WORK PROCESSES -simplified overview

Post 657 -by Gautam Shah

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Workshops till middle age were craftspeople oriented. Mechanical power drives allowed heavy duty jobs and precision or micro work. Mechanical devices like gears, leather belt transmission and need for greater productivity by exclusive task assignment provided standardized products on a massive scale. Some degree of linear production planning was occurring. The power shaft forced organization of workshops on linearity. The line production methods promoted productivity through time management and sequencing of task procedures. In many instances tasks began to be assimilated and handled simultaneously in a single time slot.

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power shaft pulley beltsDuring the early part of the 20th C. machines became adjuncts to assembly-line production systems and multi tasking. For this machine became a device to handle a variety of tools, often simultaneously. The machines were operating at a faster speed requiring equally fast control system.

595px-Machine_shop_in_the_Government_Printing_OfficeMechanical power transmission systems were concurrent systems for the entire workshop, but the impediment was removed with the electric power. Electrical power offered local control through an electric motor (horse power) rating, speed variation through voltage control, and operational control like start-stop, etc. Independent electric powered machines with faster and multi tasking capabilities, however, were now difficult for human supervision. Control devices were actuators, for process regulation.

workers with shaft power transmission

Control devices or systems are of two types: A Feed-forward system has inputs or predicts unusual happening, but would not oversee or govern the actualization of the action. A Feedback system improvises strategy for future actions in many instances oversees actions being taken.

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Feed-forward systems: Jacquard weaving loom uses a feed-forward control as a programmed punched card to weave a pattern, but cannot stop the loom if there is a short feed of thread. Similarly a cutting machine cuts a large sized shape by moving the cutter tracing a small scale pattern through the arm of a pantograph.

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Feedback systems: A wind mill keeps facing the wind with the help of a tail wane. A pressure cooker seals itself with heightened internal pressure of steam. Pressure valves are weight calibrated opening themselves at certain pressure levels only.

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Control devices and systems have led to automation of processes. Automation began in the late 1940s with the development of the mechanical devices for moving and positioning objects on a production line, though observation and manual intervention were necessary. During 1960s digital computers began to offer control systems in three different manners: For supervisory or optimizing control, Direct digital control, and Hierarchy control. In the first instance, for the supervisory control a computer sets parametric levels for optimizing the operations. In the second instance, for the direct-digital control, several devices feed data to a single processor, which then decides a strategy of operation. The advantage here is very fast and objective evaluation of the data. The third system the hierarchy control applies to all the plant-control situations concurrently, often with the actuation of the control mechanisms.

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METAL CLEANING PROCESSES

Post 571by Gautam Shah

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Metals parts need surface treatments and cleaning for conservation, restoration,  decoration, reflectivity (shine), dulling (removal of gloss), better hardness, surface integrity, prevention of corrosion and in preparation for the next treatment. Metal components get both organic and inorganic substances deposited from various lubricating oils, corroding environments and substances, and deposits from hard water etc. Metal surfaces need cleaning for removal of residual products from earlier processing, weathering, depositions during storage and transport and environmental contaminations. A cleaned metal is comparatively more active, and so may need, immediate next treatment, to prevent corrosion and contamination. So metal surfaces often receive simultaneously the processes of cleaning, surface activation and protection.

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Metal surfaces needs to be smoothed, scrubbed or scoured to receive next set of treatments. Cleaning processes are employed to discharge electrical ions from the component. Cleaning processes are designed to serve several purposes, such as cleaning, scoring and protective coating. Cleaning occurs at a raw material stage, product formation stage, in preparation to other finishes, or just prior to a marketable finish. But there are two distinct stages, at manufacturing plant and on-site applications.

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Center-less grinding  Wikipedia image by Wizard191

Alkali cleaning is typically done with caustic soda (NaOH) which removes all polar substances such as fats and oils. The vegetable and animal oils are converted to glycerol and soap, and the petroleum-based oils and grease are emulsified.

