COPYING and TRACING -Issues of Design 39

Post 753 -by Gautam Shah


9 An anonymous draftsman combined Four figures (copying-tracing) in a single composition

Copying is a natural phenomenon, where we pick up some impressions of sensorial nature, such as visual, aural, smell, taste, touch etc. Copying may be an instinctive act. It occurs as some form of behavioural expression. When a child begins to understand that certain actions, responses, sounds from the environment, if emulated, triggers some actions. It becomes a language of action-reaction.

2 Emulating expression of a collegue Wikipedia Photo Credit C. Todd Lopez

The sensorial effects have two fundamental scales, temporal and spatial. For example, Hearing is structured with beats (marking-representing the passage of time) defining the temporal scale. Similarly Seeing is structured with traces, which help to understand the spatial scale. Artists, Crafts-persons and Designers cannot survive without copying and tracing. In both the cases, the sequence of origination and affectations, however, often gets disarrayed.

3 A young boy mirrors the gesture of his grandmother Matera, Italy Still unaware of despair

We perceive many things and wish to remember them. The retained image can only copy the effects close to the original. To retain a visual impression, it should carry some potential for recollection and production. Here one, needs transfer protocol. Same way, we can remember smells, tastes and tactile feelings. These are even more difficult to structure and retain, so we associate such experiences with their conditions of origin or encounters and with reference to time, space, and the environment.

1 Art Painting Copying for learning

There are broadly two ways of copying. These are either contagious or noncontagious. The former, is used for objects that are touchable or accessible, whereas the later, is used for very large or small things.

10 Jin Jaswadi, wayang kulit figure from the epos Serat Menak Sasak Wikipedia image by Antareja

Contagious copying was made from flatter forms like shallow carvings, metals engravings, fabric designs, etc. The method only copied the selective forms, from the images like the pattern, structure, etc. Contagious copies are exact scaled replicas. These are sometimes formed by bridging randomly marked (real or imaginary) points to generate a skeleton frame.

4 The camera obscura principle as illustrated in James Ayscough's A short account of the eye and nature of vision (1755 fourth edition) Wikipedia Image by James Ayscough

5 Sheiner Viewing Sunspots 1625 Illustration from Rosa Ursina by Christoph Scheiner

Noncontagious formations occur from what we retain as remembrances (from an exclusive observation or accumulation of multiple experiences over period). These are collections of points or linear strokes, retained over graph, grid or reference motifs. Non contagious images are drawn-images that are often impressionistic, and in the form of facsimile or surrogate forms.

6 View of Delft is one of the paintings by Johannes Vermeer where a Camera Obscura was used.

In visual arts, copying the works of the masters has been a standard way for students to learn to paint or sculpt. Copying of three-dimensional works (models) in easy-to-use materials like clay or wax was a primary method. Such models or 3D renderings (perspectives) were also used for scaling, on site-positioning, visual confirmation, and for duplication. Such images were used for visual confirmation (presentations) of the donors or sponsors for the proposed buildings, sculptures, artefacts, murals or stained glass compositions.

11 Giorgio Vasari Last supper Thanks giving celebration sketch (used for the main painting) 1546 Staaliche Graphisce Sammlung Munich Germany

Forms copied through contagious and noncontagious routes are distinctly different. Contagious duplication is more elaborate but accurate, Noncontagious imaging matures after multiple attempts. It though, allows upward or downward scaling. A noncontagious image is done instantly, or if, remembered, must be immediately transferred to some media, sketch, model or narrative. There is some inevitable generative deterioration of details, interference of ‘noise’ and personal interpretation. But, when noncontagious images are collated through several individual experiences, at different occasions and locations, a reasonably acceptable image emerges. The process of improvisation must occur continuously to prevent deterioration or ‘cultural’ improvisations, which accumulates with each generation.

12 Camera Lucida in use for drawing small figurine

8 Part of James Watt's sculpture copying machine

Non contagious deduction through the impressionistic mode also result into doodles. Doodles are too personal and frugal, so are meaningful to the authors. Others have to wait till something concrete emerges out of it, such as a model, set, building, art composition, a strategy or film. Doodles can provide the cues about thinking of the author. On a performance stage the cues are discreet indications or prompts for reminders like, specific sounds, beat or mime acts and gestural expressions.

7 Giovanni Canaletto (1697-1768) who used Camera Obscura for many drawings of Venice

Copying was once done through pin hole boxes and camera obscura. Unlike sketching, the early image capturing devices substantially truthfully captured the colour and texture, shades and shadows. Such images were only reversed (upside down) views, smaller in scale, but needed some storage system. For Scenes with depth (perspectives) were renditions over the graticulate frame. It was a square marked frame to facilitate the proportionate enlargement or reduction of the image. Portrait drawings were prepared from the silhouette as captured on the glass board (19th C). With digital imaging, the copying is ‘nearly’ scalable. Upward-downward conversions are carried out with the aid of the tracing instrument called the pantograph. With each ‘new generation of technologies’, the older copies seem ‘out of date’. Frequently copying from the copies, the deterioration accumulates with each process.

31 Roman building Imagination Chicago Museum Prints and Drawings Giovanni Battista

Teachers teach by writing on the board, speaking up and by actions (gestural-postural), asking students to take a note of it. The note-taking, is copying the lesson. Dance teachers ask students to follow a regimen of steps accompanied with beats. The dance steps and the sound of beats, ultimately get transferred to production with music and positions on the performance stage. These are copying processes in parts that ultimately form complex image.

32 A Narrative is Tracing An Indian artist is painting in sign language, on buckskin, the story of a battle with American soldier

Squaring up, is a simple technique of dividing an image into the grid, which allows easy and accurate copying (at the same, reduced or enlarged scale) of the image. The same method was used to transfer small size sketches onto canvas or wall murals. To perceive a visual image, lines and grids, have been used for ages. Such implants, as a superlative pattern establish mutual relationships and distance. Early images of constellations, territorial forms, caricatures, facial expressions, etc. are such captures. Squaring for transfer technique did not damage to the original sketch.

27 The Virgin and Child with Saints by Vasari Square grid

24 Giorgio Vasari grand duke cosimo de medici reviving the city of volterra sketch Squared in lack chalk for scaled reproduction

Tracing has a basic purpose of duplicating and imprinting an image. Tracing is a tool for reproduction of an expression. The image needs to be ready on some media (opaque, transparent or translucent). The image gets transferred (transfer print). During tracing, one has a choice to manipulate the image. It is a quick rendition that carries only the essential or the sketchy impression, and so minimal. The reproduction is also a manner of interpretation and improvisation.

25 Full sized sketch Vasari

25 Sketches like these are sold or rented as replica cartoons to other artists

Tracing was used for copying drawings, signatures, writings and maps, and often for reproducing them. It was a tedious and inaccurate way of copying. Only larger details could be accurately traced. During tracing, the craft masters often improvised few of the details.

22 Objetification by image projection

Tracings have limitations, as can be delivered mostly in visual or aural transference. In tactile tracing visually impaired persons sense the surface through their hand, feet or walking stick. This, of course, is reinforced by the spatial acoustics. Smell traces can lure or scare (smell of tiger urine) the animals.

21 Sighting the object for scaled sketching

14 Silhouette drawing over a transluscent screen

The copied images have a characteristic axial setting and so changing the original is not easy, but traced imprints make it possible. Copied images are traced by maintaining the original, varying the axial setting, purpose, in part or whole or in repeated formats. The tracing, if on transparent or translucent media also allow manipulation through mirroring in horizontal, vertical or inclined directions.

16 Albrecht Durer, Female Objectification, Drawing a Woman Through a Perspectival Frame 1525

Tracing retains something of the original characteristics like scale, proportions, etc. But, may intentionally miss out many things like, finer details, colour and texture. Tracing is a selective follow-up of the image. It picks up important switches in any configuration, like ends, edges, junctions, angles or cross overs of lines-plane and marked interchanges in the contours. Tracing may select specific colour zones and create colour separated versions (multi coloured printing overlays). Tracings, if part of a larger composition, are marked with indicators to establish the continuity and orientation connections.

32 A Narrative is Tracing An Indian artist is painting in sign language, on buckskin, the story of a battle with American soldier

17 Stereographic Image of a floating gallery J. P. Doremus. 1872.

18 Stereographic Image

Tracing requires running a pencil, stylus, pointer or pricking wheel (a pouncing wheel is called a tracing wheel) over the lines or dots of the image. Pouncing has been a common technique for centuries for oil paintings, engravings, murals etc. Tracing is by impact impression or pricking holes in the media. A powder such as chalk, graphite or pastel is forced through the holes, to leave an outline on the working surface below. Tracing images over the fresh lime Plaster for Fresco painting of very large mural surfaces, was fairly common. The image outlines were macro zones filled with colours by apprentices and details overdrawn by the master painter. Tracing as a shadow or silhouette capturing, were done for portrait drawing. Similarly, star constellations were remembered by endowing a superfluous image.

13 3D scanning of the skeleton of the fin whale female Lenora in the Natural History Museum of Slovenia SWikipedia Image by User TadejM

23 Reverse Engineering A mould insert that was captured using a 3D scanner and is now available as a CAD model for further adjustments Wikipedia Image by SCAN IT 3D

Tracing is nominally used to copy an image for imprinting it, at some other place in a different reference, in original or varied axial settings, purposes, part or whole and repeats. In case of sculptures, copies have often been made using devices such as the pointing machine, the pantograph or 3D cameras or a computer guided router systems that can scan to generate a model through 3D printing.

15 A pantograph milling machine, with a parallelogram the tracer stylus (with roller tip), machines were especially important before CNC became ubiquitous W im

A scrivener or scribe (often called a copy master) was a person, who could read, write letters to court and compose legal documents. These people often translated and also improvised the content to please their masters.

