mineral soils, for greater homogeneity.

Fly ash, a fine residue of from pulverized burnt coal, collected from chimney stacks and boilers. It contains 55% SiO2, 30% Al2O3, 5% CaO and 7% Fe2O3. These crude forms of tri calcium silicate and tri calcium aluminate in the presence of water bind particles of mineral types of soils. Mineral coal ash, if fine and free from u-burnt coal and sulphur can be used as filler provided black colour is not objectionable.

Portland cement 5% to 18% on dry clay weight basis is used for quick setting, better wear-tear properties and overall mass strength. Sandy or mineral soils require lesser amounts of cement then organic or silt soils.

Additives like, protein glues, vegetable gums and chemical binders are used as binding agents to improve the workability and fast setting. Such additives are of little use with plastic clays but are more suitable for sandy soils. These are water thinnable, hygroscopic and so soften up every time they come into contact with the humidity. But some chemical binders, though is water thinnable, on drying harden into a water insoluble matter. Typical agglutinates are guar gum, arabic gum, casein, soluble starches, cooked starches, molasses, sodium alginate, acrylate and other polymeric resins, amino resins etc. For optimum results the quantity of agglutinate required is small, but their high costs prohibit the use.

Sand stone dust, shell and lime and other kankers provide ‘body’, improve workability and to an extent reduce the shrinkage. Calcined, hydraulic, non hydraulic limes and calcined gypsum (plaster of Paris) are used for better initial setting and overall strength. Whiting and china clay are mainly used to impart lighter colour tones. China-clay, because of its hydrophilic nature helps the mixing of water and `false’-initial setting of the mass.

Other clay fillers include partially ‘digested’ paper-pulps, paper shreds, lint (of cotton seeds), staple fibers, viscose, glass wool, hairs, carding waste of wool and cotton. These mainly reduce the cracking on drying.

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SPATIAL MEMORIES –Issues of Design 29

Post 707 -by Gautam Shah

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10 Liberty Bell 462864892_f2f1d35e70_c

Spatial memories are about experiences, encounters and realizations for a place, location, extent and territorial approach. These, at a simpler level occur as sensorial reminiscences and at complex level are construed as constructions, arrangements, patterns, sequences or projections. In spite of being in a real space, often, many of the elements of memories remain unconnected as these are distanced in time and space. The reminiscences of space experiences are rarely comprehensive. To know and understand a space, some reminiscent cues are explored for reliving, reenacting, enlivening, and rearranging the experiences. Spatial memories help to complete the experience of the space.

1 Spooky Place 2871375188_4cdefc27fc_c(1)

Spatial memories are associated with sensorial experiences and environmental conditions. Both characterize a space as a place, location, the territorial approaches and define its extent or effectiveness. The spatial memories belie or seem intriguing when the sensorial stimuli or environmental conditions are not connected to any real elements. Memories, however, strange, need a trace to the reality. The association with real makes experiences contextual and re-collectible. Environmental conditions in spite of variations offer a base that is substantially consistent. But sensorial stimuli in various combinations, proportions and orientations alter the quality of space. So the sense of space emerges essentially from the sensorial manifestation.

15 lonely-alleyway

Spatial memories get formed on their own, through conditions of exposure such as the duration, intensity, frequency, elements of surprise, novelty, recurrence, familiarity and coincidental happenings. Classicism or styling, are the essential features, often abstracts, drawn form diverse sources, as singular or unified understandings. Styles are often perceived as new realizations and classicism offer deductive reconstructions. Both distinguish themselves on past reminisces, but are used for moving away from it.

16 man-architecture-people-road-street-desert-800956-pxhere.com

Spatial memories are intentionally induced to make spaces memorable. Such memories are induced by enhancing the experiences, replicating certain elements through exact copies or with minor succeeding variants, emphasizing identities of select components, building up extreme surprises, intentional mis-sequencing, contrasting the situations with things in time-space immediacy or with known past events.

