BUILDING as a COMPLEX SYSTEM

Post 508  by Gautam Shah

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A building is a complex system that manifests for a set of Users, within an Environment, and built through many different Components. Users pose a set of demands that are situational and circumstantial. The Environment affects the building, and gets affected by its existence. The Components forming the building have a variable mutual dependency, some of which are rare, but required for assuring the safety and security.

Formerly The Bow Street Friary Flicker image by William Murphy

Users related demands and environmental affectations bear upon the building’s fabric, where components show unequal performance. Some of these components are mutually dependent, and have a state of permanency, but many are detachable and so replaceable and up-gradable. Replacement of components occurs during regular maintenance schedules with identical or upgraded units. Alterations and Renovations are considered opportunities for rejuvenating and upgrading the building system. There is distinct effort to improvise the system by replacing subsystems with new technologies. Compared to these changes, for buildings going through Conservation, all components and sub-systems are sought to be continued, by small repairs or replacing with re-manufactured identical elements.

Brashlyan village in southeastern Bulgaria Wikipedia image by Author http://www.vacacionesbulgaria.com

Building as complex system is agglomeration of various components and subsystems, where the detachable entities can be replaced. The changes are carried out to replace not only the worn out components, but to add more productive components. Components and subsystems are replaced to endow a new image to the building. The technological up-gradation of subsystems or components occurs in many ways.

1 Custom-made components and subsystems are replaced by standard systems. These, makes future servicing and replacement much easier.

2 Newer systems are preferred for their efficiency in terms of energy use, out-put of waste products, compactness, fitment rationale, noise and vibrations.

3 Newer systems are multipurpose, and replace several sub-systems that existed as layers or closely placed elements.

Image Wikipedia – Flickr by Author flickr user rick

4 New components and subsystems have different fitment parameters, and so require customized installation yet the replacements always remain detachable.

5 When a building is completely overhauled, it offers a chance to integrate several stand-alone sub-systems by spatial rearrangement or rescheduling.

Typical Greenwich village street scene on the corner of MacDougal street and Minetta Lane

6 New subsystems have built-in provisions for remote switching, monitoring and synchronized operations, these allow for networking through master control.

7 Older sub-systems and components were support structure and location dependent, requiring walls, external facing, services connections, etc. Newer systems have reduced dependence being lighter in weight, compact in size, energy efficiency, requiring no liquid-solid fuels and no waste output.

Palazzo Pitti Gartenfassade Florenz Author Stefan Bauer, http://www.ferras

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METAL EMBELLISHMENTS -PAINTED ENAMELS

Post 501  by Gautam Shah

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Surface finishing or decorating with a foreign material is a very ancient technology. Metals have been embellished by several techniques. Metals have been coated by metal plating, surface alloying and deposition. Metals have been inlayed with metals, precious stones and objects.

Jingdezhen covered bowl, China, Qing dynasty, c. 1800-1835, Glazed Porcelain, Enamels

These include:

Damascening a technique of encrusting gold, silver or copper wires in the finely chased surfaces of iron, steel, or bronze.

Niello is made from black metallic alloy of sulfur with silver, copper, or lead. It is filled in chased or engraved patterns over silver. The surface is heated for the niello to melt. On polishing the surface gets a dual metallic effect.

Granulation is made by soldering or fusing granulated beads of silver or gold to effect a bloom to the surface than of a beaded surface.

Filigree is made by forming a fine network of very thin wires fused selectively and than fixed on a metal surface of an object.

Ajouré is similar to filigree but the fine network is created by cutting or piercing the patterns in the metal. Raised patterns or cut out motifs are also fused onto the surface.

Embellishments with Other Materials were formed using precious stones, exotic substances such as rare woods, metals, ivory, horn, beads, sea shells, jade, and amber, and niello-work, fixed into chased or performed cavities or depressions. Fixing was by wire, metal forming, heat-fusing, thread knitting and knotting.

Inlay works are of many varieties. Pre-formed cavities or depressions are filled in by many different materials such as wood, stones and metals. The fixing is with tight fitting, adhesives, or by hammering a ductile metal.

Gilding is application of metal like silver, gold, silver, palladium, aluminum, and copper alloys, in the form of very thin foils. Gilding by gold or silver foils requires as no adhesives as sufficient electrical charges attract the foil to the base, however for permanent fixing (on exterior use) some form of adhesives are used.