Acid cleaning, like alkali removes ionic deposits from the metal surface. Depending on the secondary products like salts determine the quality of acid to be used. Pickling process removes oxides from the surface by a dissolving liquid. For steel, a warm dilute sulphuric acid, and in some cases hydrochloric acid, hot or at normal temperature, is used. However, for some alloy steels nitric acid, is needed. Acid and alkali both processes require post treatment ph. balancing rinse or treatment.

Solvent cleaning: the articles are washed with a petroleum solvent or undergo cleaning (de-greasing) by vapour, in which a solvent such as tri-or tetra chloroethylene is heated in a closed system, and its vapours are condensed on the metal surface.

Emulsion cleaning: the metal parts are immersed in a warm mixture of kerosene, a wetting agent, and an alkaline solution.

Mechanical cleaning use force of air or water jet and sonar waves to remove partially attached particles. The process may include fine particles like sand, silica, metal grit etc. to blast the surface for the same purpose.

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Electrolytic cleaning: the articles are immersed in an alkaline solution and a direct current is passed between them and the other electrode which is usually steel.

Ultrasonic cleaning is used for blind holes or gears packed with soils etc. Small particles embedded in crevices get detached due to ultrasonic waves.

Plasma treatments bombard a surface with electron ions to break the surface level chemical bonds and change the chemical composition of the surface. Plasma treatments may also remove variety of material types such as paints, polymers, glass and ceramics.

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Statue of Perseus Piazza della Signoria Florence After cleaning Image by Jrousso at Wikipedia En

Metal cleaning Tools and Techniques

The metal products are small items like nails, rivets, long rolled sections, drawn items like wires, woven items like lattices, entwined items like ropes and barbed fencing, hollow pipes and tubes, or solid castings. Other products include assemblies like automobile bodies, boxes, cages, machine housings and structures like a truss. Metal components are single or multi-metal items, composites with polymers, ceramics, etc. Art restorers have to deal with metal objects of unknown composition, ageing, and coated with natural or applied substances. Art restorations require reversible processes, so if a treatment is found unviable it can be fully reverted. Metal products in continuous line productions are moved through several sets of electrodes, which, submerged in a cleaning liquid, electrolytically generate hydrogen gas at the steel surface for lifting residues off the material.

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Sand-blasting Wikipedia image by National Institute for occupational safety and health NIOSH USA

Hard substances like metal nodules or slags are removed by abrasion or high pressure air or water jet. Soft materials like soil etc. are removed by brushing. Brushing may be carried out dry or wet and with scrubbing and scourager agents. Brushes with natural hair, synthetic fiber, metal fibres and wires are used. Abrasive materials like A Carborundum, sand grit, metal particles etc. are blasted on the surface to clean up the surface. In some instances like manufacturing of nails, abrasive materials rotated in ball mills with nails, to achieve high polish. Ultrasonic sound waves are also used to remove particles.

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BUILDING as a COMPLEX SYSTEM

Post 508  by Gautam Shah

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A building is a complex system that manifests for a set of Users, within an Environment, and built through many different Components. Users pose a set of demands that are situational and circumstantial. The Environment affects the building, and gets affected by its existence. The Components forming the building have a variable mutual dependency, some of which are rare, but required for assuring the safety and security.

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User-related demands and environmental affectations bear upon the building’s fabric, where components show unequal performance. Some of these components are mutually dependent, and have a state of permanency, but many are detachable and so replaceable and up-gradable. Replacement of components occurs during regular maintenance schedules with identical or upgraded units. Alterations and Renovations are considered opportunities for rejuvenating and upgrading the building system. There is distinct effort to improvise the system by replacing subsystems with new technologies. Compared to these changes, for buildings going through Conservation, all components and sub-systems are sought to be continued, by small repairs or replacing with re-manufactured identical elements.

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Building as complex system is agglomeration of various components and subsystems, where the detachable entities can be replaced. The changes are carried out to replace not only the worn out components, but to add more productive components. Components and subsystems are replaced to endow a new image to the building. The technological up-gradation of subsystems or components occurs in many ways.

PV_external_shading_device_in_zero_energy_building_of_Singapore1 Custom-made components and subsystems are replaced by standard systems. These, makes future servicing and replacement much easier.