30 Orthodox Jewish scribe writing the Torah on parchment

A mimeograph machine (often abbreviated to mimeo, or a stencil duplicator) was a low-cost duplicating machine that works by forcing ink through a stencil onto paper. Mimeographs, along with spirit duplicators and hectographs, were common technologies for printing small quantities of documents. From 1960s, the photocopying gradually displaced all duplicating machines and technologies.

19 Gestetner Rotary stencil Cyclostyle London, around 1920, Wikipedia Image by Dr. Bernd Gross

Cartoons are full scale or part size sketches made on metal, parchment, fabric or paper. These were used to transfer an entire image, or parts of it for multiple duplication. These were pricked with pin-holes for imprinting a copy for mural fresco, wood boards or canvas. The Cartoons (from the Italian word for a large sheet of medium material), were also test replicas for checking on-site suitability, composition format, details of figures and other embellishments. Cartoons (since 1500s) were used for approval of donors.

26 These faces serve as place making sketches, where the faces may get replaced by pictures of sponsors, donors, etc.

The cartoons had restrictions, as it was not possible to create as large as the intended artwork, so select important elements such as body postures, faces, dresses, architectonic elements, decorative features and motifs for embellishments, etc. were prepared. These encouraged rearrangement, repositioning, or mirroring of the content. Cartoons also allowed placing of the figures on plain and curved surfaces (like ceilings). But with cartoons it was not possible to enlarge or reduce the scale. Cartoons did not offer the colour shade scheme (unless the original artist has indicated by naming or patch). Usually the dress, ornament, skin colour and illumination-shading were decided later on.

20 Cartoons --Pin Holes -pricks for copying the image from a parchment --all figures and other details may be copied directly, manipulated separately in different context and by different artists

The cartoon mediums (parchment, paper, silk and other translucent fabrics) were fairly fragile, deformed through stretching and frequent pin hole punctures, so had to be carefully maintained. The Cartoons were precious possessions of the artist, and were well secured to prevent misuse or thefts. But many such pieces, after the execution of the painting, were rented or sold off to others for reuse at other sites. Cartoons were called Khaka (Urdu). Disney studio, in the pre computer age used a set of cartoons for facial features and backgrounds. Cartoons could be repeated at different positions within a composition, on curved surfaces, or inclined surfaces such as over the arches and ceilings.

28 FAÇADE 2015 on September 5th, 2015 (Projection Mapping) Wikipedia Image by GoToVan from Vancouver, Canada

32 Tracing Two repetitions of a walking sequence of an individual recorded using a motion capture system Wikipedia image by Lars Lau Raket

A trail is a series of marks left by a person, animal, or any thing in action. Many of the GPS systems trace trails of movements (through multiple satellite images or recognition by multiple mobile towers). Trails form an image or reflection by combining a series of impressions or recognise a sensible geometric pattern out of random data. Animals trace smell or heat as a trail. A meander, derives from ‘turning path of the River Maeander, in Asia Minor’ or ‘the meander is the figure of a labyrinth in linear form’. Scrolling is design structured over spirals, rolling incomplete circle motifs, but incorporating copied images. Terms such as, the interlacing or arabesque, are used for such linear use of repeated images. Computer Mouse allows trailing and selection.

29 Tracing with laser engraved sandstone


SOLAR ENERGY -Series Climate and Comfort 2 of12

Post-750 -by Gautam Shah


1 452444c441a757dbc28d468df4064eca68d4de02

The Sun is an extremely powerful energy source, as a result of the nuclear fusion reactions. Some of this (a small fraction) is transmitted to the Earth through the space, as electromagnetic radiation. The intensity of solar radiation at the Earth’s surface is actually quite low, because the Earth’s atmosphere and its clouds absorb or scatter as much as half of all the incoming sunlight. The strength of solar radiation at the outer edge of the Earth’s atmosphere (the solar constant), is 1.37 kW per sq.m. The intensity of energy actually available at the Earth’s surface is less than the solar constant, because of absorption and scattering of radiant energy. The process Climate starts with the arrival of radiant energy (radiation) from the Sun, near our planet.

3 egyptian-1823488_960_720

Energy enters into the precinct of Earth from many sources and in different forms. Earth receives electromagnetic energy from other bodies in space and it also experiences gravitational energy associated with their masses. However, the most important is the Solar energy. Earth receives only 0.002 % of the total radiation emitted by the sun and yet it provides the main energy input for the Earth system. The solar radiation from Sun consists of, on average 7% ultraviolet (short wavelengths), 50% visible wave bands and 43% infrared (long wavelengths) radiation. Almost all of the absorbed energy is matched by energy emitted back into space, forming a Balance. Some residual energy can lead to global warming. This has in past one century, increased, from 0.6 watts/sq mt to 0.79.

8 World Map of Global Horizontal Irradiation, Wikipedia Image by SolarGIS © 2013 GeoModel Solar

During its passage through the space, the solar radiation loses little energy. But, on entering the atmosphere, it encounters molecules of gases, liquids and solids. Ozone and water vapour are major absorbers of radiation, but affect specific parts of the solar spectrum. Ozone absorbs ultraviolet radiation, having a profound effect on the development of life. Water vapour absorbs an infrared sector. Gases and suspended matter disperse the incident solar radiation, into multi-directional radiation, some of which passes back to the space. In the visible spectrum the blue light is scattered to a greater extent than other wave lengths, resulting in predominantly blue sky. Scattering by suspended materials is termed as diffused selection. The amount of scattering that takes place depends on the size of the particles, particle density in the air and the distance radiation travels in the atmospheric layer containing the particles. Sahara dust storms can reduce the solar radiation transmission by 30% and causing a fall of 6.0 C.

10 image shows a map of earth with various color-coded regions illustrating the average amount of exposure to direct sunlight Wikipedia Image by xiloetekllc

Atmosphere absorbs approximately 17 units out of the total 100 units of the solar radiation. This small component contributes to an increase in the internal energy store of the atmosphere. Approximately 29 units are lost to the space by reflection, of which 6 units are lost by scattering and 23 units are lost by cloud reflection. 54 units are transmitted to the Earth’s surface of which 36 units arrive as direct radiation and 18 units by diffuse radiation through the scattering.

11 Image showing how energy enters the atmosphere from space and the earth and is absorbed or reflected from the greenhouse gas layer.

On average, the Earth receives 340.4 watts /square meter. All sunshine falls on the daytime side, and the numbers are much higher at local noon. Of this 340.4 watts per square meter: 99.9 watts are reflected back into space by clouds, dust, snow and the Earth’s surface. The remaining 240.5 watts are absorbed (about a quarter by the atmosphere and the rest by the surface of the Earth). Earth’s surface gets direct sunshine that is only, half of what the warmed atmosphere sends. But together (energy from sun and from the atmosphere) add up to 504 watts/sq mt. This radiation is transformed into thermal energy within the Earth system.

4 Temple relief of Akhenaten from East Karnak, 18th Dynasty Wikipedia Image by Einsamer Schütze

7 Munae Throne back depictung the Sun God Guatemala, Late Classic period (ca 750 CE). Wikipedia Image by Ymblanter

Solar radiation interacts with the atmosphere. Some energy is absorbed, re-radiated and reflected while some is transmitted to the surface of the Earth. The radiation that penetrates the surface and is absorbed and heats up the surface, evaporate the water, melt the snow, generates winds, and causes a variety of chemical reactions. Natural collection of solar energy occurs in the Earth’s atmosphere, oceans, and plant life. Approximately 30% of the solar energy reaching the outer edge of the atmosphere is consumed in the hydrological cycle, which produces rainfall and the potential energy of water in mountain streams and rivers.

5 Surya the Hindu sun god Asian Art Museum San Francisco Wikipedia Image by Ms Sarah Welch

6 Sun god inside Karni Mata Temple Bikaner Rajasthan India Wikipedia Image by Schwiki

The Solar energy received on Earth varies from location to location, due to, the solar flares and solar spots, relative position and so the distance of the Earth on the elliptical orbit around the Sun. The Earth receives slightly more radiation in January than in July (+ or -3.4%). Solar radiation received on Earth depends on the angle of an incidence of solar rays, which is determined by the tilt of the Earth’s axis with respect to its orbital plane or the angle of latitude. Regions beyond 23 N and 23 S, are exposed to Sun only for a part of the `Season’, due to the tilt of the Earth’s axis of rotation. The amount of solar energy that can be collected also depends on the orientation of the collecting object.

15 Variability of Solar Energy Wikipedia Image by CharlesMJames

The upper surface of clouds are good reflector of the solar radiation. The amount of reflection depends on the cloud cover, type and thickness. A dense cloud may reflect 50% where as a heavy storm cloud may reflect 90% of the radiation. If there is persistent cloud cover, as exists in some equatorial regions, much of the incident solar radiation is scattered back to space and very little is absorbed by the Earth’s surface. Water surfaces have low reflectivity (4-10%) and are the most efficient absorbers. Snow surfaces, on the other hand, have high reflectivity (40-80 percent) and so are the poorest absorbers. High-altitude desert regions consistently absorb higher than average amounts of solar radiation because of the reduced effect of the atmosphere above them.

13 View of a 'gradient board' measuring the vertical temperature gradient Image byThibaut Barreyre Under the sea, in the deep European Geosciences Union

Oceans like the atmosphere, play a very important role in redistribution of heat energy. Oceans in latitudes greater than 30 (N or S) gain energy, while oceans in other latitudes lose energy. Water absorbs a substantial amount of such energy and stores it for many different time limits, couples of moments to several thousand years. The oceans also represent a form of natural collection of solar energy. As a result of the absorption of solar energy in the ocean and ocean currents, temperature gradients occur in the ocean.