Overlays can be defined as metal sheathing or cladding by metal sheets that are slightly heavier than used for gilding. Overlaying is also done by applying a gold amalgam (gold+mercury) and than removing the mercury with heat.

painted enamel on copper 290x 240mm

Enamelling is a metal embellishment technique wherein a vitreous glaze is heat-fused to create a very long lasting decorative effect of brilliant colours. (Read on > Enamels).

Snuff bottle, northern India, 18th century, gold, gemstones and enamel

An Enamel is a compound of flint or sand, red lead, and soda or potash which forms a glass like material on being melted. Low temperature fusing is easier to manage, but creates a soft glass surface that is prone to cracking. Hard enamels are formed at higher temperature are better lasting, but it is a slightly difficult process.

Miniature of Marie Louise d’Orléans, future Queen of Spain by Jean Petitot le vieux (1607-1691)

Painted Enamels are like miniature oil paintings. These are made on a metal base or plate covered with a layer of an opaque enamel. The opaque or white enamel base is further embellished with ‘glass forming but with colouring materials’, rendered by fine needle painting, spraying, screen printing, spattering, scratching or block printing. Separate firing is required for each of the colours. Artists created portraits and other art subjects on very small metal plates, surpassing richness of larger canvass-based oil paintings. Painted Enamels being very small could be carried anywhere as a personal item of collection or treasure. The colours are permanent and non-yellowing or fading. The painted enamel has remained a craft and is not accepted as medium of art. The painted enamels of China are known as Canton (Guangzhou) enamels. Painted enamels are termed by the Chinese yangci (foreign porcelain).

Coloured enamel embellishments were created over arms, armour, mirrors, bowls, cups, chalices, spoons, and miniature pendants, tableware, wall and ceiling panels, signages, table clocks, and snuffboxes.

‘Mercury’, painted enamel and gilt on copper mirror back

Five main types of enamelling processes are used:

Champlevé (French= raised field) enamels are created by scratching or etching a copper surface, which are than filled-in with pulverized enamel material, fired and polished.

Cloisonné (French= partitioned) has very small partitions or cloisons formed with thin metal strips. The partitions are filled with pulverized enamel and fired.

Basse-Taille (French= low cutting) process is a kind of champlevé, but is applied to silver or gold. Here the depressions are filled with translucent enamel, which allows the substrate or patterns on it to be seen.

Plique-à-jour (French=open braids) enamelling resembles cloisonne, but here the partitions form a separable lattice. The lattice is removed after firing, giving an effect of stained glass. It is exceptionally fragile work.

Encrusted Enamel: Encrusted enamel or enamel en ronde bosse is prepared by spreading of an opaque enamel paste over slightly roughened surfaces of objects such as small figures.

Binding representing the Crucifixion of Christ, Limoges (Limosin, France) champlevé enamel on gilded copper

LIST of BLOGS on LACQUERS, PAINTS and THINNERS

Post 499  by Gautam Shah

1 UNDERSTANDING LACQUERS

https://interiordesignassist.wordpress.com/2015/08/16/understanding-lacquers/

2 LACQUERS or NC LACQUERS

https://interiordesignassist.wordpress.com/2014/04/27/lacquers-or-nc-lacquers/

3 SOLVENTS for THINNERS

https://interiordesignassist.wordpress.com/2015/08/09/solvents-for-thinners/

4 WOOD SURFACE FINISHING

https://interiordesignassist.wordpress.com/2015/07/13/wood-surface-finishing/

5 PAINT THINNERS Part 2

https://interiordesignassist.wordpress.com/2015/05/14/paint-thinners-part-2/

6 PAINT THINNERS Part 1

https://interiordesignassist.wordpress.com/2015/05/08/paint-thinners-1/

7 ROSEWOOD

https://interiordesignassist.wordpress.com/2015/03/26/rosewood/

8 INDUSTRIAL PAINT FINISHES

https://interiordesignassist.wordpress.com/2015/03/07/industrial-paint-finishes/

9 APPLICATION of COATINGS

https://interiordesignassist.wordpress.com/2015/01/09/application-of-coatings/

10 COATINGS -Surface finishing technologies

https://interiordesignassist.wordpress.com/2014/11/08/coatings-surface-finishing-technologies/

