CHAIRS -1 Floor Seating

Post 699 –by Gautam Shah

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This is the FIRST of series, to form 5-6 articles on CHAIRS, (Furniture through Ages).

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The word Chair derives from the seat for the Bishop to read sermons. From Greek Kathedra καθέδρα (κατά-katá=down + ἕδρα-hédra=seat), to Latin Cathedra, Old French Chaiere-Chaire, Chaise to Chair, it has come to mean both, a sitting entity and a place to worship (the Cathedral). Chairs were few, and meant an office or authority (1300 C), or seat for a person presiding at meeting (1640s).

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Villages in the central mountain areas of Palestine, serving as the seat of political and military power were called Kursy. An Arabic name meaning: seat or chair. This name may have come from Kursa meaning a seat in Hebrew (based on an Aramaic word). Kursi refers to a chair, in Persian and many Indian languages. Kursi refers to the ultimate knowledge of Allah. As the word Kursi in Arabic refers also to (knowledge and scholar).

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Chairs are associated for commanding positions. The presiding person must not only express formality but remain consistent, and chairs just allowed that. Formal postures, though have been gained even without the aid of any device, by sitting on raised platforms or ground. The commanding position is more due to the authority invested with a person through assignment, resources or physical power. The posture for such a sitting position essentially arrests the frivolous movements of the body. The first blocks, stools or chairs were single person facilities and stiff elements.

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Commandeering sitting postures are upright, with straight back and legs. The hands are rested in the lap or on the armrests. Seating aids have been used to rest a limb, part of a body or of the whole body. The Postures with or without a seat, backrest, and other seating aids, however, have no bearing on the climate of the place. Postures have possibly untraceable lineage, but have cultural-religious bearing. Leaders and preachers use squatting, kneeling and crossed leg positions, and so have everyone. These positions use variety of aids to enter, continue or get out of the position. The aids include, hanging ropes and chains, taller armrests, footrests, seats, armpit stands and steps.

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The dress and the posture for seating have a curious relationship, but the dependencies are mysterious. To be on the floor to sit, one needs a loose dress, at least in the lower section of the body. The dress must be gracefully accommodated within the seat-zone. Preachers, to impress a gathering need to reinforce the spoken words with gestures. With floor seating the postural manipulation is limited. Head and hands are the chief tools for gesturing. To impress the back side (far-off) audiences gestures are enlarged, like the head is crowned with turbans, and hands covered in large sleeves.

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Sitting close to the floor as a leader or preacher implies being more in level with the audience, unless the seat is over a raised platform. Sitting at the edge of a raised platform or with some fore space, the nature sitting posture has far-reaching consequences. A person sitting on floor mats, is likely to adopt an manners that requires removing footwear before using the stage.

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Floor-seating cultures also develop other items of furniture for access at low level, like chests over almirah. Till Britishers began to command the upper class society, dining at floor level was common. In cities like Mumbai, many houses began to have two sets of dining facilities. The floor seating, rather sanctimonious, was part of the kitchen or close to it. Guests of other communities were never served food here. The Table-chair dining was part of the drawing room and reserved for ‘special guests’.

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Floor level seating units with or without hand and back support allows some freedom for fidgeting (freedom to shift the body in micro postural adjustments). The fidgeting relates to upper section of the body. The most common ways of sitting on the floor are bending the knees inward or backward. Indian and Mughal kings’ Durbar, and in mosques the formal courts of congregation, the normal etiquette for everyone was to keep the feet tucked under the knees or thighs, and not show them up. The nobles sat on rugs, whereas Kings sat on a raised and stepped Simhasan or throne, but using the same posture.

Knees tied for Sitting posture

One can also keep legs partly folded but standing (beach sitting), with or without support for the back. Legs are stretched flat, as parallel or by crossing them over each other. The floor seats allow several other leg positions, typically South Asian or Buddhist (legs bent backward, and foot palms bent or upright), Namazi Muslim (legs bent backward but projecting on one side), Jain prayer posture left leg bent backward and right leg bent vertical upward) Cross legged with knees and back encircled by a band like a Saurashtra Gujarat, Charan story teller or Lord Ayappa of South India. Feet tucked under the knees or thighs is known as tailor style. Similarly sitting with touching two feet-palms is called Indian Cobbler work position. The Japanese formal sitting positions are seiza and kiza.