14 Global variations in _temperature over thae ages Wikipedia image by Ed Hawkins

Earth’s body is a very poor conductor of heat, therefore, surface energy influx does not significantly affect the interior. Daily variation seldom exceeds 1 C at a depth of 1 m, and seasonal temperature variations rarely affect depths below 30 m. Waters at a temperature of 4 C increases its mass, and being lighter, the cold water and ice float at the top. Even in arctic conditions, water rarely turns into ice below 2.4 mts depth. A cold current flows out toward a warmer region, either the ocean bottom or a tropical area.

18 Solar Resource Map Wikipedia Image SolarGIS © 2011 GeoModel Solar s.r.o.

Energy equal to what is received from Sun is transferred back to the space as radiation. Over a period of time a delicate balance is achieved. When such a balance is disturbed, ice ages or green house type of effect set in. Minor variations in radiation inputs on day to day, season to season or year to year basis provides a small but very important change in the climate. When such small variations persist over a long period of time, they cause vast climatic and related changes.

19 Annual CO2 emissions by region Wikipedia image by Our World in Data

The radiation, as reflected and generated by the Earth, are absorbed by the atmosphere, as an insulating blanket (the green house effect). Without this insulation the loss of energy to the outer space would be substantial and the temperatures on Earth would be lower by 30 C at night time. Earth also receives energy from its core as geo thermal heat flow, but the quantity is very small compared to the energy received from the space. The radiation from the Earth’s surface is infrared or long wave type. The surface of the Earth is an imperfect emitter and absorber of radiation. Ocean surfaces have an emission between 0.92 and 0.96, while land surfaces have lower than 0.90.

16 Global energy potential. comparing renewable and non-renewable energy sources by their potential Wikipedia Image by Delphi234

Energy balance is a global phenomenon, but regional climates occur due to different levels of solar input on various locations of the Earth. In Northern zone countries, due to high reflection from snow and ice, radiation absorption is of low level. Whereas on an equator region, if the sky is cloud covered, considerable reflection (re-radiation) occurs. The tropical areas get cooled as they export energy to mid and high latitude regions, which thus gain energy and are warmed. The transport between latitudes is accomplished by horizontal energy transfers using both the atmospheric (air -winds) and oceanic (sea water currents) circulation.

17 Various Types of Green Cover Image

Plants and other vegetation convert a substantial amount of solar energy into food through photosynthesis. The fossils of such vegetation also provide energy at another time and space.
The potential for solar energy is enormous. Each day, the Earth, receives from sun energy, equal to about 200,000 times the total world electrical-generating capacity. Even though solar energy itself is free, the high cost of its collection, conversion, and storage has limited its exploitation. Even in sunny parts of the world’s temperate regions, for instance, a collector must have a surface area of about 430 square feet (40 square m) to gather enough energy to serve one person for one day. Solar energy utilization devices are called passive or active devices depending on the stages of conversion that take place between collection and actual use. Solar energy devices are often categorized depending on how the energy is collected, that is diffused (normal) and concentrating collection systems.

1 SUN salutation YOGA Surya Namaskar


5 FOAM MATTRESSES for CUSHIONING (Cushioning 5 of 9)

Post 747 -by Gautam Shah


5.2 Factory for mass production of cotton mattresses late 19-early 20 C

In the past few decades, mattresses and foams became synonymous. A mattress is a cushion that allows supine to incline position of the body. Mattresses with or without Bed structures are used for night-long sleep, daytime siesta, intimacy, recovery from illness, food, chat, etc. A mattress is often not a necessity, if the Bed structures offer cushion like flexibility in supporting the body, such as for charpais (India) or Hammocks. Similarly an appropriately contour device can serve the purpose of a bed.

5.16 Inflatable animal skin bag mattress 15 C concept

5.17 Air filled forms Wikipedia Image by Zarateman

As a cushioning material, the structural, dynamic and mechanical properties of foams vary tremendously. The cushion effect may be through the air, liquid, dispersed solids which can form semi-solid or solid foams. For cushioning some of the important factors are, density, aeration or ventilation for diffusing the heat build-up, removal of moisture, recovery to original shape and pre-defined shape or contour. Many of these variants are mutually incompatible, so other means are explored, to add to the efficiency of mattresses. Primarily, these means are, layering of foams of varied densities, use of different types of foams, creating paths for aeration and moisture removal, selecting appropriate sub-structure and Bed design.

5.15 An air matress for use as a guest bed Wikipedia Image by Ingolfson


5.8 OutDoor sleeping bag Wikipedia Image Credt Matti Blume

Foams of close or open ended types, alone or as composites are used for cushioning. Foams with open-ended structure allow air or water to enter and escape on being compressed, and the specialized uses are as stamps, squeezes for sports pitches of synthetic grass. Many of the metal foams, with open-ended structures are non compressible, but of light-weight materials and find use in aircraft components.

5.6 Styrofoam bar Wikipedia Image by Motokichirou


5.14 Yoga Mats https 30478819 N0823973215648

5.13 Foam density may not carry much meaning, the grain structure voids vs solids is also important

5.13 Layers of a Composite Mattress

Long continuous use of any mattress, by some patient causes bed-sores, as fluids under the skin surface do not circulate properly. Such patients may need air, water or jelly filled mattresses that generate micro movement. Severely Burns patients may be accommodated on a hammock like a net surface, which allow greater aeration.

5.10 cross-section of a mattress made of coconut fibres(middle brown line),

5.4 UVDistressedFlexMoldedFoam800x600

Synthetic foams generate a distinct smell due to release of VoCs, more so, if the layers are joined by solvents or elastomeric adhesive materials. Mattresses with natural stuffings degenerate a smell of organic fouling, due to biological decomposition, in presence of moisture from atmosphere or body perspiration. All mattresses, with natural stuffing can be sun-aired or re-stuffed to prevent the infections. In some hospitals foam mattresses, are vapour (steam or formaldehyde) sterilized.

5.9 Polyurethane foam shrinkage over time. Not in direct sunlight. Ageing issue Wikipedia Image by Achim Hering This is more apperant in cast or sprayed foam than in free mattresses

To reduce the foam content in the making of a mattress, many new technologies are being innovated. One important one is to lay the foam sheet (single material or composite) over a closed ended foam like polystyrene or polyethylene material. This allows easy handling and shifting of the mattress, as an integrated (comparatively not bending) mass rests on a separate substructure. The mattress substructures are formed as network of wired springs, woven wires or stretchable stripes (of spring-steel, rubber or woven synthetics). The top layer of a mattress is made of pressed cotton quilt.

5.7 People prefer a cotton topper over a foam mattress httpswww pexels com photo modern-design of cozy bedroom with comfortable bed 6585762

Foam densities range from approximately 48 to 961 kg/m3. Low-density foams range 220-270 kg/m3, whereas high-density foams range higher than 270 kg/m3. Foams of the same density can vary considerably in their mechanical properties, due to the production process (chemical formulations and curing temperatures). Exposure to UV light can darken the exterior colour and deteriorate the quality of the foams. Denser foams are less susceptible to sagging, and more durable against accidental damage and edge tearing. These outlast low-density products.

5.1 Latex attress as topper with cover fabric

High-density foams offer better pressure relief, by moulding closer to the sleeper’s body shape, which causes lesser pressure build up around the back and shoulders. Low-density foams offer better aeration and so little heat build up occurs. Low-density foams feel less hard and tend to be more springy.

5.11 Highly crosslinked PE (poly ethylene), EVA (Ethylene-vinyl acetate) or PEVA (poly ethylene-vinyl acetate) are expanded rubber or foam rubber. These are lightweight co-polymers

The firmness of a mattress is determined by the entire composition of the bed. Each distinct layer, include specific variety of foams, such for top comfort layers, support mid or core, and the bottom layer. These may be duplicated on other face to make a reversible mattress or the whole composition is simply placed or integrated with the ‘bed’ structure. The bed structure with metal springs (vertical or horizontal), flat straps (spring steel, woven cotton or synthetics or wire netting) can contribute to how a mattress feels. A mattress topped with a low-density foam as a comfort layer, can still feel like a firm mattress, and a mattress with very high-density mid-cores can, still feel soft overall due to bed-structure. The firmness of a foam sheet is rarely true indicator of the firmness. A 150 mm sheet feels firmer, in comparison to a 50 mm one, of the same density and quality.

5.3 Mattresses for Sports at Interior of the René Dallier Gymnasium Courbevoie France

Commonly used polymer foams are identified by their foam (material) category, grain size, density, and special characteristics such as, Marine, Flame retardant, Anti Fungal, Anti Bacterial, Rigid, etc.

5.5 Spraying of PU foam for Insulation


4 FOAMS for CUSHIONING (Cushioning 4 of 9)

Post -746 -by Gautam Shah

4.8 Footrest to the throne of William III of the Netherlands. 1842-1849

The first known use of the word cushion was in the 14th C. The word, cushion, until than also meant, body parts like the heap, thigh, which need a soft support. Cushions were formed with layers of tapestry, or a bag made of some ornamental materials (tapestry, leather, etc.), which were stuffed with wool, hair, feathers, carded cotton, etc. The cushion bags were used mainly for sitting or kneeling on it. It was a sign of honour and respect for important persons. Some loose cushions were also used as a layer over a wood seat of the coach, or over the back of it. Early cushions were of small sized square shaped (Fr. carreau =square). Leather-covered cushions were fixed to the seat by edge seaming and mid-knots.

4.1 Mattresses for Elephant Rides -5285562_960_720

The word cushion comes from Middle English cushin, from Anglo-French cussin, quissin, from Vulgar Latin coxinus (seat pad and pulvīnus =pillow), from Latin coxa (hip, thigh), Middle English cusshon, cuschen, quesshon, Old French coissin (modern coussin), Latin culcita =quilt.