2 The Rage of Achilles by Giovanni Battista Tiepolo (1757, Fresco,

Spatial memories persist through the folklore. The spatial narrative of the physical assets, such as built-forms, estates, lands, assets, products, possessions, etc. consist of measures, scale, description of the structure, functions, congregations, processions, orientation, directions, etc. Whereas the metaphysical things such as dance, drama, ceremonies, require metaphoric connections to subsist. Such symbolic endowments are made part of the physical assets. The connections work two-ways, to arouse spatial memories and to give validity to the symbolic content of metaphysical things.

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Memories remain latent, almost on the verge of being forgotten, till a trigger brings them back. The recall, cues are very thin and fleeting but have the potential of developing into a larger affair. The cues need support from the physical forms like art, architecture, performing arts, crafts, music, etc., and from narrations or abstractions that continue to be embedded in our life. The spatial memories have diminishing prospects. As one moves away in time and space, the prospective field diminishes and the chances for recall cues thin out.

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Spatial memories have no permanence, but only changing relevance. One may not derive anything from a fleeting recall but related physical forms and narratives help arrest with some derivative meaning. Spatial memories need confirmation of common experience and becomes a matter of faith. The common ancestral, social, cultural, or national experiences strengthen the bond between the physical forms and narratives.

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When one establishes greater details about a thing or happening, it is to broaden the scenario. A broad scenario allows assessment of distances and directions of a thing or happening from other ones. For both the measures are time and space. Spatial memories are affected by the 1 distances, 2 directions, 3 contextual variability. These help, respectively in I orienting own-self intuitively, II way-finding around complex settings, III concentrating on the essentials among chaos. Such abilities are claimed to be automatic recognition of geometrical order between different elements in space. This is pattern forming and recognition.

3 Plague

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Spatial memories have helped us to map our stellar universe, territorial explorations and sensorial escapades. There are many things that change little over millenniums or change too much to keep a match with biorhythms. We memorize the changes in perceptions of size, colour, shape, movement, direction, growth pattern, etc., The capacity to perceive and means of mapping are two important factors for forming the reminiscences. For these known shapes, patterns, motifs and abstractions are morphed over for image building and memorize the changes.

9 Malay

Spatial memories allow one to navigate through hyper and real spatial complex compositions like neighbourhoods, cities, deserts and forests. It is easy to recollect the environment conditions affecting objects. With drugs and hypnosis a person can indicate the location and positions of long forgotten objects or happenings. The space users remember most are the meaning, sense and emotion that an environment helped provide. Built forms, performances or narratives force us to do certain things in some explicable (predestined?) manner, but some of the reminiscences initiate a process of learning.

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There was a time when few things were recorded but many things were remembered. Yet, there is a natural limit to remember. Even with information recording tools, the quantum of things to self-remember have not changed but capacity to remind own-self and others have increased. Libraries, few centuries back were operating more as means of reminders. Similarly many built-forms are now more reminders of spatial experiences, due to the loss of associated meanings of those times.

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Humans have been remembering things that really mattered to them and forgot the rest. But writing and documenting made things difficult to forget. The collections in no time became so vast that a new branch of reminding was born. Early museums, post archeological discoveries and colonial expropriation of Art pieces, were accused of uprooting history from their natural surroundings. Here the relics were placed without the natural context but often compounded with new interpretations. All studies are manufactured interpretations and have a tendency to go for extremes. These commentaries have a tendency to make past as rosier or worse than it was. Such colourations are circumstantial. Someone has truly said historical interpretation is always contingent upon the audience’.

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Now the internet is making forgetting a lot harder. The internet and related information technologies of searches are taking the business of reminding to new scales. Forgetting is impossible with consistent reminders. More information is auto connected with links and tags. Spatial memories were enshrined in accessible (stored) knowledge bases, identified relics, manuscript, records, artefacts, arts, fables, folklore, fashions or styles.

17 Remembarances

22 ART by Pieter Brueghel the Elder - The Dutch Proverbs

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Modern public spaces now have face recognition systems that also trace out the movement in space and nature of engagements with spatial objects. The same systems will perhaps record what we cognize and do so if repeatedly exposed These are also means remembering and learning the spatial behaviour of individual as well as groups.