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Sitting is supported by buttocks, legs and feet and reinforced by spine. By remaining in un-moving position continuously and monotonously for long hoursreduces the efficiency and increases chances of making mistakes’. Sitting, for a long period in a back bent down position stretches the spine. Such postures need frequent stress relief. Many do ‘stretch their back, while being in their seat. But, if task-work platform is low, deep or non-existent, the freedom to ‘stretch the back‘ may not be used. Another stress relief can be attempted by raising the knees (in seating position) off the ground. But, in formal gatherings, for a preacher or speaker such movements convey insincerity. For floor level seats the movement to standing up and sitting down are more stressful than continuing the sitting.

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SASH WINDOWS

Post 691 –by Gautam Shah

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The word sash, derives from the French chassis, which means a frame or a window shutter that holds a glass pane. Technically sash windows refer to an opening system where the framed glazed panels are opened by sliding vertically, or horizontally, against casement windows where shutters are hinged and open sideways. Sash windows, when opened, have no shutters projecting out, so resist rains better and pose lesser fire risk. Sash windows are less susceptible to warping due to moisture, as the shutter is bounded by a frame. Sash windows open by remaining within their frames, so do not distract, as do the hanging shutters of the casement windows. The casement shutters had to be of small-width, or tended to ‘drop at the free edge’. The small shutter width required many mullions to divide the opening. The wrought-iron hinges and lead cames of the casement windows were dark and heavy, compared to the clean image of the sash windows.

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Sash windows allow control over air ventilation, as it can be opened to a small slit to nearly 50 % of the opening. By keeping open both the top and bottom of a sash window by equal amounts (in double hung sash window), it allows warm air to leave at top and cool air to enter through the bottom. This facility of controlled ventilation saw major drive for use of Sash windows replacing the Casement windows.

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The earliest-known use of sash windows was in the later part of the 17th C. Sash windows with their better proportions and elegance compared to casement windows, soon became the most important visual element in buildings of the 18th and 19th C. Sash windows became so popular that people who could afford, replaced the leaded-light casement windows. Many 16th and 17th C houses have ‘replacement sash windows’. Such changes, however, were affected on the main facade only, less prominent facades and side faces continued with the original casement shutters.

3 At_Paraty,_Brazil_2017_100The window tax (during 1696 – 1861, in England) forced people to wall-up unnecessary windows to save tax, and also add fictitious windows for the sake of composing a facade. In spite of the taxation (window tax and a heavy excise duty on glass in 1746) discouragements, this was the period when windows design saw some of the most innovative changes.

Windows were initially positioned flush with the front face of the building, but great fire of London forced authorities, in 1907, to set back all windows by 4″ from the outer face of masonry. To further reduce the risk of fire, in 1774, the exposed wood box containing the cord and weight mechanism was required to be concealed in the side masonry.

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The first sash windows of 17th C were glazed with very heavy glass requiring thick oak frames and glazing bars. However, with the availability of thinner cylinder glass from 18th C onward during Georgian period, sash windows became lighter and elegant. Production of plate glass, from 1850 onward allowed, larger panes of glass. Larger and thinner glass panes required no or fewer glazing bars. The reinforcement offered by the glazing bars was eliminated, and so horns had to be added to strengthen the junction of the meeting rail with the frame. In more expensive work, the glazing bars were made of iron or brass and painted to appear like wood.

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To slide open a sash shutter by sliding up or down, its weight is balanced by counterweight concealed within the window frame. The counter weight bar of lead, wrought steel or cast iron is connected to the window by a sash cord or chain running over a pulley at the top of the frame. The wheels were of wood or brass. In later versions spring balances were used. In earlier versions the weight boxes, set flush with the outer wall, seemed very heavy, but in later versions due to fire laws the weight boxes were concealed in side masonry, making the sash windows look much lighter.