4.4 Sports knee cushions https en volleyball-team-mates-friends-mates-together-women-girls-99103

A cushion is a ‘soft’ or compressible mass of material packed in a bag. A cushion is a mediating object, placed as a strategic support. The supports were placed under’ the body or its limbs, mainly to counter the effect of gravity. Other strategic reasons for the supports, are to absorb the stresses of impact, diffusion of body fluids through good flow and reduction of external vibrations.

4.3 Leather saddle with suspension coil springs https en public-domain-photo-ffrma

Cushions as body supports are required for resting, seating, kneeling, walking, task handling and exercising. Cushions are required to gain certain body postures such as work heights, depth reach and balance. Cushions are required to support the buttocks (in seating on chairs, cross-legged on ground), knees (for kneeling), support the sides of the knees (during sleeping sideways), injury from shocks to neck, spine and back during driving and spinal pain, seating with inclined and a straight back. Cushions are required at specific joints of bones and muscles, for safety, defense, sports and other activities. The susceptible points are knees, elbows, skull, leg bones (Femur, Patella, Tibia, Fibula), arm bones, wrists, neck, pelvis, hips, chest, back, etc.

4.13 Cushioned Hand rest for praying priest

4.5 Hard foam floor pads for wrestling 6227751550_493417fc34_c

Other than the mattresses, cushion materials are required for absorbing jerks from the rough roads and stay-put on the seat or back of the animals. The travels include, bicycle, horse, camel and elephant rides, bullock or horse carts or the omni rides. These were utilities that also used metal coiled springs as jerk absorber under the seat and under the body-frame, heavily stuffed bags, and air-filled tubes inside the tyres. Sports use very high density foams on floors of wrestling, boxing, jumping, etc.

4.6 Men making tatami mats, late 19th c

Cushions are used as a layer, to absorb vibrations and for sound insulation. Such utilities include handles, floors, ear plugs, door padding (in private meeting rooms, to prevent eves-dropping) and as anti-ligature layer in wards for children and mentally disturbed patients.

4.7 Sports cricket safety pads for legs Wikipedia Image Aravind Sivaraj

Before 1950s cushioning effects were achieved by stuffing of granular or randomly stacked leafy materials. Some natural materials like leathers and furs also offered cushioning effects. Cushioning was made through air or water filled leather bags. In the South Americas natural rubber layers were used as footwear.

4.2 Mongolia

During the late 1950s, air entrained synthetic polymers were developed, first as stiff or static foams. These were, both, closed-ended and partly open-ended cells. Resilient or compressible foams soon followed, first of elastomeric compounds and than synthetic materials. Early compressible foams of Rubber and PU did take the impact stresses, but had poor shape recovery, still they were useful as cushioning material.

4.9 Moulded Foam_seat_back

Under appropriate conditions almost any thermosetting or thermoplastic resin can be converted into a foam. Polymers that are commonly foamed include, vinyls, polystyrene, polyethylene, phenolics, silicones, cellulose acetate, and urethane. Foams with a closed-cell structure are produced by incorporating a blowing agent that decomposes at the fusion point of the polymer, releasing gas bubbles. Foams with open-cell structures are produced by incorporating an inert gas into the resin under pressure and then releasing the mixture to the atmosphere and curing the resulting foam.

4.10 Open ended foam Bath Sponge httpspixnio.comobjectswood-table-sponge-foam-bath

Among the closed ended foams, expanded Styrene or Thermocole became very popular. A similar product was the expanded polyethylene. Both were available in sheets and pre-shaped forms. In both types of foams, it could be pre-cast forming or generating a foam to fill up a cavity of the die-form. In the third manner the foam generation itself creates an impermeable enveloping skin.

4.11 Aquarium Sponge Filter foam Wikipedia Image by Ofkun

4.12 Porous ceramic has interconnected cells that vary in size from 5-500 microns Wikipedia Image by Biofilter tech


3 ABOUT FOAMS (Series Cushioning 3 of 9)

Post 744by Gautam Shah


3.12 Styro-Foam Bean bags at Google Developer Day 2007

3.3 Polimide Aerogel Film GRC-2011-C-03587 - PICRYL Public Domain

Foams are air-entrained objects, where nominally a gas is trapped in solids or liquids. Foams, are called ‘examples of dispersed media’. The gas, the main dispersing agent is divided into bubbles of different sizes, called ‘polydisperse’. Foams are usually disordered with many different sizes of bubbles. In liquid-foams the bubbles continuously resize through collapse or assimilation. When the dispersed medium is very thin, it is called a type of colloid. Though some claim, ‘A Foam is a colloidal solution of liquid and gas, with liquid acting as dispersing medium, and the gas acting as the dispersed phase. So it cannot definitely be said that it is a solid, liquid, or gas. It is a colloidal solution’.

3.8 Aluminium Foam Wikipedia Image by Stehfun

Foams are nominally, air entrained compounds, but, the air (or a vacuum) pockets could be continuous- interconnected, or could be isolated. In the first case, the structure is fairly stiff (non-compressible), so, called solid foams (just a ‘light-weight hollowed mass’). In the second case, for the soft foams, the structure is not stiff, it can collapse, and which may or may not recover to the original shape.

3.2 Aerogel Flickr Image 5810742717

Aerogel is a synthetic ultra-light ‘porous’ material (98.2% air) that is derived, when a liquid is replaced by air. The result is a solid with extremely low density and low thermal conductivity. Aerogel is a synthetic porous ultra-light material derived from a gel, in which the liquid component of the gel has been replaced with a gas without significant collapse of the gel structure. It results into a solid form of extremely low density. Such materials show extremely low thermal conductivity. These have been called (mainly due to the translucent mass) frozen smoke, solid smoke, solid air, solid cloud, and blue smoke. Silica Aerogel feels like fragile expanded polystyrene to the touch, while some polymer-based Aerogels feel like rigid foams.

3.5 Sea foam on ocean beach http 3903736

Froth: The fizz on beer or the soap suds (bubbles) in bath water, are foams, a mixture of gas and liquid. Whisking the milk and egg-whites produces foam, air bubbles as an emulsion. Blowing a gas through a molten plastic fills it with bubbles, and when the plastic cools and solidifies, the gas bubbles are trapped inside, making a foamed-plastic, used for filling cushions, and packing of goods.

3.9 Beer Froth httpswww.piqsels.comenpublic-domain-photo-flyva

Materials have three states or phases of matter, namely Gas, Liquid, and Solid. These states also denote the structural rigidity and resistance to change of shape or volume. The states or phases are due to the temperature and pressure.

3.1 Forms of Compounded Materials

One of the earliest realizations of a foamed structure was the pumice stone (very porous, froth like volcanic glass, cooled fast without the crystallization). It is used as an abrasive for cleaning (rubbing the body-hair and fabrics), polishing, and as scouring compound. Another was the dried froth, spongy material (locally, W. India, called Ush) that gets deposited against the slightly alkaline shores of rivers and rivulets. It was used for washing the clothes. Ceramic materials, such as bricks are produced by addition of organic fibers (typically rice husks, chopped hay or mustard leaves and stalks) into the mud. On firing the organic material burns out leaving a lighter and hollowed mass.

3.23 Porous Brick of Clay httpswww.vhv.rsviewpichobhiJo_buy-red-clay-bricks

3.15 Dunlop Lateax Foam

Right from early days, the rubber-based foams had issues of density, heat dissipation from the mass, deterioration of the material due to defective vulcanization and release of VOCs. Some of the issues were partly solved by providing hollow cores on the back-face, which achieved additional compressibility (even with high density structure) and better aeration. The foams were excellent materials for thermal insulation, floating devices, packing, padding and stuffing of toys.

3.17 & 3.18 Open and Closed end foam structures

Foamed or Cellular materials are called expanded plastics or foams. These are made in various types, from soft and flexible to hard and rigid. There are three types of cellular plastics.
• Blown, an expanded matrix such as in a natural sponge.
Syntactic, encapsulation of hollow organic or inorganic micro-spheres (or nodules) in a matrix.
Structural are composed or formed materials with dense outer skin surrounding a foam core.

3.27 Methods of forming Cellulor Structures

✓ Gas in Liquids or Liquid foams These are like, froth, aerated soda, washing soap suds. These become little more stable or last longer, when a stabilizer or surfactant is present or added. In foods Proteins (eggs, oils, gums) act as foaming agents. Nearly all fermented foods are like foams. In aerated drinks and fire extinguishing foams, Carbon dioxide is dissolved. Foaming makes many foods lighter. Gas-liquid foams have high surface area and is exploited for flotation and foam fractionation. Many foaming conditions are not always desired, such as lubricating oils, chemical processes. To break the foams air releasing agents or skimmers (blades moving over the surface).

3.28 Gas in Liquid foam httpswww.pxfuel.comenfree-photo-jticg

✓ Gas in Solids or Solid foams. These are like breads, cakes, rubbers, polystyrene (Thermocole), polyurethane, paper pulp, slag, ceramic foam, sponge iron and tantalum or titanium sponge (for prosthetics). Solid foams are mostly used as lightweight cellular engineering materials.

3.6 Puffy mass of Idali (South Indian fermented food) 4273563605

✓ Solid foams are of two classes, based on their pore structures. Foams with open-cell structures, called reticulated foams, where the gas pockets are connect to each other. Foams with closed-cell structures, called cellular solids, where the gas is trapped into discrete pockets, each completely surrounded by the solid material. A bathing sponge is an open-cell foam, the water can be sucked in as well as squeezed out. A shoe base or sole is a closed-cell foam, though ‘porous’, cannot soak water as the gas pockets are sealed and separated from each other.