2 Newer systems are preferred for their efficiency in terms of energy use, out-put of waste products, compactness, fitment rationale, noise and vibrations.

3 Newer systems are multipurpose, and replace several sub-systems that existed as layers or closely placed elements.

Image Wikipedia – Flickr by Author flickr user rick

4 New components and subsystems have different fitment parameters, and so require customized installation yet the replacements always remain detachable.

5 When a building is completely overhauled, it offers a chance to integrate several stand-alone sub-systems by spatial rearrangement or rescheduling.

6 New subsystems have built-in provisions for remote switching, monitoring and synchronized operations, these allow for networking through master control.

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7 Older sub-systems and components were support structure and location dependent, requiring walls, external facing, services connections, etc. Newer systems have reduced dependence being lighter in weight, compact in size, energy efficiency, requiring no liquid-solid fuels and no waste output.

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METAL EMBELLISHMENTS -PAINTED ENAMELS

Post 501  by Gautam Shah

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Surface finishing or decorating with a foreign material is a very ancient technology. Metals have been embellished by several techniques. Metals have been coated by metal plating, surface alloying and deposition. Metals have been inlayed with metals, precious stones and objects.

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These include:

Damascening a technique of encrusting gold, silver or copper wires in the finely chased surfaces of iron, steel, or bronze.

Niello is made from black metallic alloy of sulfur with silver, copper, or lead. It is filled in chased or engraved patterns over silver. The surface is heated for the niello to melt. On polishing the surface gets a dual metallic effect.

Granulation is made by soldering or fusing granulated beads of silver or gold to effect a bloom to the surface than of a beaded surface.

Filigree is made by forming a fine network of very thin wires fused selectively and than fixed on a metal surface of an object.

Ajouré is similar to filigree but the fine network is created by cutting or piercing the patterns in the metal. Raised patterns or cut out motifs are also fused onto the surface.

Embellishments with Other Materials were formed using precious stones, exotic substances such as rare woods, metals, ivory, horn, beads, sea shells, jade, and amber, and niello-work, fixed into chased or performed cavities or depressions. Fixing was by wire, metal forming, heat-fusing, thread knitting and knotting.

Inlay works are of many varieties. Pre-formed cavities or depressions are filled in by many different materials such as wood, stones and metals. The fixing is with tight fitting, adhesives, or by hammering a ductile metal.

Gilding is application of metal like silver, gold, silver, palladium, aluminum, and copper alloys, in the form of very thin foils. Gilding by gold or silver foils requires as no adhesives as sufficient electrical charges attract the foil to the base, however for permanent fixing (on exterior use) some form of adhesives are used.

Overlays can be defined as metal sheathing or cladding by metal sheets that are slightly heavier than used for gilding. Overlaying is also done by applying a gold amalgam (gold+mercury) and than removing the mercury with heat.

painted enamel on copper 290x 240mm

Enamelling is a metal embellishment technique wherein a vitreous glaze is heat-fused to create a very long lasting decorative effect of brilliant colours. (Read on > Enamels).

Snuff bottle, northern India, 18th century, gold, gemstones and enamel

An Enamel is a compound of flint or sand, red lead, and soda or potash which forms a glass like material on being melted. Low temperature fusing is easier to manage, but creates a soft glass surface that is prone to cracking. Hard enamels are formed at higher temperature are better lasting, but it is a slightly difficult process.

Miniature of Marie Louise d’Orléans, future Queen of Spain by Jean Petitot le vieux (1607-1691)

Painted Enamels are like miniature oil paintings. These are made on a metal base or plate covered with a layer of an opaque enamel. The opaque or white enamel base is further embellished with ‘glass forming but with colouring materials’, rendered by fine needle painting, spraying, screen printing, spattering, scratching or block printing. Separate firing is required for each of the colours. Artists created portraits and other art subjects on very small metal plates, surpassing richness of larger canvass-based oil paintings. Painted Enamels being very small could be carried anywhere as a personal item of collection or treasure. The colours are permanent and non-yellowing or fading. The painted enamel has remained a craft and is not accepted as medium of art. The painted enamels of China are known as Canton (Guangzhou) enamels. Painted enamels are termed by the Chinese yangci (foreign porcelain).