11 CLEAR COATINGS

https://interiordesignassist.wordpress.com/2014/09/12/clear-coatings/

12 FILM FORMING PROCESS in COATINGS

https://interiordesignassist.wordpress.com/2014/09/03/film-forming-process-in-coatings/

13 WOOD SURFACE PREPARATIONS for CLEAR COATINGS

https://interiordesignassist.wordpress.com/2014/04/28/wood-surface-preparations-for-clear-coatings/

14 SHELLAC COATINGS and FRENCH POLISHES

https://interiordesignassist.wordpress.com/2014/04/26/shellac-coatings-and-french-polishes/

15 VARNISH

https://interiordesignassist.wordpress.com/2014/04/25/varnish/

16 MULTI COATS of PAINT SYSTEMS

http://talking-interior-design.blogspot.in/2014/03/multi-coats-of-paint-systems.html

17 WOOD FINISHES

http://talking-interior-design.blogspot.in/2014/07/wood-finishes.html

18 CLEAR COATINGS

http://talking-interior-design.blogspot.in/2015/03/clear-coatings.html

19 CEMENT SURFACE FINISHES

http://talking-interior-design.blogspot.in/2015/06/cement-surface-finishes.html

20 CRAFT of WALL PAINTING (Neolithic)

http://talking-interior-design.blogspot.in/2014/02/the-craft-of-wall-painting-neolithic.html

21 CRAFT of WALL PAINTING (Palaeolithic)

http://talking-interior-design.blogspot.in/2014/01/the-craft-of-wall-painting-palaeolithic.html

22 COATINGS

http://talking-interior-design.blogspot.in/2013/09/coatings.html

23 COATINGS Iron age

http://talking-interior-design.blogspot.in/2013/09/coatings-iron-age.html

24 PRIMITIVE COATINGS Surfaces, Materials and Techniques

http://talking-interior-design.blogspot.in/2013/09/primitive-coatings-surfaces-materials.html

25 LIME-WASH

https://interiordesignassist.wordpress.com/2014/06/01/lime-wash/

26 PAINTING WHITE – 1

https://interiordesignassist.wordpress.com/2015/07/27/painting-white-1/

27 PAINTING WHITE – 2

https://interiordesignassist.wordpress.com/2015/07/29/painting-white-2/

28 BLACK Part – 1

https://interiordesignassist.wordpress.com/2015/08/07/black-part-i/

29 COLOURANTS DYES and PIGMENTS

https://interiordesignassist.wordpress.com/2014/07/15/colourants-dyes-and-pigments/

30 RED Colours of ancient times

https://interiordesignassist.wordpress.com/2015/05/22/red-colours-of-ancient-times/

31 ART COATINGS

https://interiordesignassist.wordpress.com/2015/05/25/art-coatings/

32 PRIMITIVE COATINGS # 1

https://interiordesignassist.wordpress.com/2015/05/03/primitive-coatings-1/

33 NATURAL IRON OXIDE PIGMENTS 4 # SIENNA and UMBER

https://interiordesignassist.wordpress.com/2015/05/01/natural-iron-oxide-pigments-4-sienna-and-umber/

34 NATURAL IRON OXIDE PIGMENTS -3 # Ochers

https://interiordesignassist.wordpress.com/2015/04/28/natural-iron-oxide-pigments-3-ochers/

35 NATURAL IRON OXIDE PIGMENTS – 2 # Red Oxides

https://interiordesignassist.wordpress.com/2015/04/27/natural-iron-oxide-pigments-2-red-oxides/

36 FLOOR PAINTS

https://interiordesignassist.wordpress.com/2015/03/21/floor-paints/

37 ARCHITECTURAL COATINGS -beginnings of OIL PAINTS

https://interiordesignassist.wordpress.com/2015/02/15/architectural-coatings-beginnings-of-oil-paints/

38 SURFACE PREPARATIONS

https://interiordesignassist.wordpress.com/2014/09/26/surface-preparations/

39 WHITE PIGMENTS

https://interiordesignassist.wordpress.com/2014/08/05/white-pigments/

40 CEMENT PAINTS

https://interiordesignassist.wordpress.com/2014/07/09/cement-paints/

41 OIL BOUND DISTEMPERS -OBD

https://interiordesignassist.wordpress.com/2014/07/03/oil-bound-distempers-obd/

42 CEMENT FINISHES part 2

https://interiordesignassist.wordpress.com/2014/06/27/cement-finishes-part-2/

43 DRY DISTEMPER or CALCIMINE

https://interiordesignassist.wordpress.com/2014/06/03/dry-distemper-or-calcimine/