3.7 Bread foamed cavities httpspixabay.comdephotossauerteig-brot-brot-sauerteig-5001833

There are other classes of closed-cell foams, known as syntactic foams. These have embedded hollow particles or nodules placed in a matrix material. The nodules are made of glass, ceramic, polymers, etc. Such syntactic foams offer very high strength-to-weight ratio and so are useful for deep-sea and space applications. Memory Foams also use a syntactic shape-memory polymer, as a matrix.

3.16 Open cell polyurethane foam

✓ Foams can be forms of Composites. It is a product that is made by mixing fibers like straw, hair, coir, hemp, jute, papyruses, rice-husk etc. into fillers, like latex, mud, gum, etc. The filler fibres are arranged into patterns such as, random, unidirectional (aligned in a single direction), multi-directional (oriented in two or three directions) or spaced continuous strands. There is no compaction of the mass. On curing or hardening the mass has cavities that gives an identity of air-filled material. The materials are not very compressible, but have resilience. Such composites can absorb shocks, vibrations, sound and in few instances water or moisture. Rubberized-Coir fibre sheets are used with polyurethane foams and other foams for mattress making.

3.14 Aluminium foam sandwich

✓ Aluminium foam sandwich (AFS) is a product made of two metallic dense face sheets and a metal foam core made of an aluminium alloy. It is produced, once the raw MMC (Metal Matrix Composite) is melted, then transferred to the foaming apparatus, where gas is injected into the melt and dispersed using either rotating impellers or vibrating nozzles. Such panels are used as insulation face in very hot environments, as sound damping layer, reduced weight, increased energy absorption in case of crashes, and in military operations to combat the concussive force of IEDs.

3.13 Stabilized Aluminium Foam Wikipedia Image by CymatTechnologies

3.30 PU Leather

✓ Integral skin foams, also known as self-skin foams, have a high-density skin and a low-density core of the same material. Examples of integrated skin foams include, furnishing fabrics like rexines, insulated rails and handles, arm rests, baby seats, shoe soles, and mattresses. Exterior sandwich or composite panels (Aluminium composite panels -ACP), are used for external and internal architectural cladding, partitions, false ceilings, signage, machine coverings, container construction, etc. Materials like ACP may not be a sandwich construction, but through application like a coating on one face (that foams and insulates). ACPs often have highly combustible Polyethylene (PE) core, which was the principal cause of the rapid spread of flame in the 2017 Grenfell Tower fire in London. Similarly the coating on the the aluminium sheets with polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF), fluoropolymer resins (FEVE), or polyester paint may contribute to combustibility and spread. In packaging, fluted polypropylene boards and polypropylene honeycomb boards are used for impact resistence. Ship cabins use lightweight door shutters, table tops, cupboards and shutters formed of wood veneers with core of foam.

3.29 ACP Panel tiles for Spaceship Earth at night Image by Benjamin D. Esham Wikimedia Commons

Under appropriate conditions almost any Polymer resin, thermoplastic or thermosetting can be foamed. Plastics, commonly foamed include vinyl, polystyrene, polyethylene, phenolic, silicone, cellulose acetate, and urethane, polystyrene or polypropylene. Hydroxyl terminated polyethers are often used to prepare flexible foams, typically for furniture cushioning. Hydroxyl-terminated polyesters, are popular for making rigid foams such as those used in custom packaging of appliances.

3.19 Porous ceramic filler for biological filtration in aquarium filter

Unlike many polymer foams, metal foams remain deformed after impact and can therefore only be deformed once. Reticulated foam, compressible and porous material. For orthopedic applications, tantalum or titanium foams are used for their tensile strength, corrosion resistance and bio-compatibility.

3.24 Sand holes structure background a hole httpspixabay.comdephotoszellen-sand-lcher-struktur-4871686

✓ Many natural substances such as rocks and soil (e.g. aquifers, petroleum reservoirs), zeolites, biological tissues (e.g. bones, wood, cork), and man made materials such as cements and ceramics can be considered as porous media and not as Foams.

3.26 Spray Foam Applicator for Open Cell Foam WSikipedia Image by Chicagosprayfoam

Foams are used as shock absorbers and vibration retarders. There are many other shape configurations that absorb the impact. Air-filled constructions or compositions, such as the air-filled tubes and bubbles, tubes and tyres, fibers like carded cotton, rayon, coconut, wool, hay, straw and bird-feathers are pressed into mats or sheets. Mineral wool is a fibrous mass formed by spinning or drawing the molten mineral or rock materials such as slag, glass and ceramics. These have resilience as well compressibility. Multi layered corrugated papers, paper pulp formed items (egg crates), layered beds of hair (brushes), coiled springs, pre-stressed and shaped shock absorbers of spring steels, etc.

3.31 Paper Pulp Paper mache packaging


HAMMOCKS (Series Cushioning 2 of 9)

Post 743 -by Gautam Shah

2.1 Gustave Courbet Lady in the Hammock 1844

A variant of the hay-spreads or stuffed bags for sleeping were the hung hammocks. The Hammocks are simple long pieces of cloth or nets (like for fishing). A Hammock is a sling, made of fabric, entwined net of twines or woven mats. It is suspended between two or more points on tree trunk, column, wall or ceiling. Hung hammocks forms a very narrow sling, to widen it, both the ends have spacer-sticks.

2.3 Joseph in a hammock on wheels A rudimentary type of coach, depicted in the Anglo-Saxon manuscript Old English Hexateuch (11th century) Wikipedia Image by Ælfric of Eynsham (editor)

Hammocks do not need a mattress and one can even do away the pillow. Pillows or head supports are required for head related activities like reading or drinking.

2.2 An ISAF soldier rests during Op Medusa Wikipedia Image by Afghanistan Matters from Brunssum, Netherlands

Like all other sleeping devices, mattresses, beds, manch (platform) need a flat resting ground (floor), but hammocks are flying or hanging devices, which just need side connections for hanging. Hammocks can be hung over wet or muddy floors, stock rooms, guns, armaments, stocks in warehouses, between birth in carriages like horse, automobile, railways and space crafts. Hammocks are used for fun, casual swinging, relaxation, siesta, reading, contemplation and slumber.

2.6 An Able Seaman asleep in his hammock on board HMS ANSON. Wikipedia Image

2.7 Traditional Mayan home in Santa Elena, Yucatan, Mexico Wikipedia Image

Hammocks are used in many parts of the world, in varied environments, conditions and for different purposes. Hammocks were developed by native inhabitants of the Americas for sleeping. These were adopted by explorers traveling in wooded regions. Hammocks are collapsible to a small volume and lightweight for transportation. Hammocks have thin body mass, which even, if gets wet, dry out quickly. A hammock covered with net eliminates the chances of mosquito bites. Hammocks do not need mattresses, so there is no fear of dust mites or lice and other contagious skin infections. It also provides safety from insect stings or animals bites like snakes, mosquitoes, ants, bees, etc.

2.8 Hammock floating over tools and equipments and ofcourse animals and insects Travel and adventure in the forests of Venezuela http photos internetarchivebookimages 14595904369

A hammock experiences three types of movements, 1, the swinging motion, 2, micro changes due to the breathing, 3, twitching, due to the shifting of the body posture. Hammocks were adopted by sailors, as its capacity to swing counters the sickening motions of the sea waves. Later, these were used on marine vessels. Ordinarily the rocking motion of a hammock is unnerving, but once accustomed, it encourages deeper sleep.

2.9 Wayuu open-air Bedroom with hammocks Wikipedia Image by Leonfd1992

Swinging motion speeds up the change from wakefulness to the deep sleep (stage-2 sleep). Sleeping in a hammock relieves the pressure on body muscles, as it allows minor adjustments of tissues and body-fluids. There is equal distribution of pressure on all parts of the body, as the surface of the hammock is stretchable and flexible.

2.10 Hammock without the spacer stick becomes too narrow for turning around https en free-photo-jeunm

2.11 Hanging Hammock of net httpswww.publicdomainpictures.netpictures310000velkahanging-hammock-15742890792mK

Royal navy in 1597, for the first time mentions the hammocks as ‘hanging cabbons or beddes’. Hammocks were preferred over fixed bunks, as could be hung between-over the guns, rope coils or wet floors. Hammocks require no mattresses, and so were ideal against proliferation of skin deceases among sailors (due to vitamin C deficiencies). During the colonization of the 17th C, the hammocks became a world-wide a marine facility. Hammocks have also been employed on spacecrafts in order to utilize available space.

2.12 The Royal Naval Volunteer Reserve during the First World War Q53295 - PICRYL Public Domain Image

2.13 U S S Brooklyn, hammocks on deck - PICRYL Public Domain

Hammocks allowed comfort and maximum utilization of the cramped space in temporary army tents. Hammocks are used as a lightweight bed for tropical climate explorers. The advantages of the snug Sleeping bags for colder climate campers and mountaineers are of different class. Hammocks have a sleeping facility that is of a thin body fabric or net structure and off the ground. This creates an air movement system around the body, same as the Indian Charpai.

2.5 Hammock without the spacer stick becomes too narrow for turning around httpswww.pxfuel.comenfree-photo-jeunm

2.4 Bamboo or can matt weave Hammock With space sticks at the ends httpswww.pxfuel.comenfree-photo-oblis

Early hammocks of Latin Americas and other pacific islands were of local materials like woven tree bark fibers and sisal fibers. These were soon replaced with cotton and other fibers, spun into ropes. The salvage (ends) of the fabric needed extra reinforcement. For these the warp-yarns at the edges, are made heavier and stronger, alternatively annealed copper or steel wires are used. The edges are also stitched as doubled seams. Net weaves or basket like constructions, also need edge reinforcement besides extra strength in sections where the buttocks of the body exert high stress. Another issue is keeping the hammock wide-open, for sleeping side ways. These is achieved with use of spacer bars, pipes or sticks at both the ends.