Coloured enamel embellishments were created over arms, armour, mirrors, bowls, cups, chalices, spoons, and miniature pendants, tableware, wall and ceiling panels, signages, table clocks, and snuffboxes.

‘Mercury’, painted enamel and gilt on copper mirror back

Five main types of enamelling processes are used:

Champlevé (French= raised field) enamels are created by scratching or etching a copper surface, which are than filled-in with pulverized enamel material, fired and polished.

Cloisonné (French= partitioned) has very small partitions or cloisons formed with thin metal strips. The partitions are filled with pulverized enamel and fired.

Basse-Taille (French= low cutting) process is a kind of champlevé, but is applied to silver or gold. Here the depressions are filled with translucent enamel, which allows the substrate or patterns on it to be seen.

Plique-à-jour (French=open braids) enamelling resembles cloisonne, but here the partitions form a separable lattice. The lattice is removed after firing, giving an effect of stained glass. It is exceptionally fragile work.

Encrusted Enamel: Encrusted enamel or enamel en ronde bosse is prepared by spreading of an opaque enamel paste over slightly roughened surfaces of objects such as small figures.

Binding representing the Crucifixion of Christ, Limoges (Limosin, France) champlevé enamel on gilded copper

 

LIST of BLOGS on LACQUERS, PAINTS and THINNERS

Post 499  by Gautam Shah

1 UNDERSTANDING LACQUERS

https://interiordesignassist.wordpress.com/2015/08/16/understanding-lacquers/

2 LACQUERS or NC LACQUERS

https://interiordesignassist.wordpress.com/2014/04/27/lacquers-or-nc-lacquers/

3 SOLVENTS for THINNERS

https://interiordesignassist.wordpress.com/2015/08/09/solvents-for-thinners/

4 WOOD SURFACE FINISHING

https://interiordesignassist.wordpress.com/2015/07/13/wood-surface-finishing/

5 PAINT THINNERS Part 2

https://interiordesignassist.wordpress.com/2015/05/14/paint-thinners-part-2/

6 PAINT THINNERS Part 1

https://interiordesignassist.wordpress.com/2015/05/08/paint-thinners-1/

7 ROSEWOOD

https://interiordesignassist.wordpress.com/2015/03/26/rosewood/

8 INDUSTRIAL PAINT FINISHES

https://interiordesignassist.wordpress.com/2015/03/07/industrial-paint-finishes/

9 APPLICATION of COATINGS

https://interiordesignassist.wordpress.com/2015/01/09/application-of-coatings/

10 COATINGS -Surface finishing technologies

https://interiordesignassist.wordpress.com/2014/11/08/coatings-surface-finishing-technologies/

11 CLEAR COATINGS

https://interiordesignassist.wordpress.com/2014/09/12/clear-coatings/

12 FILM FORMING PROCESS in COATINGS

https://interiordesignassist.wordpress.com/2014/09/03/film-forming-process-in-coatings/

13 WOOD SURFACE PREPARATIONS for CLEAR COATINGS

https://interiordesignassist.wordpress.com/2014/04/28/wood-surface-preparations-for-clear-coatings/

14 SHELLAC COATINGS and FRENCH POLISHES

https://interiordesignassist.wordpress.com/2014/04/26/shellac-coatings-and-french-polishes/

15 VARNISH

https://interiordesignassist.wordpress.com/2014/04/25/varnish/

16 MULTI COATS of PAINT SYSTEMS

http://talking-interior-design.blogspot.in/2014/03/multi-coats-of-paint-systems.html

17 WOOD FINISHES

http://talking-interior-design.blogspot.in/2014/07/wood-finishes.html

18 CLEAR COATINGS

http://talking-interior-design.blogspot.in/2015/03/clear-coatings.html

19 CEMENT SURFACE FINISHES

http://talking-interior-design.blogspot.in/2015/06/cement-surface-finishes.html

20 CRAFT of WALL PAINTING (Neolithic)

http://talking-interior-design.blogspot.in/2014/02/the-craft-of-wall-painting-neolithic.html