Houses Street Buildings Old Strait City

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Questions that emerge are, if memories reflect the past, are there any equivalent phenomena that connect the future. Future is inevitably bonded to the reality as much as memories are materialities of the past. One can never remember, imagine or construct a thing that is beyond the reality. There is a fear that unless things of the past are preserved, the present will lose the bearing.

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Woman Dresses People Agra Morning Kau Ban Mosque

Physical entities like architecture have the advantage of persistence, in spite of neglect and decadence. Architectural elements are defaced, disfigured or robbed but the space continues. Architecture rarely gets forgotten, but its memories subsist through many means.

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This is the 29th article (in continuation of old series -new beginning) on ISSUES of DESIGN.

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MAKE-BELIEVE in INTERIOR DESIGN

Post -by Gautam Shah

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Prophet_Noah(Nūḥ)_Miniature_book_(Muraqqa-e_Golshan;1605-1628)

Interior spaces result as an organization of spatial configurations for specific conditions of environment, beliefs and group behaviour dynamics. However, for circumstantial reasons, it is not always feasible to achieve a perfect set in a given space, for the available technology and in required time. To overcome such deficiencies Interior spaces are endowed with make-believe inputs or effects.

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The ‘make-believe’ is an economical substitute for the original or hypothetical entity (time, extent, money, effort). The ‘make-believe’ also offers an exciting tool for creation of new experiences.

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We strongly associate specific experiences with entities like materials, technologies, spatial scaling such as size, proportions, texture, colour, illumination, frequency and schedules of occurrence etc. or temporal skewing like enhancing or delaying the event. However, for make-believe, such experiences are created by substituting the nominal entities with different materials and technologies, spatial scaling or time skewing. When the predictable effects fail to arrive in the nominal context, or arrive in spite of a different situation a delusion occurs. Make-believe effects are almost magical or ethereal, and defy logic or reason.

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For example, our nominal experience tells us that dark spaces are cooler and quieter, and conversely bright spaces are noisier and warmer, but such expectations are sought to be replaced in maze and adventure tunnels of children parks. Night clubs are darker but noisier and prayer areas are brighter and yet quieter.

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We are generally conditioned by predictable effects of the traditional or known materials. However, when we discover that any peculiar configuration or additional input creates an experience that is different from the one that is predictable, and we get a tool for a make-believe effect.

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Mirrors play a very important role in creation of duplicate spaces. We are conditioned by the fact that load-bearing walls are opaque, so a glass wall seems different. Till recently transparent material like glass was flat and stiff plate, but plastics now allow two way curvatures, and can also be flexible. Rooms other than the nominal square or rectangular shape provide an unusual experience. Echoes and reverberation of sound provide predictable space dimensions, but different perception gives unusual experience of the space. Lights and shadows mould the visible space. Ionized air endows a garden like freshness in an otherwise stifled space. Indian epic Maha-Bharat mentions of a Laksha Griha (literally a house of Lac or wax), a place where solid looking floors were water surfaces, and water surfaces were real floors.

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A society by a tacit understanding accepts certain words, signs metaphors, and indications as allowable and non allowable actions (warnings, danger, caution, etc.). When such commonly acceptable norms are displayed, they function almost like a real barricade. Signs like Caution, Danger, ‘Do not trespass’, ‘keep off the grass’, etc. operate as barriers. Metaphysical barricades are indicative and unreal, or make-believe. Make-believe barriers exploit the instinctive associations and conditioning of physiological and mental faculties.

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In real life we do use the stage like make-believe and indicative effects. We use these to create situations that are called ‘dramatic or melodramatic’. Discotheques, Night Clubs, Amusement Parks, etc., are places where such make-believe effects are extensively exploited.

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CLAY MATERIALS for SURFACE FINISHES and PRODUCTS MAKING > Part -I

Post 706 -by Gautam Shah

Part -II will deal with ADDITIVES for CLAYS

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Surface finishes and Products composed with CLAY as the prime raw material have been used, for every conceivable purpose and in all parts of the world. Clay is preferred for : Abundant supply, cheapness, universal availability, insulation qualities, ecological value and simplicity of application. Clay finishes and products have some drawbacks like: shrinkage on drying, i.e., cracking, poor weathering qualities, lack of homogeneity in dry state, high water permeability -hygroscopic, poor bonding to a substrate peel-off, vulnerability to white ants and insects.