44 ECOLOGY and COATINGS

https://interiordesignassist.wordpress.com/2015/03/09/ecology-and-coatings/

45 ENCAUSTIC PAINTING

https://interiordesignassist.wordpress.com/2014/06/06/encaustic-painting/

46 COLOURS and BUILDINGS

https://interiordesignassist.wordpress.com/2015/01/20/colours-and-buildings/

47 GLOSS

https://interiordesignassist.wordpress.com/2014/09/20/gloss/

48 COMPOSITION of COATING

https://interiordesignassist.wordpress.com/2014/07/29/composition-of-a-coating-3/

49 COLOURED GLASS

https://interiordesignassist.wordpress.com/2014/08/03/coloured-glass/

50 GRISAILLE -monochrome form of presentation

https://interiordesignassist.wordpress.com/2014/07/28/grisaille-monochrome-form-of-presentation/

51 WATER COLOURS

https://interiordesignassist.wordpress.com/2014/07/10/water-colours/

52 FRESCO PAINTINGS

https://interiordesignassist.wordpress.com/2014/06/24/fresco-paintings/

53 PRIMER COATINGS

https://interiordesignassist.wordpress.com/2015/06/07/primer-coatings/

54 SINGLE or MULTI COAT SYSTEMS

https://interiordesignassist.wordpress.com/2015/05/30/single-or-multi-coat-systems/

55 BRUSHES

https://interiordesignassist.wordpress.com/2015/03/29/brushes/

56 ENAMELS

https://interiordesignassist.wordpress.com/2015/02/18/enamels/

57 TEMPERA

https://interiordesignassist.wordpress.com/2015/01/24/tempera/

58 GP -General purpose paints

https://interiordesignassist.wordpress.com/2014/08/26/gp-general-purpose-paints/

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CREATIVE WRITING – 3

CREATIVE WRITING – 3

Post 474 by Gautam Shah

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For creative writing it is important to communicate the concept and purpose of the expression. Stating it explicitly as an introduction, or recapitulating as the summary at the end, serve only a limited purpose. An introduction or the summary, are dulled by the elaborate body, with the passage of time and by other interesting details. Both remain muted if the print style, manners of speech or the media support do not reinforce it. In digital access systems the introduction or summary, are generated automatically, without the author being involved in its creation. The media presentation of this is without any typographical or graphical enrichments.

Jewish Torah scroll

The contents of writing are yet focussed in several ways. In this article the remaining SEVEN methods are discussed, THREE were presented in the earlier article.

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4 – EMPHASIS BY CONDENSATION AND ELABORATION: The emphasis in presentations occurs by condensation and occasionally by elaboration of the subject matter. Primarily Condensation eliminates all unnecessary and less necessary contents, and thereby increase the clarity, reduce the expression size, delivery time, perception effort, etc. Condensation is also done by use of abbreviations and symbols that replace large units of contents. These include idioms, proverbs, metaphors, and signs. Condensation is often used to restrict the access to a specific class of audience, like magicians’ instructions.

Archived documents

Elaboration is achieved by augmenting the context of difficult to understand concepts, events, situations, or objects. It is also done by using the same word in different context, and using similar words (synonyms and antonyms from a thesaurus) to redefine the meaning. Multiple explanations help amplify content. Elaboration is also achieved by inclusion of anecdotes, couplets, quotations, footnotes, end notes, and other sensorial effects.

Emphasis is often created by intentional de-emphasis. Obvious details, concepts, ideas, conclusions are not put forward at the nominal time and space, but are placed at the end, or the audience is allowed to draw its own inferences.

The condensation and elaboration are employed to colour a document as a personal style statement.

Processed information often becomes so comprehensive that it becomes a very abstract expression. Abstracted expressions are exploited to achieve new insights.

Writing Declaration of Independence 1776.