2.15 Baby in the sack

2.17 A young child in a makeshift wHammock. photo taken by flickr user bingregory

Children Palana or Zhula (India) cradles or Ghodiya (Gujarat India) provide the movement experience similar to a hammock. There are two major configurations, Flat beds offer only the swinging motion, but hammock style curved ones, bend the body in the manner of a mother’s womb. Best or popular movements are sideways but some contraception permit movement in head to feet direction. A bassinet, bassinette or perambulators, are baby carriages, with some additional facilities like head-shade, shock absorber springs and wheels. The springs are soft (spaced spirals of compressible springs) that generate extra vibrations to compensate, for the hammock like movement.


In India, Sarees, Dhotis and bed sheets are used to function as a hanging hammock. Injured patients, dead bodies and colonial officers, in hilly travel were carried, through hammocks hung from a long horizontal mast (a sleeping palanquin). Patients and dead bodies are carried in hammocks (called soft stretchers) through small stairs or elevators (which do not allow full length stretcher or coffin). The shroud is used as a hammock to lower the body in the grave. Hammocks have also been employed on spacecraft in order to utilize available space.

2.16 COMA, a film 1978 Directed by Michael Crichton, Novel by Robin Cook, and main Cast of Geneviève Bujold + Michael Douglas), ‘shows brain dead patients in hanging, swinging and continually variable positions

COMA, a film (COMA 1978 Directed by Michael Crichton, Novel by Robin Cook, and main Cast of Geneviève Bujold + Michael Douglas), ‘shows brain dead patients in hanging, swinging and continually variable positions for trading of live organs and body fluids’.

2.18 Guatemala-hammocks-market-colours httpswww.pxfuel.comenfree-photo-ozjxf

Two-way woven fabrics, through knitting mode eliminates the strength differential (and stretching capacity) in weft-web directions. Hammock pose many risks. This may include, neck and back pain, limited space shape for stretching, fixed or limited posturing, risk of falling out and difficulties of getting in or out.

2.19 Natives carrying European in covered hammock]- PICRYL Public Domain Image

ABBOT SUGER -father of Gothic architecture -Part II

Post 739 -by Gautam Shah

Part II of series IV
4 Abbot Suger and Ideas on Illumination —

27 The The interior illumination and the new expanse of the space, was perceived as the metaphysical light or Christ’s divinity, not available anywhere else. https photos scottgunn 2885710162

Suger, understood lux, as the external light, shining outside the cathedral, coming directly from the sun and nature. This was for everyone, ‘even the heretic and the wicked’. But, once it entered through the windows, it emitted in all directions, and transformed into lumen. It is a new metaphysical light through the tinted glass. This interior light was consecrated and holy, for ‘faith and divine inspiration’. The interior illumination and the new expanse of the space, was perceived as the metaphysical light or Christ’s divinity, not available anywhere else. The new ethereal wall and the illumination functioned much like the ancient temenos, a sanctimonious precinct. ‘Walk in the light, as He is in the light’.

28 Interior of Saint-Denis Wikipedia Image by Gilles Messian

Suger could, somehow, visualize three different Latin terms for Light: Lux, Lumen and Illumination. (The Three terms, perhaps derived from a book* by Avicenna, the Muslim philosopher and physician of 11th C). *Kitab al Shifa =’The Book of Healing or Latin title Sufficientiae’. This was a voluminous philosophical and scientific treatise or encyclopaedia. It covered, topics like logic, natural sciences, psychology, (the quadrivium or four subjects like, geometry, astronomy, mathematics besides music, and metaphysics).

29 Predominance of Blue- Red by Suger The heart of the sanctuary glows in splendour, which is united in splendour, radiates in splendour. Detail of 12th C glass, St. Denis https photos scottgun.

Coloured glass had long been understood as a surrogate for the precious stones. It has been in use even before the Gothic era. The exploitation of colour contrasts (Red -jasper Blue -sapphire, where the red represented the passion, holy blood, and the blue, as the colour of heaven) was rather new interpretation. Incidentally, these two colours, form nearly the opposite ends of the visual spectrum.

29-1 Saint Denis Basilique Saint Denis Wikipedia Image by Pierre Poschadel

Delighted with the effect of light, Suger, inside the abbey church, engraved an inscription to the glory of Light. ‘The heart of the sanctuary glows in splendour, which is united in splendour, radiates in splendour’. He also said that ‘while light is necessary for the worthy glorification of God, the largest possible number of the faithful must also be able to pray without jostling, to approach and contemplate the Holy Relics on feast days’.

30 Inside view of stained glass, St. Denis Cathedral, St. Denis, France, upper choir Wikipedia Image by Ninaras

Suger transformed the cathedral space into a different place. ‘It was to like bringing heaven on earth’. He wrote, ‘the multicolored loveliness of the gems has transported me from material to immaterial things, sapphire glass of intense blue colour as having the same importance as gems.’ He identified the best Glass makers across Europe, and sourced the glass raw material for the new construction.

31 Windows light and organ at St Denis https www flickr com photos scottgunn 28857102537

The improvement of quality of glass, its popularity and widespread use occurred in this period, mainly because of reduction of colour tonal intensity resulting in increased transparency. A significant feature to emerge in the 13th C, was the development of grisaille glass windows. It is composed largely of white glass, generally painted with foliage designs, and leaded into complicated geometric patterns. Such glass was cheaper and easier to produce. Its introduction made interiors lighter and other art and architectural features, noticeable.

32 Dull colours and dominance to whites in stained glass allowed architectural features to be visually important Nave of the Basilica of St. Denis, Saint-Denis, France Wikipedia Image by Zairon

The Gothic Colours of stained glass are prone to mis-use in wrong hands. The interiors often became snazzy with too many colours, but of dark shades. During daytime the stained glass on exteriors are dead grey, and at night time the interiors are lifeless (in absence of significant street illumination). This forced adoption of Grisaille (monochrome) glasses.

33 Illustrations and cover of the treaty Diversarum Artium Schedula by Theophilus Presbyter - encyclopedia of technical knowledge in the Middle Ages in the field of art and craftsmanship.

The blown glass had technical imperfections such as air bubbles, striations, and ripples, this made the transparency lively, as the light seemed to refract through the mass. The church interiors were now glowing, not just with the light from expansive stained windows, but altars, crosses, other liturgical objects were all richly embellished with gems, draped with brightly coloured and gold lined fabrics, with the new donations.

35 Construction workers on Site in Bourges Bourges Cathedral Built atop an earlier Romanesque church from 1195 until 1230 Wikipedia Image by Gerd Eichmann

With the Renaissance, the stained glass was to become varied in colours, faultless, flatter, larger, thinner, but less vivid. The glass joints however could now be thinner and sparser. This thin joints were exploited, as less marked lines for zoning of colours, and more for the articulation of the thematic composition.

34 Lighter colours Flamboyant (late Gothic) style windows of the nave of the royal abbey-church of Saint-Ouen, Rouen (early 16th C. Wikipedia Image by Philippe Roudaut

The technique of making stained-glass windows was first documented in the Schedula Diversarum Artium, a compendium of craft-information probably written between 1110 and 1140 by the monk Theophilus.


ABBOT SUGER -father of Gothic architecture -Part I

Post 738 -by Gautam Shah

Part I of series IV



1A St Denis Abbey the cross centre space with high volume and Illumination The Stained Glass scheme of Abbot Suger era were darker but installation- repacements were in whiter background -with few colours

Abbot Suger (1081–1151) was a priest, statesman and good administrator, but was not an Architect (as assumed in the 19th and early 20th C.) And, yet, he has been called the father of Gothic architecture and design innovator. Suger is known for rebuilding of the Abbey of St.-Denis also known as Cathedral Basilica of St Denis, near Paris. The rebuilding included many trend-setting features marking, the emergence of Gothic style over the Romanesque, in France.

1 Abbot Suger -father of Gothic architecture 1081-1151

Suger at the age of 10, came to the Abbey of St.-Denis. He became an Oblate, in 1091, for his education in religion. The Abbey church of St. Denis was established in the late 5th C., to house the relics of St. Denis, a bishop martyred on his mission to convert the Gauls in the 3rd C. Here, at the Abbey, he met the future king Louis VI of France. An epitaph conveys the iron will of Abbot Suger, ‘he was small in physical and social stature, driven by his double smallness, refused, in his smallness, to be small’. Suger served as the friend and counselor for both of Louis VI and Louis VII. He travelled extensively, and had a special relationship with the pope, bishops and kings, serving as adviser to Louis VI and Louis VII.

2 The city and memorable abbey of Saint Denis -Claude Chastillon

Suger became a secretary to the abbot of Saint-Denis, then became provost of Berneval in Normandy and Toury, in 1118. His contacts with Louis VI helped him to go to the court of Pope Gelasius II at Maguelonne (at Montpellier, Gulf of Lyon). He also lived at the court of Calixtus II, as the successor of Gelasius. On his return from Maguelonne, Suger became Abbot of St-Denis. During the following decade, he devoted himself to the reorganization and reform of St-Denis. He began reconstructing the old building in 1135. From 1140 to 1144, ‘in three years, three months and three days’, as he put it, he built a new Chevet.

3 Facade, Basilica of St. Denis flickr image 7227720278

Abbot Roger was a clever politician and smart manager, who used his church position to promote the abbey in public, and thereby enhanced the power of the monarchy. ‘His knowledge of the law, skill for political negotiations, influential contacts and oratory skills’, were his assets. Suger needed political clout and huge amounts to build such a structure. He was the favoured person of the king. He was consulted for many other things by the French state. He oversaw the royal administration, when the King Louis VII was absent on the Crusades. King appointed him to serve as the Regent of France.