21 CRAFT of WALL PAINTING (Palaeolithic)

http://talking-interior-design.blogspot.in/2014/01/the-craft-of-wall-painting-palaeolithic.html

22 COATINGS

http://talking-interior-design.blogspot.in/2013/09/coatings.html

23 COATINGS Iron age

http://talking-interior-design.blogspot.in/2013/09/coatings-iron-age.html

24 PRIMITIVE COATINGS Surfaces, Materials and Techniques

http://talking-interior-design.blogspot.in/2013/09/primitive-coatings-surfaces-materials.html

25 LIME-WASH

https://interiordesignassist.wordpress.com/2014/06/01/lime-wash/

26 PAINTING WHITE – 1

https://interiordesignassist.wordpress.com/2015/07/27/painting-white-1/

27 PAINTING WHITE – 2

https://interiordesignassist.wordpress.com/2015/07/29/painting-white-2/

28 BLACK Part – 1

https://interiordesignassist.wordpress.com/2015/08/07/black-part-i/

29 COLOURANTS DYES and PIGMENTS

https://interiordesignassist.wordpress.com/2014/07/15/colourants-dyes-and-pigments/

30 RED Colours of ancient times

https://interiordesignassist.wordpress.com/2015/05/22/red-colours-of-ancient-times/

31 ART COATINGS

https://interiordesignassist.wordpress.com/2015/05/25/art-coatings/

32 PRIMITIVE COATINGS # 1

https://interiordesignassist.wordpress.com/2015/05/03/primitive-coatings-1/

33 NATURAL IRON OXIDE PIGMENTS 4 # SIENNA and UMBER

https://interiordesignassist.wordpress.com/2015/05/01/natural-iron-oxide-pigments-4-sienna-and-umber/

34 NATURAL IRON OXIDE PIGMENTS -3 # Ochers

https://interiordesignassist.wordpress.com/2015/04/28/natural-iron-oxide-pigments-3-ochers/

35 NATURAL IRON OXIDE PIGMENTS – 2 # Red Oxides

https://interiordesignassist.wordpress.com/2015/04/27/natural-iron-oxide-pigments-2-red-oxides/

36 FLOOR PAINTS

https://interiordesignassist.wordpress.com/2015/03/21/floor-paints/

37 ARCHITECTURAL COATINGS -beginnings of OIL PAINTS

https://interiordesignassist.wordpress.com/2015/02/15/architectural-coatings-beginnings-of-oil-paints/

38 SURFACE PREPARATIONS

https://interiordesignassist.wordpress.com/2014/09/26/surface-preparations/

39 WHITE PIGMENTS

https://interiordesignassist.wordpress.com/2014/08/05/white-pigments/

40 CEMENT PAINTS

https://interiordesignassist.wordpress.com/2014/07/09/cement-paints/

41 OIL BOUND DISTEMPERS -OBD

https://interiordesignassist.wordpress.com/2014/07/03/oil-bound-distempers-obd/

42 CEMENT FINISHES part 2

https://interiordesignassist.wordpress.com/2014/06/27/cement-finishes-part-2/

43 DRY DISTEMPER or CALCIMINE

https://interiordesignassist.wordpress.com/2014/06/03/dry-distemper-or-calcimine/

44 ECOLOGY and COATINGS

https://interiordesignassist.wordpress.com/2015/03/09/ecology-and-coatings/

45 ENCAUSTIC PAINTING

https://interiordesignassist.wordpress.com/2014/06/06/encaustic-painting/

46 COLOURS and BUILDINGS

https://interiordesignassist.wordpress.com/2015/01/20/colours-and-buildings/

47 GLOSS

https://interiordesignassist.wordpress.com/2014/09/20/gloss/

48 COMPOSITION of COATING

https://interiordesignassist.wordpress.com/2014/07/29/composition-of-a-coating-3/