Kaolin

The quality of the clay-based surface finishes and products depend on:

  1. Quality of soil
  2. Fillers
  3. Additives
  4. Manufacturing processes

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Quality of Soil

Soil is a product, formed mainly from the decomposition of a rock and ashes of lava origin. The decomposed product may remain at its place of origin or get transported to other places by natural forces like water, wind etc. The product, which remains at the place of origin the Residual clays, are comparatively pure, but have less uniform particle size distribution. Materials that after being transported get deposited somewhere else are the Sedimentary or secondary clays. These are generally contaminated by other materials and have smaller but uniform particle size distribution.

Red Iron rich Earth

Principal constituents of clays are Alumina and Silica. Alumina provides the plasticity, and Silica, if free, reduces the shrinkage and warping. Composite silica, though increases the warping on baking. Other elements of clays are Calcium, Magnesium, Iron, Manganese, Potassium and Sodium. Various compositions of these elements and their crystalline structure affect the quality, colour and texture of the soil. Kaolin is the chief constituent of clays used for Ceramics production.

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Clays used for products making and surface finishing, are either Top-organic soils or Virgin-non organic soils.

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Top-organic soils have substantial amounts of organic matters from the decomposition of vegetation and human, and animals excrete. The presence of organic matters makes a soil light in weight and dark in colour. Organic soils usually show high workability and low shrinkage characteristics. When organic soils are found below an existing layer and are old, contain gallic acid and tannin in small proportions but sufficient to act as fungicide and mild insecticide.

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Virgin or non organic soils have negligible amounts of organic matters, and so reflect the basic characteristic of the predominant constituent element, i.e., lime, silica, or alumina. Non-organic soils, however, do take-on the personality of the other minor minerals present in it. Iron oxide as ferric and ferrous is the most important colourant. Other important colourants are quartz, kaolin, mica etc. Soils show a wide range of colours from off-white to yellow, light brown and chocolate to reddish tones. Non-organic soils unless constituted by colloidal particles show very little plasticity. Some mineral constituents of such soils are reactive to water resulting in swelling and leaching.

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Residual or sedimentary materials available at the top of the surface, or below a certain depth, can be classified as: Clays, Sands, Silt, Shale, Colloids, Hard pan, Hoggin, Loam, Peat-Muc, Humus.

Estructura-suelo

Clays are fine albuminous products formed by decomposition of igneous rocks (lava activity). Clays are tenacious and plastic when wet. Clays are highly cohesive, have high capillaries and no internal friction. Clays are smooth to touch, sticky and plastic. Clays can also be classified according to their plasticity, or silt content. Hard clays or stiff clays have low sand content, and are difficult to excavate. Fine clays have medium sand content, and can be excavated with slight effort. Soft clays have coarse texture and are easy to excavate. Pure clays are mostly useless because of the high plasticity and excessive shrinkage on drying. Plastic clays are called fat clays, and less plastic clays and are also called lean clays.

Ball ClaysClays are black, white, red, brown and yellow in colour. China Clay is a residual material, contaminated with silica, mica, feldspar and decomposed feldspar. Ball clay is a sedimentary material of fine grain size and some organic contents. It is finer than china clay. Fire clays are formed from feldspar as residual and sedimentary deposit. Brick clays are high in iron content, and impurities of calcium compounds and organic matter.

Sands

Sands are of small granular particles, usually of stones. Sands are gritty to touch, with little cohesion. It has high internal friction and very little capillarity. Silts are soils that are somewhere between a clay and sand. Silts are slightly gritty to touch and are darker in colour than clays. Colloids are gluey matter found with clays but of ultra fine particles. The colloids absorb moisture and remain suspended, rather than settle down in water. Shale is a compressed and laminated clay with or without organic matter. Shale is plastic when wet but disintegrates when dry.