4 City Map of St Denis cathedral in Paris

Suger was the coordinator or convener of the rebuilding project for the abbey. He was not an architect, but an extra ordinary organizer. He had keen sense of judgement in arts and crafts. There were two architects or master masons, who were technical leaders, but their contributions remain anonymous.

5 City Map of St Denis cathedral in Paris Flicker 43745509662_32fddd29b8_c



6 Plan of Abbey of st Denis showing original structure with multiple alterations in stages

The site of Abbey of St.-Denis is identified as a Gallo-Roman cemetery of the Roman times. Around, 475 AD. St. Genevieve purchased some land, and built Saint-Denys de la Chapelle. In 636 AD., the relics of Saint Denis (also known as Saint Dionysius), the patron saint of France, were re-interned in the basilica.

7 Saint Denis church, plan various stages of developments

9 St Ddenis image on facade of Notre Dame-cathedral Paris holding his head in hands

8 Louis VII (1120-1180) the Young, King of France Taking the Banner in St. Denis in 1147 - ART by Jean Baptiste Mauzaisse (1784-1844)

The Basilica of St Denis ranks as an architectural landmark and as the first major structure of which a substantial part was re-designed and built in the Gothic style. Both stylistically and structurally, it heralded the change from Romanesque architecture to Gothic architecture. H.W. Janson wrote, ‘The origin of previous style cannot be pinpointed exactly, as the Gothic. It was born between 1137 and 1144 with the rebuilding of the Royal Abbey Church of Saint-Denis by Abbot Suger. Before the term ‘Gothic’ came into common use, it was known as the ‘French Style’ (Opus Francigenum). (The word ‘Gothic’ was first used during the Renaissance period, as an insult, as relating to the uncivilized ancient Goths, Germanic-people documented living near lower Vistula River).


10 Map of the tombs in Saint Denis Basilica

The basilica of Saint-Denis, like many other Christian religious places, was popular for pilgrimage in 12th C. Many churches of Romanesque style of architecture, with their solid forms and barely adequate openings, were suffocating places in warm seasons. It was difficult to manage the large crowds in limited and zoned space. For this reason many processions and festivities were organized out doors. But the crowds wished to visit the crypts that held the remains of the past kings and saints of France.

Abbot Suger

Paris was the principal residence of the Kings and of The Reims Cathedral was used as the place of coronation, and the Abbey of Saint-Denis has been the ceremonial burial place. The visitations by royalty for public adulation helped get support for the church expenses. They lavishly supported the construction and enlargement of abbeys and cathedrals. Suger showed that collaboration between church and state is fundamental to an understanding of the development of the national states of Western Europe.

14 Typical heavy walled - opaque structure of Romanesque Architectre of 11 C Abbaye de Lessay Manche, France, (departement de la Manche) Wikipedia Image Ji-Elle

12 Antoine - Louis - Francois - Sergent - Marceau Portrait of Suger Abbot of St Dennis


15 Abbot Suger Stained Glass image

Suger on assuming the post of Abbot was almost ready with a scheme to redevelop the entire estate of Basilica of St Denis. That included not only the church itself, but also a new refectory, dormitory and domus hospitium (guesthouse like a dormitory) and other structures across the grounds of the abbey. Abbot Suger wanted crowds to participate and fund the redevelopment of the abbey. He had to convince the people and the royalty that larger spaces and better environments for gatherings are required. He knew, the abbey was just too important a national identity and just cannot be demolished to the foundation level for reconstruction. He also had to stay away from sacrosanct areas like the crypt holding the remains of the past kings of France. He planned his project in several plausible phases. He had the foresight that for a project of this nature will need many crafts-persons will be required, and will need to be enticed from far-off places.

16 The crypt at St. Denis

17 The violation of the royal tombs in 1793 French Revolution depicted by Hubert Robert

18 Oldest tombs in Underground crypt Basilique de Saint-Denis destroyed during French Revolution https photos o_0 30624049031

The West side of the church was about 200 years old, and had only one small entrance door. Suger planned three wide doors to handle large crowds. These doors were like the arches on Constantine in Rome. Early Christian and Byzantine basilicas and churches had such entrance or lobby space, and Sugar adopted the idea. He first took up the building of a new Narthex and entrance Facade, with two towers and a rose window in the centre. The rose window was a first one in France. This was an impressive and a populist step. After Abbot Suger’s death, however, when the rest of the church was rebuilt in a new style, it was provided with extra larger and more decorated rose windows, one on either side.

19 The St Denis Abbey Twin tower of West end was never built fully and the Left one was damaged several times

After the alteration and extension of the West side, It was easy to find sponsors with substantial support. Next, he began to change the East end. Here, Sugar began to implement ideas about illumination. He wanted the space around the altar to be spatially wide and tall. He wanted it to be very light and bright, with the provisions of coloured glass windows. The light and bright East end was ‘given to God’ in 1144. These were well appreciated, and within decades this ‘inventive intervention’ spread throughout all of Europe, where it dominated the architecture for the next two to three hundred years. In the 12th C, Abbot Suger rebuilt portions of the abbey church using innovative structural and decorative features. In doing so, he is said to have created the first truly Gothic building.

20 The NAVE looking towards the westside Entrance, St. Denis 28857102257

22 Choir, Basilica of St. Denis Abbot Suger, Ambulatory, 1140-44, Basilica of St. Denis, Paris https photos profzucker 7227722006

The pair of towers on the west-side were planned under Suger, however only the southern tower was completed in his lifetime. Its taller northern counterpart, was completed by one of his successors, however, did not last. It was rebuilt twice. Suger saw the completion of the western and eastern ends of the abbey. By the time abbot died in 1151, the foundations for the new nave were executed. Work for the Nave with upper works of the Choir resumed in 1231. In 281 the nave was completed. The massive windows and slender masonry were a trend setting Rayonnant Gothic style.

23 A Flicker Image 7227722006_7f5de4a4e2_c

The ground plan of most Gothic churches is typically a cross, formed by a long Nave and crossing it, a shorter Transept. It is this junction that offers a spacious volume. The nave usually has multiple floors on either sides, forming passageways or aisles. The Nave, after the cross junction terminates into a semi-circular or polygonal Eastern end. This liturgical end with the altar is tallest space with many varieties of roof structure. Visually the extensive tall surface being circular or polygonal, competes with the altar for attention. The cross form of the church created four focal areas. Each of these had different size, shape, scale and orientations. Suger had learnt from existing church buildings the purpose of these basic four spaces.

24 At the crossing looking north, St. Denis

25 Cathedral schematic Cross plan

26 Saint Denis church, plan the old & New schemes superimposed It shows how new columns were placed besides the existing ones



Post 736 -Gautam Shah


7 Anglo-Saxon openwork silver disk brooch Wikipedia Image by Johnbod

6 Slightly convex bossed disc brooch of sheet silver with inlaid gold and niello ornament Mid 9th C

Niello is a metal embellishment craft. It is an inlay material, as well a surface treatment (as commonly called ‘oxidized’ silver). For both, silver is the preferred base-metal, and involves use of some form of sulphide. The Niello, is just deposition that affects the top layer of metal.

8 Oxidized silver not Niello 34195226975_66cee0f4bf_e

The infused colours for both techniques are various shades of Black. Objects treated with Niello, are also called nielli, and silver objects treated with Sulfides are called ‘oxidized’ or ‘blackened silver’ (though the word ‘oxidized’ is a misnomer). Niello (Italian), derives from, nigellum, nigellus neuter, niger, which all relate to the Black.

9 Egypt Box with cover

Niello is a black mixture of sulphur, copper, silver and lead, used as an inlay or filler material over engraved, chased or etched silver metal. It is added in powder or paste form and fired until it melts or at least softens. As it flows, is pushed back in the engraved pits. It cools, hardens and turns black, which with controlled application, provides colours like blues, purples, yellows, brown reds. The surface of silver is polished bright, leaving the Niello colour in the pits intact. The black colour of Niello is metal surface tarnishing but a hastened process, which left to nature would take years. Jewellers use a chemical called liver of sulphur’ (potassium sulfide).

11 Bassin Syrie

There are also several mixed-media techniques, often called metal-malerei (German =painting in metal), which involve applying gold and silver inlays or foils, over the Niello covered bronze. Niello was used as the adhesive base to apply thin gold and silver foils in place.

13 Hunting_Mycenaean_Dagger

1 Flickr 34082554962_d0a50261fb_c

The earliest use of Niello was in late Bronze Age, around 1800 BC. in Syria. Niello has been used in many parts of the world, including Russia, India, and Islamic countries. In Russia Niello is called Tula work.

4 Reliquary Casket with Scenes from the Martyrdom of Saint Thomas Becket

Gothic art from the 13th C saw Niello as a pictorial art. Use of Niello, which reached its high point in the Renaissance. Niello was popular because small goldsmiths used it for decorating simple ornaments. The art of Niello reached its peak in 15th C Italy.

5 Maso finiguerra 1452_(bargello)

During the Renaissance, at the height of its popularity, the technique was widely used for the embellishment of liturgical objects, cups, boxes, knife handles, sword hilts, bracelets, rings, pendants, and belt buckles. Later in Romanesque period Niello was used in densely engraved pieces.

2 Roman Silver 22534270923_f73016a24d_c

Renaissance goldsmiths in Florence in Europe, decorated their works in silver, by engraving the metal with a burin, and filled up the hollows with Niello, to achieve much higher visible contrast. Some pieces such as paxes (liturgical objects) were effectively pictures in niello.