49 COLOURED GLASS

https://interiordesignassist.wordpress.com/2014/08/03/coloured-glass/

50 GRISAILLE -monochrome form of presentation

https://interiordesignassist.wordpress.com/2014/07/28/grisaille-monochrome-form-of-presentation/

51 WATER COLOURS

https://interiordesignassist.wordpress.com/2014/07/10/water-colours/

52 FRESCO PAINTINGS

https://interiordesignassist.wordpress.com/2014/06/24/fresco-paintings/

53 PRIMER COATINGS

https://interiordesignassist.wordpress.com/2015/06/07/primer-coatings/

54 SINGLE or MULTI COAT SYSTEMS

https://interiordesignassist.wordpress.com/2015/05/30/single-or-multi-coat-systems/

55 BRUSHES

https://interiordesignassist.wordpress.com/2015/03/29/brushes/

56 ENAMELS

https://interiordesignassist.wordpress.com/2015/02/18/enamels/

57 TEMPERA

https://interiordesignassist.wordpress.com/2015/01/24/tempera/

58 GP -General purpose paints

https://interiordesignassist.wordpress.com/2014/08/26/gp-general-purpose-paints/

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CREATIVE WRITING – 3

CREATIVE WRITING – 3

Post 474 by Gautam Shah

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For creative writing it is important to communicate the concept and purpose of the expression. Stating it explicitly as an introduction, or recapitulating as the summary at the end, serve only a limited purpose. An introduction or the summary, are dulled by the elaborate body, with the passage of time and by other interesting details. Both remain muted if the print style, manners of speech or the media support do not reinforce it. In digital access systems the introduction or summary, are generated automatically, without the author being involved in its creation. The media presentation of this is without any typographical or graphical enrichments.

Jewish Torah scroll

The contents of writing are yet focussed in several ways. In this article the remaining SEVEN methods are discussed, THREE were presented in the earlier article.

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4 – EMPHASIS BY CONDENSATION AND ELABORATION: The emphasis in presentations occurs by condensation and occasionally by elaboration of the subject matter. Primarily Condensation eliminates all unnecessary and less necessary contents, and thereby increase the clarity, reduce the expression size, delivery time, perception effort, etc. Condensation is also done by use of abbreviations and symbols that replace large units of contents. These include idioms, proverbs, metaphors, and signs. Condensation is often used to restrict the access to a specific class of audience, like magicians’ instructions.

Archived documents

Elaboration is achieved by augmenting the context of difficult to understand concepts, events, situations, or objects. It is also done by using the same word in different context, and using similar words (synonyms and antonyms from a thesaurus) to redefine the meaning. Multiple explanations help amplify content. Elaboration is also achieved by inclusion of anecdotes, couplets, quotations, footnotes, end notes, and other sensorial effects.

Emphasis is often created by intentional de-emphasis. Obvious details, concepts, ideas, conclusions are not put forward at the nominal time and space, but are placed at the end, or the audience is allowed to draw its own inferences.

The condensation and elaboration are employed to colour a document as a personal style statement.

Processed information often becomes so comprehensive that it becomes a very abstract expression. Abstracted expressions are exploited to achieve new insights.

Writing Declaration of Independence 1776.

5 – BRIDGING AND LINKING: The contents are bridged to create a seamless or a larger concept. The most common bridging is through time and space organization of the contents. The links to other documents (e.g. hyperlinks, bibliographies, index) are such reference bridges. Recorded contents are classified according to the nature of content, names of the author, date of publication, size and form of the document. Such classification identifiers also provide associations. A well bridged or cited content vouches its authenticity through circumstantial referencing.

Search engines list topics in terms of number of users referencing it. Wikipedia -the internet encyclopaedia relies on citations. Preface and such write-ups broach the subject by positioning it in a wider perspective.