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The glass used in early sash windows was not very clear, so the view through was fuzzy. The divided pane divided and framed the view into smaller bearable units. The presence of glazing bars, was a ‘relief’. As glass technology developed larger panes, free of the blur and blemishes were available requiring thinner or no mid glazing bars.

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The earliest sash windows were of natural wood colour, with brass and cast steel hones, joggles, weight covering plates etc. Curved horns, multi-arched heads, intricate mouldings, leaded lights and latticework started to appear in the sashes, which were often grouped into impressive bays and offset with ornate stone reveals. The shutter and the side box were made from different quality of wood. The sash window was a strange mix of materials and finishes. White painted sash windows provided single finish effect, very well contrasted by the brick masonry. The white colour over glazing bars also reduced their presence against the glass, making the windows look more elegant. The preference for white colour sash windows has continued till today even though materials have changed from wood to plastics, steel and aluminium.

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Before 1887 buildings tended to be painted in one colour, usually white, beige or gray. But later people began to paint their houses in lighter and brighter colours. The vibrant colours became a key identifiable feature of Victorian architecture. The latter part of the 19th C brought a new attitude toward colour, but sash windows continued to be painted in the Queen Anne style of white.

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Sash windows originated as an opening system with two distinct sections: the top was of fixed glazing (divided into smaller lites) and the bottom section had a casement or sliding (vertical) sash. Some exceptional buildings had exterior-wall flushed windows with sash sliding horizontally and parking on the side wall.

Divisions in Sash

The bottom and top sashes (two are not necessarily of the same size) were divided into 3 x 2 =6, 3 x 3 =9 or 4 x 2 =8 glass panes. Each vertical rectangle reflected the proportion of the whole window. The 3 x 2 = 6 glass pane divisions have been accepted as the classical pattern for sash windows.

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Windows with one movable sash are called single-hung sash windows, to contrast from double-hung sash windows, where both sections open by sliding against one another. Alternatively, one shutter opens by sliding and the other opens out or inward with simplex hinges. Simplex hinges allow the shutter to get locked on one side while the other side is freed for opening for escape or easy cleaning of shutters from both sides. Typical double-hung windows of Georgian architecture feature the lower sash in front of the upper sash. The fixed sash at the top allowed it to match the curvilinear arched openings.

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Triple and quadruple hung windows are used for tall openings, common in New England churches. Among the numerous types of 18th C sash windows, the tripartite or Venetian consisted of a central sash with two side lights, one pane wide. The side lights were often fixed, with the sash cord running over their heads from the central sash into the weight boxes.

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In tropical climates, double-hung sash windows were covered from outside by fixed louvered shutters. Some double-hung windows have a full window screen that needs to be positioned suitably over the open section. Sash windows were also built to appear as casements in Gothic and Tudor Revivals. These often involved elaborate detailing with moulded mullions and even concealing the boxes for pulleys and weights.

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The growth in use of the casement increased during the Edwardian period, and by 1910 many houses were built with timber casements, with sash windows relegated to less important elevation. By 1939, the use of sash windows was confined to neo-Georgian buildings, particularly post offices, banks, public houses and local housing estates.

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Georgian Windows are classical double-hung sash windows. Early in the 18th C, Georgian window of 3 x 2 =6 panels per sash matured. This basic configuration ofsix panes over six panes’, remained in use even after the advent of larger panes in the 19th C. Georgian sash wood windows remained widely used form till the use of steel casement windows, as a cheaper and functionally superior option.

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Horizontal Sliding Sash Windows have two or more sashes that overlap slightly but slides horizontally within the frame. In UK, these are sometimes called Yorkshire sash windows, presumably because of their traditional use in that area.

Box-head Sash Windows have shutters sliding vertically into the wall space above the header. Guillotine Windows have only one of the two sashes, usually the top one dropping down. The early versions of windows were without the counterweights or balancing system, and so had a tendency to come slamming down. Hanging Sashes are hung on a cord connected to counterweights.