Volcanic ash deposition

Hard pan is a very dense accumulated mass of soil, consisting of clay, sand, gravel, etc. held together in a rock like but layered formation. Hard pan does not soften when wetting. Hoggin is a natural deposit of a mixture of clay with small stones, grit and sand. Loam is a soft mixed deposit of silty clay and sand in different proportions. Peat-muc and Humus, have fibrous or spongy organic matters formed by the decay of plants. These deposits are black or dark brown in colour, varying compressible in presence-absence of water and so unsuitable for heavy loads. The decomposition of organic material is more advanced in muc than in peat.

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LINKS to My BLOGS on Sound, Hearing and Acoustics

Post 705 -by Gautam Shah

BLOGS on Sound, Hearing and Acoustics

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SOUND and SPACE -issues of design -19

https://interiordesignassist.wordpress.com/2017/11/04/sound-and-space-issues-of-design-19/

SOUND and NOISE MANAGEMENT

https://interiordesignassist.wordpress.com/2014/12/10/sound-and-noise-management/

SPACE and SOUND REVERBERATION

https://interiordesignassist.wordpress.com/2014/05/06/space-and-sound-reverberation/

SOUND, SPACE and PERCEPTION

https://interiordesignassist.wordpress.com/2014/05/05/sound-space-and-perception/

SOUND -as we listen

https://interiordesignassist.wordpress.com/2014/05/04/sound/

SOME SOUND BITES -Space Perception -I

https://designacademics.wordpress.com/2018/02/12/some-sound-bites-space-perception-I/

523 SOUND MASKING

https://designsynopsis.wordpress.com/2019/08/03/523-sound-masking/

497 AURAL ARCHITECTURE for HEARING-LISTENING

https://designsynopsis.wordpress.com/2019/07/03/497-aural-architecture-for-hearing-listening/

574 SOUND as SPATIAL EVENT

https://designsynopsis.wordpress.com/2019/10/08/574-sound-as-spatial-event/

432 EXPRESSION of SOUND

https://designsynopsis.wordpress.com/2019/04/12/432-expression-of-sound/

393 SOUND and SPACE PERCEPTION

https://designsynopsis.wordpress.com/2019/02/22/393-sound-and-space-perception/

228 SOUNDING BELLS

https://designsynopsis.wordpress.com/2018/07/26/228-sounding-bells/

203 SPACES and SOUNDS

https://designsynopsis.wordpress.com/2018/06/27/203-spaces-and-sounds/

106 SOUND and NOISE

https://designsynopsis.wordpress.com/2018/02/14/106-sound-and-noise/

17 SOUND

https://designsynopsis.wordpress.com/2017/11/02/17-sound/

PERCEPTION of SOUND and SPACES

https://interiordesignassist.wordpress.com/2014/05/03/perception-of-sound-and-spaces/

SPACE PERCEPTION -through seeing, hearing and touching

https://interiordesignassist.wordpress.com/2016/11/18/space-perception-through-seeing-hearing-and-touching/

NON VISUAL LANGUAGE -Issues for Design -6

https://interiordesignassist.wordpress.com/2016/06/10/non-visual-language-issues-for-design-6/

SPACE PLANNING and NON VISUAL CUES

https://interiordesignassist.wordpress.com/2015/04/17/space-planning-and-non-visual-cues/

HEARING and interior spaces

https://interiordesignassist.wordpress.com/2015/04/03/hearing-and-interior-spaces/

ACOUSTICS in SMALL SPACES

https://interiordesignassist.wordpress.com/2014/05/07/acoustics-in-small-spaces/

SOUND and SMALL SPACES

https://talking-interior-design.blogspot.com/2015/08/sound-and-small-spaces.html

LANGUAGE EXPRESSION and SOUND PERCEPTION

https://talking-interior-design.blogspot.com/2014/11/language-expression-and-sound-perception.html

PERCUSSIVE TOOLS

https://interiordesignassist.wordpress.com/2016/05/07/percussive-tools/

SPACE PERCEPTION – Issues for Design -4

https://interiordesignassist.wordpress.com/2016/05/24/space-perception-issues-for-design-4/

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