Contents are also bridged using conjunctions. Words like and, if, or, when, then, whereas, therefore, etc. connect clauses or sentences. Bullets, numbered lists, also bridge sub topics.

archive store (History Centre) at Herbert

7 – SEPARATING AND ISOLATING: The contents are separated or isolated, by spacing and by tabulation (paragraphs, bullet marking, numbering, hyphenating, bracketing), to highlight or categorize the sub-topics. Separation in writing is achieved by commas, semicolons, brackets, or other interludes (gutter spaces in newspaper columns). In recordings a null space is provided for the machine to recognize the end of one section and the beginning of next one. By isolating the contents it becomes easier to link each such section distinctly.

Language encrypting machine

8 – ABSTRACTION: The contents are abstracted by removing all less important information, time slots and space gaps. The expression language in Internet chat rooms shows the nature of abstraction spreading across the world. Common words are written eliminating vowels and are denoted by their phonemes. Symbols and metaphors are also used to squeeze the contents. Vedic mantras represent knowledge in a very condensed form to easily remember it (‘Shrut Gyan’ -knowledge that is heard). However, such condensation is vulnerable to different interpretation of the contents.

9 – MARKING: Contents are marked to enhance (bold facing, underlining, Italics, large size type faces) their presence. The contents are delivered louder, faster or slower, brighter, repeatedly, and in metres (musical, couplets with rhymes) for the same effect.

Author Ernest Hemingway Writing at Campsite in Kenya

Author Ernest Hemingway Writing at Campsite in Kenya

10 – BY TITLING (NAMING): One of the best way of focussing (by declaration) the contents are to provide a title to it. A title as created by the author is more truthful but is not accepted by the reader or audience, as their intentions of accessing need not match the author’s perceptions. Storage systems create own titles to facilitate access by their users’ needs. Titles often have limitations of size. This is overcome by including long titles or list of keywords or summary or precis.

Presentations styles and techniques used for direct or inter personal communication like elocution, orations, sermons, lectures, cannot be used for, or are useless for reports, etc. Writhing as an assignment from superiors, teachers, retainers, employers have a defined motive, and structure. Method of presentation is essentially tailor-made to satisfy the assignee.

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This article in continuation of earlier >>

Creative writing

(https://interiordesignassist.wordpress.com/2014/10/23/creative-writing/ )

Creative Writing – 2

(https://interiordesignassist.wordpress.com/2015/07/14/creative-writing-2 ).

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ART COATINGS

Post 432 – by Gautam Shah

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Lascaux2

Coatings are thin surface finishing techniques. A thin film is achieved by using a material that is in a liquid state or is convertible into a liquid phase. A coating may or may not have a colourant, but on drying achieves various degrees of transparencies. Coatings are applied to entities to alter the appearance, improve the tangibility and to provide a protective cover. Historically, however, coatings have been used for illustration and decorative effects.

The discovery of mixing dishes suggests that liquid pigment mixed with fat was also used and smeared with the hand. The subtle tonal gradations of colour on animals painted in the Altamira and Lascaux caves appear to have been dabbed in two stages with fur pads, natural variations on the rock surface were exploited to create the effects of volume.

Sleeping_Antelope_Tin_Taghirt

The simplest way of marking cave walls was to make finger-traces in the soft layer of clay covering the rock. Lime stone walls were engraved and filled in with iron oxide (hematite, or ochre), or the black pigment as manganese or charcoal. These materials were usually available locally. Analyses of pigments, reveal the use of extenders such as talc or feldspar, to increase the bulk of pigments. It also shows traces of animal and plant oils, used for binding. The pigment in paste form was applied with fingers, and also tools like animal-hair brushes or crushed twigs. Lumps of pigment discovered on cave floors may have been used as crayons, but since they do not mark the rock well, they were more likely to be sources of powder. Colour was often sprayed, from the mouth or through a tube. A network of ladder, supports and scaffolding was used to reach the ceilings and upper portions of walls. Light was provided by hearths, or portable burning torches.

Abric_on_es_troben_les_pintures_d'art_llevantí_al_pla_de_Petracos

Primitive coatings were daubing of clays, minerals, charcoal, lamp blacks often mixed with mediums such as water, tallow, vegetable excretion and juices, urine, blood, bitumen. Binding mediums were employed to fix the mineral or colourant particles on the surface. Some of the binding mediums were evaporative and worked only as a `leveller’ for particulate matter. By 6000 BC, in China, calcined (fired) mixtures of inorganic compounds and organic pigments and binding mediums (vehicles) were prepared from gum arabic, egg white, gelatin, and beeswax.