 

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CASEMENT WINDOWS

Post 688 –by Gautam Shah

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Bay Casement Boothbay Maine Ocean Harbor Window

Casement windows were the most common house-windows, before the sash windows were devised. The shutters of casement windows are hinged on the side, and open either inward and outward. Casement windows provide a full open aperture compared to double hung or sliding windows. The casement shutters could be solid, opaque panelled or glaze panelled. Glazing panes are fixed to the shutter by beading or putty compounds.

Window Wood Rustic

Casement shutters opening inward cause obstruction if there is insufficient parking space for the opened shutter. Inward opening shutters also interfere with window treatments such as curtains, blinds, etc.

The shutters, if of small width open with a handle cum locking device, and if of large width require a crank or lever to open. A wind stay, or a friction hinge is necessary to keep the shutter open in windy conditions, and an espagnolette is used for locking. A casement window is easy to operate with its long armed handle mechanism and so ideal for difficult to reach situations, such as places above cabinets or counter tops. Casement windows open out on nominal hinges or offset hinges that open the shutter little away from the side to allow cleaning, glazing fixing and painting of the exterior face. These are critical issues for casement windows that have protection bars, or are located on upper floors.

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Single casement windows are used on side lites as besides a door or fixed window. Average width of wooden casement windows is 400 to 500. Larger widths up to 600 are possible with friction hinges. Very tall casement windows require patent bolts at both the top and bottom ends to shut a window or keep it open in heavy winds.

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Double casement windows are of two types: one where two shutters meet over a mid member, and the other, where the two shutters meet over each other. The later is called a French window, it opens unobstructed in the centre.

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The casement shutter could be single, opening on left or right side. Casement windows with double shutters, open on left and right sides, or in the middle like the pages of a book. Multiple casement windows have even numbers of shutters divided into sets of two each, all shutters open on one side, or symmetry is created by opening half numbers of shutters on either side.

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Casement windows typically are hinged at the sides, but if top hinged are called awning windows, and if bottom hinged are called hopper windows.

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Hopper Windows: A hopper window is a bottom hung a casement window that opens similarly to a draw bridge or a coal-pit receptor or hopper, typically opening to the outside. Hopper windows are used as cellar or subterranean opening.

Hopper Light: Hopper Ventilator: These have inward-opening shutter hinged at the bottom, usually forming the upper section of a door or window.

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Awning Window: An awning window is a casement window that is hung horizontally, hinged on top, so that it swings outward like an awning or a weather shed. Awnings are transom lites, used in upper sections of doors and windows as a ventilator.

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French Window: A French window is really a type of door with a small threshold. It is also called a French door. Two casement sashes hinged on the sides to open in the middle. The shutters nearly extend to the floor and also serve as a door to a porch, garden, verandah, gallery or terrace. It is double shuttered, and both of which for the full height of the shutters, have single or multiple panes of glass. It may have a secondary set of solid or louvered shutters opening to the interior or exterior side.

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Folding Casement: Casement windows hinged together so they may fold into a confined space, such as within the wall thickness. Small width shutters also makes it easier to close without stretching out too much. Folding casements are often auxiliary shutters, such as storm shutters or Venetian shutters on the outer face or fly-mesh shutters on the inner face.

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All types of eaves and window casement shutters, projecting out, were banned to prevent spread of fire along the wall, after the great fire in London in 1707. And these forced adoption of Sash windows (opening upward or downward).

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STONES -viability now -1

Post 687by Gautam Shah

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We today have greater capacity to search over wider terrains and also reach at sub surface locations. Exploitation of stones as collection from the surface or extraction from various depths is not a major technological problem. There are other issues that are forcing reappraisal of Stone as the viable material of construction. The issues are > economics of transportation, wastage in production, and reuse of the material as debris and production residues.

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Stones, like the clays-soils are universal materials of construction and require very simple technology. There are Three essential sources of stone: 1 Surface collected stones, 2 Extracted stones, 3 Wastes and debris stones. Use of the surface collected stones in original size-form is easiest. Such stones, however, require down sizing and form dressing, before carriage to a place of use. Extracted stones are surface protruding and subterranean mass. These are often stratified or layered. Stone extraction causes ecological devastation due to removal of the top burden, large volume of reject-mass, and wastage of local cleaning, cutting and size dressing. Wastes and debris stones are man-made endeavours. Wastes occur at points of extraction and location of constructions, whereas debris occurs due to the demolition of structures. These need sorting, cleaning and transportation.