10 Pax Niello style Print making

Niello was hardy and cheaper, and for that reason, in competition with costlier and superior painted enamel work. Painted Enamel, though offered wider colour range and very delicate details.

14 Snuffbox

Niello crafts-persons exploited their talent to make flatter objects like engraved plates, which before the filling in with Niello were used for print making on paper. These were known as ‘Niello prints’. Originally such paper prints were made by engravers to record their work. By the late 16th C soft mastic compounds were devised for engraving.

3 Niello print Italian 18th or 19th Horatius Cocles httpspicryl.commediahoratius-cocles-ac61fc Horatius Cocles


PETER BEHRENS -Product Designer

Post 710 -by Gautam Shah



Peter Behrens (1868-1940) was a German artist, architect and designer. His creative conceptual clarity, art, products, architecture and typography all have influenced a generation in Europe. He was born in Hamburg. He studied painting at the School of Art in Karlsruhe (1886-1889). He spent the 1890s in Munich as a painter and designer, practicing in than current Jugendstil or German Art Nouveau style. He was actively involved with the Berlin Sezession group of artists, architects and designers in 1893.

Peter Behrens Products

Sezession was an Austrian and German group of progressive artists, who in 1892 (first in Munich and then in Berlin) formed a separate entity, breaking away from the conservative artists. The secession was a space for people from different backgrounds to work together to influence a new culture of German Modernism. The First World War created a negative impact on the Sezession but Hitler’s rule removed it from the scene.


2 Glasgo School of art

Peter Behrens was the co-founder of the Deutscher Werkbund, whose aim was to link industrialists and artists, paving the way for design-led technology.

The Deutscher Werkbund (German Association of Craftsmen, German Labour League or German Work Federation was -ˈdɔʏtʃər ˈvɛrkbʊnd) was inspired by the Government, in 1907. Its initial concept was to bring together designers and manufacturers to integrate the traditional crafts and industrial mass production techniques. Its motto was ‘Vom Sofakissen zum Städtebau’ (from sofa cushions to city-building).

It became the most important group of artists, architects, designers, and industrialists, to support the development of modern architecture and industrial design. Werkbund was first led by Herman Muthesius. Other key members included Mies van der Rohe and Eliel Saarninen. This initiative later led to formation of the Bauhaus School of Design.

Werkbund members believed that unity and beauty of form was essential and saw industrialization as a force that demanded a re-calibration of the German aesthetic standards. They believed that German designers needed to shift their focus toward designing objects that could be mass produced, to object based on its functional logic, and that each object should be honest about its materials. Its mandate was to enhance the quality of German products in world markets, mainly England and United States in pre WW-I period.

3 Henry_van_de_Velde_-_Chair_-_1895

Peter Behrens (with Henry van de Velde and Muthesius) was also part of the original leaders who developed the philosophy of Gesamtkultur #a cohesive cultural vision where design was the central force for fresh, man-made environment. The visual language perceived for Gesamtkultur was bereft of ornamentation, in favour of simple and function. For the cohesive cultural vision and for re-configuring, optimizing and mechanizing their productions, they discussed all areas of design, graphic, typography, products industrial products design, architecture, textiles, etc. Hermann Muthesius had returned from England to Germany with Morris’s Arts & Crafts concepts, but here he was focussing on mechanizing the production with high-quality design and material integrity.

4 Haus Muthesius Musikzimmer

# Gesamtkultur, as a word was coined by 19th C German composer Richard Wagner, who saw his operas as a total work of art, synthesizing music, poetry, drama, theatre, costume, and set design. It is used for a work produced by a synthesis of various art forms.

18 Dining Room set Behrens

19 Behrens

Peter Behrens, began working as a painter, illustrator and bookbinder. He in 1899, under the influence of J. M. Olbrich moved from Art to Architecture. He was a self-taught architect. In 1899 Behrens accepted the invitation of the Grand Duke Ernst-Ludwig of Hesse to be the second member of Darmstadt Artists’ Colony. Here Behrens built his own house as a debut in architecture. He also designed furniture, furnishings paintings etc. for it. This building in Jugendstil style (German equivalent of Art Nouveau style), though Behrens never lived in it, is considered to be the turning point in his life.

5 PeterBehrens-Affiche1901

Behrens became director of the School of Applied Arts in Düsseldorf (1903-1907). At Düsseldorf, Behrens became interested in Theosophist geometry. The curvilinear forms that he once used in own residence were now replaced with the rectilinear geometry. At Dusseldorf Behrens designed a remarkable building, the Crematorium in Hagen (1906), using the plane surfaces and incised linear decoration with experimental cubic symmetry of geometric volume. He also designed several other buildings in now sober and austere style. This included the Exhibition hall for the Northwestern German Art Exhibition at Oldenburg (1905). With new prestige, he began to frequent the bohemian circles and showed interest in subjects related to the reformation of the lifestyles.

6 Musik zimmer Haus Behrens Schiedmayer

Deutscher Werkbund principles of quality, as formulated in 1907 was the first theoretical formulation for pursuit of Quality. These concepts were so remarkable that several decades later QMS ( Quality Management Standards, ISO 9000) of the ISO and the SA (Social Accountability Standards ISO 8000) had similar foundations.

7 La maison de Peter Behrens (Musée_de_la_colonie_d'artistes,_Darmstadt)_(8728647639)

Germany was embracing a new philosophy and visual style for its simplicity and exactness. The new products, with their high level of functional utility and beauty were expected to build a new future for German exports. Behrens, with his multi disciplinary experiences was capable of designing things in diverse fields. As a product designer, in 1898, he designed glass bottles and different types of wine glasses. In 1907, Behrens was invited for the post of an artistic adviser to Germany’s largest electric company AEG (Allgemeine Elektricitäts Gesellschaft, Berlin). He was required to form a monumental image for the prestige of the firm by arranging mass production with artistic expression. His job included design of electrical equipments, fixtures, branding packaging, catalogues, posters, architecture for factories and workshops.

8 Behrens Office

Peter Behrens, in Berlin office, between 1908-1911, designed five large industrial buildings. The Berlin office had during the period apprentices and design assistants like, Walter Gropius 1907-1910, Mies van der Rohe 1908-1910 and 1911-1912, and Le Corbusier, Adolf Meyer and Jean Kramer. Mies worked on interiors of two houses, AEG Small Motors Factory and Assembly Hall for Large Machines. Other works include Berlin Turbine factory, High Voltage Factory, AEG factory complex, two houses Cuno and the Schroeder, Osthaus -the site plan for a group of villas in Hohenhagen, Mannesmann Administration Building in Düsseldorf and the Gas Works in Frankfurt-Osthafen.

9 AEG Turbine factory facade.jpg

22 AEG Voltastraße Alte Fabrik für Bahnmaterial

25 Peter Behrens AEG High Tension Factory, Berlin

The Turbine Factory for AEG, of exposed steel, concrete, and large areas of glass was admired Le Corbusier as the ‘cathedral of labour’, in 1912. The Mannesmann Administration Building in Düsseldorf and the Gas Works in Frankfurt-Osthafen both, were designed in 1910-12.

17 Behrens Peter Hoechst administration offices 1920-27, central hall elevations

Atrium, Hoechst, Frankfurt, 1924

21 Behrens Hoechst administration offices 1920-27, central hall elevations

10 Project Mies

Behrens always made the final decisions and had total control of the design process. The clarity of the volumetric articulations is evidenced by the choice of the points of view. The buildings were always represented in relation to the environment. He showed an ability to express the materials in the facades through the representational graphics and in the reality of built form.

23 Peter Behrens Bau Oberhausen

11 The Mannesmann house

Design is not about decorating functional forms – it is about creating forms that accord with the character of the object and that show new technologies to advantage.’ –Peter Behrens.


13 Crematorium

The transition between this naturalistic period and his later activities, in the Berlin office show a search for new linguistic conventions based on abstraction, anti-naturalism and expressionism with a degree of monumentality. Peter Behrens remained head of the Department of Architecture at the Prussian Academy of Arts in Berlin. In 1922 he became a professor of Architecture at the Academy in Vienna, and thereafter little works of consequence emerged. Behrens became associated with Hitler’s urban dreams for Berlin. Hitler also admired Behrens’s Saint Petersburg Embassy.

14 Behrens's Saint Petersburg Embassy

From 1920 and 1924, he was responsible for the design and construction of the Technical Administration Building (Technische Verwaltungsgebäude) of Hoechst AG in Hoechst. In 1926, Behrens designed a home for Englishman Wenman Joseph Bassett-Lowke in Northampton, UK. It is regarded as the modernist house in Britain. In 1928 Behrens won an international competition for the construction of the New Synagogue, Žilina.

12 Peter Behrens Neologic Synagogue in Zilina 1928-1931

15 Behrens Mausoleum 1925, elevation + Plan

Behrens was AEG’s chief artistic advisor from 1907-1914 and is now considered the Father of Industrial Design. He designed several domestic products for use of electricity. The domestic products were conceived for mass production, utility and not have ‘impersonal’ identity. The objects include fan or Ventilatoren in 1908, light fixtures and electric teakettle. The Fan evolved from the first electric fan, created by Schuyler Wheeler in 1886, with variations in speed setting and wind direction. The electric kettle was the first product with immersion heating elements, integrated into the body of the kettle rather than placing it as an adjunct element. The kettles were produced in several shapes (cylindrical, octagonal or oval), materials (chromium and brass), and surface finishes. Of the possible 216 configurations only 30 were produced. He devised, the Sans serif fonts for the reductive graphic style. Behrens is credited with Schrift (1901-7), Antiqua (1907-9) and Medieval (1914), through Klingspor Type Foundry.

26 Behrens 1930 Berlin Bernauer Strasse subway

Peter behrens villa obenauer.