Some oily mediums though superior in fixing and longer lasting, but collected dust on aging. Oil mediums became darker in colour due to oxidation, or just peeled off. Some of the mediums were destroyed due to fungus and algae. Later little more complex substances such as starches of rice and maize, pine wood extracts, egg albumin, bees wax, hydrated limes, gypsum, etc. were used.

PREHISTORIC ART FORMS

There are basic TWO sets of Arts. Fixed arts are built-forms, wall murals and architectural embellishments. These could have been part of either exterior and interior environments. Portable arts, comprise of objects or artefacts. These usually remained in protected environments. Fixed arts were largely painted and scratched or engraved, but portable arts had, at least in initial periods, natural finishes by way of selection and production processes.

Venus_vom_Hohlen_Fels_Original_frontal

Portable arts consist of wide variety of object forms and material combinations. Compared to the fixed Arts the objects are smaller in size. The portable objects show all, the surface treatments, embellishments and coating applications. The objects of this category show greater integration of all the three interventions and greater detail or involvement. Large number and wide variety of objects have been preserved and recovered even from regions where Fixed Arts entities have not survived. Portable arts’ objects are smaller and personal hobby or a family craft creation. The colour and surface quality were matter of choice or discoveries through innovation in production.

Paulnabrone

Fixed Arts entities that have survived are surface treatments or renderings through show painting, scratching, engraving and daubing methods. On the other hand, the surviving built-forms, if considered as art-forms, represent technological milestones of material handling, supporting and construction planning. Fixed arts were large scale or important societal activities, involving entire community by way of voluntary participation or forced labour. The involvement of the community was for seasonal or occasional rituals. The leader, conductor or priest of the ritual and the team were the select few experts who initiated and updated the (art) entities over and over again. Such art-forms indicate occupation or interventions of several generations, as much as for more than 300 years.

Bradshaw rock paintings

Portable Art objects are incidental that is the availability, shape, size, colours, texture, etc. define the range of treatments. Many times the purpose it will serve evolves during the process of treatments. Such objects show material combinations. many different finishes were achieved, by change of forms and exploiting the tools. Material processes like heating, singeing, sintering, baking, beating, shaping, cutting, chopping, grinding, drilling, etc., were also used in farming and cooking. It was one seamless manner of learning.

Venus_of_Brassempouy

The materials were stones, precious stones, metal nodules, mineral and other colourants, woods, grasses, twigs, hides, leathers, skins, furs, hairs, shells, teeth, horns, bones, ivory, raw clay objects, baked clay ceramics, seeds, fruits, etc.

The objects formed were totems, body adornments, tools, implements, ritual and burial objects, cooking utilities, toys for children, amenities and dwelling embellishments.

Collier_de_Penne

These were exchanged, gifted to others or offered in rituals. The objects began to have consistent expressions. The varied metaphors, passing from one generation to other, ultimately became abstract. Coins, plaques, seals, etc. represent multiple conversions of expressions like a language.

Ggantija_Temples,_Xaghra,_Gozo

Fixed Art objects like built-forms, though functional utilities were built for community and for political purposes.

The public use entities were irrigation facilities, forest clearance, dykes, bridges, walks or passages, drinking water resources, community surround structures, security amenities and storage arrangements. These were not ‘decorative arts’ but symbolized technological innovations. Some like burial stones and dolmen had items of personalization.

Cave_Paintings_Bhembetika_(22)e

Fixed Arts objects like wall arts show skills of surface preparation, rendering or painting and surface finishing. These creations also show art of surface preparation by way of grinding, etching, daubing, engraving and colourant application. Wall-arts exist in odd narrow corners, at very high elevations, tall ceilings, day time dark corners and in nearly inaccessible places. The effort must have required support structures, bridges, scaffolds, illumination and ancillary works to protect the creations from moisture.

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