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To make Stones viable now, Technological Developments and Materials Management are required. Stones are used for their mass, surface and structural strength. These can be exploited further by new design, joint technology, assembly methods, formation of composites, improved structural geometry and conversion to different materials (chemicals).

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1 Extend the Surface Area: Stones are valued for their surface qualities and the prime need is to increase the surface area. The extended surface reduces the mass / weight of the stones. The surface area of the stones can be enlarged by two basic methods: by Thin Sectioning and by Amalgamation of bits and pieces, which otherwise end up as a collection and production wastes. Other methods of optimizing the surfaces are to endow new sensory qualities and surface properties. Many exciting technologies are now available.

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2 Exploring structural properties: Stones have certain directional structural properties which can be exploited and reinforced. The efforts start with new ways of excavation, extraction and conversion of the material. Other common processes are selection, orientation, rational sectioning and controlled aeration-seasoning. Structural potential of stones can also be exploited by developing new areas of usage and new techniques of construction.

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3 Stone’s Combinative formations: Traditionally stone composites have had lime and cement as the matrix component. The explorations now relate to composites with new forms of filler arrangements and new types of a matrix.

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4 Designing geometrical or spatial compositions: Stones shows great promise in offering radically different materials’ combinative formations. The formations include various ways of combining or ‘synthesizing’ materials of diverse nature, such as, with metals, polymers, ceramics etc.

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Stones have naturally variegated constitution and surfaces. These, provide with inexhaustible opportunities to work to many different forms, sizes, and finishes. Though, qualitative consistency of man-made materials poses a great challenge to multifarious nature of stone materials. Stones have structural attributes, often called Engineering characteristics, which regulate their usefulness for conversion to: Building or Dimension stones, Veneered or thin slabs and for crushing. Similarly stones also exhibit very distinctive sensory properties that govern their use as a facing material in the form of building blocks, cladding and flooring slabs.

The opportunities of intervention operate on two fronts: Improvisations over existing methods and Adoption of radically different technologies.

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Part 1 of 2 articles

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WALL STRUCTURES

Post 682 –by Gautam Shah

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Wall structures have been prime structure for community purposes like, flood protection, irrigation, defense, terrain contouring and against erosion of land. These, perhaps preceded the walls erected for construction of dwellings. The builders from ancient times, were innately aware of the difference between a wall carrying side thrusts and bearing vertical loads. And accordingly the forms and techniques of constructions were different. The walls carrying side thrusts followed the natural angle of repose (the steepest angles at which a sloping surface is formed of loose material remains stable). The walls carrying vertical loads were designed with concern for lateral stability, and to a lesser extent worry about load bearing capacity.

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The idea of a column, as a ‘zero-sized’ wall, (like the Stonehenge) and of pillars (obelisks) may have come from tree trunks. Wood scaffolds were used for painting tall cave walls and ceilings. A series of props or poles, were used as piles or spikes for quicker formation of linear structures, such as in under-water constructions, floods, wet soils, or support against sand like loose soils.

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Earthen Wall structures for embankments or dams, for water flow regulation, storage, prevention of land erosion, against flooding, access-way (road) construction, for irrigation or navigation channels were constructed by combination of deposition or cutting-dressing. But the skill rested in exploiting the existing contours of the lands. Such structures were large and affected the entire community. For participation of large number of people, clear perception of the project and its benefit was necessary. It is apparent that such projects were executed during certain season. These were continuing efforts as added upon and improvised by several generations. Such lasting efforts can occur in societies that are politically and socially stable.

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Other walls were erected in the form of city-town walls to protect the community, and monumental structures related to burial facilities. These walls due to their extent gave impression of monumentality, and were gravity-stable and invincible forms against the invaders or marauders. Walls defining passageways are for land mass retention and ceremonial demarcation of walkways. Town walls and monumental walls, both were not ‘load-bearing’ structures. Both also related to access by large number of people, often in processions. The inevitable entry point was well marked in scale and position-location.

16 Passage tomb of La Hougue Bie by © Copyright Bob Embleton and licensed for reuse under this Creative Commons Licence.

Protective walls were often constructed as tall fences. These were made insurmountable by various means like an enhancement of height-width factors. Width was increased by forming a ditch on the face of the wall, and height was added by constructing the wall over a natural steep edge of terrain. City walls in some areas were constructed of tree trunks or wood lattices.

5 Pallisade like fence as a wall against calalry United States History Civil War, 1861-1865

Palisade in Celtic village Wikipedia image by Zureks

A palisade, was a defensive fence (also called a stake-wall or paling) formed around the military camps by Greeks and Romans. It is formed of wood stakes or tree trunks placed in a line. A groyne is a similar, but low height wall structure, a hydraulic entity for interrupting the free flow of water and restricts the movement of soil-sediments from coastal area.

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A levee, dike, dyke, ditch, embankment, flood-bank or stop-bank, are naturally occurring long ridges or artificially constructed walls to regulate water. These are usually of stone and earth, and follow the course of a river. Levees and other structure require constant care by organized society. Some of the earliest levees were constructed by the Indus Valley Civilization (2600 BC), Egyptians to manage the floods of river Nile, in Mesopotamia and China. The word Levee or F. Lever, literally means ‘to raise’.

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The Greek geographer Pytheas noted in 325 BC, that ‘more people died in the struggle against water than in the struggle against men’.

The word Dyke (dijk) indicates, both trench and bank for water management. The word Ditch derives from dic, dick or dig, meaning to digging a trench and raise the banks with the excavated soil. Such earthworks acted as horizontal walling to deepen water channels, enhance the flow-rate and water carrying capacity. The water channel shaping by the side walling structures provided reliable lanes for waterways. These wall structures were formed to reduce the erosion by water flows, waves and winds.

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The first dikes and water control structures were built and maintained by those directly benefiting from them, mostly farmers. As the structures got more extensive and complex councils were formed from people with a common interest in the control of water levels on their land and so the first water boards began to emerge. These often controlled only a small area, a single polder or dike. Later they merged or an overall organization was formed when different water boards had conflicting interests. The original water boards differed much from each other in the organization, power, and area that they managed. The differences were often regional and were dictated by differing circumstances, whether they had to defend a sea dike against a storm surge or keep the water level in a polder within bounds. In the middle of the 20th century there were about 2,700 water control boards. After many mergers, there are currently 27 water boards left. Water boards hold separate elections, levy taxes, and function independently from other government bodies. -Flood control in the Netherlands Wikipedia

Mycenaean city walls

City walls are elaborate ‘fencing structures built from stronger materials to fortify a territory. The fort walls were symbols of power, so the scale was grandiose. These walls were planned at most select location, adding upon whatever natural defence features were available. Appropriateness of the site also rested on logistics of supply, of which food-fodder and drinking water, even during seizure condition, was very important. Forts housed a populated community and to sustain it, also included structures for defense preparedness and for offense capacity like ditches, gates, embankments, watchtowers, crenelation, etc.

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A moat is a ditch or long pit around a settlement with or without a fence or fortification. Moats were created by reforming the existing terrain features, or dug as a new one. Fortified structures, like castles were once sited over difficult terrains, where some natural features such as hills, elevated lands or rocky landscapes were available for some protection. Moats were additional defence provisions, formed at vulnerable spots. The difficult terrains, however, make it difficult to reform existing terrain, or excavate a new trench. Digging a moat was not only labourious, but the management of the excavated material equally difficult. The excavated stuff was used to back support the fort walls, or raise the level of internal grounds. Moats were formed along with construction of fort walls.

Linear Defense wall GorganWall

Some of the earliest defensive walls were linear formations and not any surrounding or enveloping forts. These were long barrier walls with open ends or terminating into hillock or large water body. These linear walls marked a territorial edge or boundary of the kingdom. Such edge walls had to be very extensive to be effective.

Sumerian King Shulgi of Ur, 2038 BC., built a wall that was 250 Kms long, between the Tigris and Euphrates rivers, to keep the invading Amorites out of Sumerian lands. Great Wall of Gorgan (restored and renovated by the Sasanian Persians in the 5th or 6th C) was 195 Kms long, and included more than thirty forts along its length. Great Wall of China was built as several small independent units, possibly first at vulnerable points, which were ultimately joined together during the Ming Era. It was as a freestanding regional scale defensive structure. Similarly the Anastasian wall (the Long Walls of Thrace) of the Byzantine Empire (469 C) located in modern Turkey was also not anchored at either end to any terminus. All such walls proved to be ineffectual as enemy army marched around the ends. The most known wall structure, Hadrian’s wall of Britain was built by Roman Emperor Hadrian (122 AD) to prevent frequent incursions.

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EAVES

Post 681 –by Gautam Shah

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Eaves, is a curious word. It has a dilemma hung on it. It is both singular and plural form of the word. It derives from Old English ‘efes’ =edge. It cognates, with words like, Old High German ‘obisa’, Gothic ‘ubizwa’ (hall), Gothic ‘ubizwa’ (porch), Greek ‘hupsos’ (height) and German ‘oben’ (above). Eaves are not just the roof edge up-above, but overhanging edges of a hat or forests.

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Eaves-dropping and eaves-dripping are etymologically related, but serve vastly different meaning. Eaves-dropping is listening to a private conversation, standing under the sill outside the window, and that sill ‘drops’ under the eaves projection. Or is it trying to over-listen idiosyncrasies of eves. Eaves-dripping is the dripping of water falling off the roof edge, and sometimes causing land washout.

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The eaves are projected roof edges or additional structures at a lower level, but both primarily conceived to throw rain water clear of the walls. These were required to protect softer wall materials or the masonry joints, like mud. Eaves help throw rain water away, not only because of the depth of the projection but its angle. These prevent erosion of the footings and plinths.

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Deep eaves shade the walls from sun-rays. The shaded areas of eaves form a buffer air zone to protect the walls from convective heat. Eaves as projections add to the upward load on the undersides. Projected eaves of wood, are fire prone elements. Modern buildings are constructed without any type of overhangs, because it hampers servicing-cleaning of facades, enhances efficiency of disaster rescue and evacuation, and reduces chances of irregular fire-spreads.

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Eaves are formed of cement-concrete, and as framed structures of steel and other metals. The framing is covered with a soffit made of materials of poor fire resistance (less than one hour of fire rating), and therefore is ‘susceptible to ignition by embers and hot gases’. Once the eaves catch fire it spreads to the exterior wall and roof.

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The eaves of any depth (Chhajja, cornice, cap, ledge) form a small to large, functional or decorative overhang as an architectural entity. Eaves and other architectonic elements like lintels, arches, head formations, floor ends, are all variously fudged to create new vocabularies. FL Wright began to open up the interior spaces with clear glass doors and windows as in Prairie houses, by using the darkened space below the elongated eaves. Taking advantage of the dark formation under roof overhangs, Wright began to negotiate the corners with windows, and broke the box like Victorian architecture of the age. He added bands or elongated windows to add to the horizontal effect of the eaves’ roofs.

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According to Japanese mythology a door portal is formed by the Hisashi (usually means eaves), whose character has the meaning ‘a space to see’. It is a connection with the outside. So a door occurs when a horizontal element like the eaves is formed. The essence of a gate comes into being through the eaves. Torii is a metaphoric gate, formed by head bands, the ‘eaves’. The eaves are free floating elements, seemingly have no side supports. The Torii gate has such eaves lines. The Sanchi Stupa Gate also has three emphatic horizontal bands of eaves. The Toran, buntings, streamers, banners, all are forms of the eaves.Gates

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The eaves not only protect but mark an ambulatory pathway around a building. The moya, or main room of the shinden, was surrounded by a secondary roofed veranda, or Hisashi. The moya was not partitioned, privacy being secured by low portable screens. The area surrounding the *moya or core of a temple building was a narrow aisle-like area, usually only one bay wide. It can extend around the moya or on one, two or three sides. The floor of the moya and the Hisashi are at the same level throughout. Hisashi may also refer to an unenclosed veranda or corridor protected by either additional eaves underneath the main roof, or by the extension of the eaves of the main roof over the open Hisashi.

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Eaves-drop or eaves-drip, is the width of ground around a house or building which receives the rain water dropping from the eaves. Projected eaves have been matters of tenancy-rights disputes between neighbours. An ancient Anglo-Saxon law, a landowner was forbidden to erect any building at less than two feet from the boundary of his land, and was thus prevented from injuring his neighbour’s house or property by the dripping of water from his eaves.

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● A proprietor may build as near as he pleases to the confines of his property, provided the eaves drop from his building does not fall on the adjoining property. It is enough, however, that eaves-drop actually falls within the building’s property; and the conterminous proprietor has no right to complain although the water, following the natural inclination of the ground, should afterwards run into his property.

● The Roman law required a proprietor who had no servitude stillicidii to place his building two feet and half within his march.

● In Scotland there is an express statute on the subject; but by custom nine inches, at the least, seem to be necessary for the eaves drop.

-Dictionary of the Law of Scotland, Volume 1 By Robert Bell

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Eaves projections and Fires: The building act of 1707 in London and other towns of England banned the projected wooden eaves to prevent spread of fire along the wall and to the roof structure. A 18″ thick parapet was required and the roof edge was set back. The roof was set back little more to provide drainage of rain water. Parapets over the roofs were made taller, shaped, decorated and pierced.

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BMR and BODY TEMPERATURE

Post 680 –by Gautam Shah

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BMR: Basal Metabolic Rate is the amount of energy (metabolism-calories) per unit of time that a person needs to keep the body functioning, at rest. The ‘rest’ or body sustenance functions include breathing, blood circulation, controlling body temperature, cell growth, brain and nerve. The basal metabolic rate accounts for about 60 to 75% of the daily calorie expenditure by individuals. About 20% of energy expenditure comes from physical activities and another 10% from digestion of food. It is influenced by several factors, such as the age, gender, degree of acclimatization, posture and state of health. The primary organ responsible for BMR regulating metabolisms is the hypothalamus.

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Our body functions as a thermo equilibrium system, with upper limits of bearing is 52° C, and lower limits of 3° C. A body may endure or adopt to certain abnormal conditions for a period of time, but there may occur side effects. The side effects may be realized in a different form and at a different time. In certain acute work conditions like mines, metal smelting plants, textile plants, cold storage, the levels of efficiency or productivity depend on the endurance level and adaptability of the body.

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The human body has many minor variations, but an average temperature of 37° C. Body temperature is highest in the evening and lowest in the morning (+or- range of 1° C.) energy expenditure of the body is different for endothermic animals and fish or reptiles. In reptiles and amphibia heat regulation mechanisms is absent. Their body temperature rises or falls with the atmospheric temperature. Hence they are called cold-blooded animals. In abnormal temperature conditions they regulate the body temperature by suitable habitat like burrowing and hibernation.

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Infant

Infants have a very imperfect mechanism for regulation of body temperature. A fit of crying may elevate and a cold wash may lower the body temperature. Aged persons have a low metabolism, and so maintain a lower body temperature. It takes much longer for an aged person to gain or dissipate body heat. Female body temperature is slightly lower than male. High protein foods increase the body temperature. The act ingestion and food digestion and exercise raises the body temperature. Atmospheric conditions like, temperature, humidity and movement of air, affect the efficiency of heat exchange from the body, and so the body temperature.

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There are three types of heat generating processes in the human body. Conversion of food matter into useful energy, Muscular activities, and Certain infections and dysfunctions within the body, elevates or lower the body temperature by extra ordinary rate. Many physical, chemical and bacterial agents disturb the heat regulation mechanism and cause fever. These may be due to increased heat production or reduced heat loss, or both.

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