5 – BRIDGING AND LINKING: The contents are bridged to create a seamless or a larger concept. The most common bridging is through time and space organization of the contents. The links to other documents (e.g. hyperlinks, bibliographies, index) are such reference bridges. Recorded contents are classified according to the nature of content, names of the author, date of publication, size and form of the document. Such classification identifiers also provide associations. A well bridged or cited content vouches its authenticity through circumstantial referencing.

Search engines list topics in terms of number of users referencing it. Wikipedia -the internet encyclopaedia relies on citations. Preface and such write-ups broach the subject by positioning it in a wider perspective.

Contents are also bridged using conjunctions. Words like and, if, or, when, then, whereas, therefore, etc. connect clauses or sentences. Bullets, numbered lists, also bridge sub topics.

archive store (History Centre) at Herbert

7 – SEPARATING AND ISOLATING: The contents are separated or isolated, by spacing and by tabulation (paragraphs, bullet marking, numbering, hyphenating, bracketing), to highlight or categorize the sub-topics. Separation in writing is achieved by commas, semicolons, brackets, or other interludes (gutter spaces in newspaper columns). In recordings a null space is provided for the machine to recognize the end of one section and the beginning of next one. By isolating the contents it becomes easier to link each such section distinctly.

Language encrypting machine

8 – ABSTRACTION: The contents are abstracted by removing all less important information, time slots and space gaps. The expression language in Internet chat rooms shows the nature of abstraction spreading across the world. Common words are written eliminating vowels and are denoted by their phonemes. Symbols and metaphors are also used to squeeze the contents. Vedic mantras represent knowledge in a very condensed form to easily remember it (‘Shrut Gyan’ -knowledge that is heard). However, such condensation is vulnerable to different interpretation of the contents.

9 – MARKING: Contents are marked to enhance (bold facing, underlining, Italics, large size type faces) their presence. The contents are delivered louder, faster or slower, brighter, repeatedly, and in metres (musical, couplets with rhymes) for the same effect.

Author Ernest Hemingway Writing at Campsite in Kenya

Author Ernest Hemingway Writing at Campsite in Kenya

10 – BY TITLING (NAMING): One of the best way of focussing (by declaration) the contents are to provide a title to it. A title as created by the author is more truthful but is not accepted by the reader or audience, as their intentions of accessing need not match the author’s perceptions. Storage systems create own titles to facilitate access by their users’ needs. Titles often have limitations of size. This is overcome by including long titles or list of keywords or summary or precis.

Presentations styles and techniques used for direct or inter personal communication like elocution, orations, sermons, lectures, cannot be used for, or are useless for reports, etc. Writhing as an assignment from superiors, teachers, retainers, employers have a defined motive, and structure. Method of presentation is essentially tailor-made to satisfy the assignee.

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This article in continuation of earlier >>

Creative writing

(https://interiordesignassist.wordpress.com/2014/10/23/creative-writing/ )

Creative Writing – 2

(https://interiordesignassist.wordpress.com/2015/07/14/creative-writing-2 ).

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MODULATED MEASURE SYSTEM

Post 219 ⇒   by Gautam Shah 

MODULATED MEASURE SYSTEM

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Raw materials or Finished product‘s are transient terms for goods. A finished product is a raw material for some other process. Raw materials procured in a linear, square, volumetric, weight or liquid measures, get processed into a different ‘measure’ entity.

 

For products transiting from one measure phase to another, a persistent dimensioning system is very advantageous. Consistency of dimensions allows use of standard tools, equipments, plants and technologies. The dimensional consistency, if properly recognized and supported, can rationalize the conversion processes, storage, handling, and waste management.

 

For example metal ore is mined in volumetric measure, transported by its weight measure, bought for its yield rate value, refined into ingots for weight measures, rolled into metal sections to be used for their strength aspect.

Allegheny_Ludlum_steel_furnace

 

In the Post Industrial Revolution period, trade and industry all over the world recognized the need for a Universal Dimensioning Discipline. At that time better coordination was also required for conversion and transmission from old measurement systems to the new SI system of measurements (Le Système International d’Unités). First worldwide understanding emerged in the adoption of SI as the Universal Measure System. SI Recognized Measures: The SI system recognizes three sets of measures in each of the major categories. There is a 1000-factored gradation.

  • ISO units
  • for Length are: mm   mt   km,
  • for Weight are: mg   kg   T,
  • for Volume are: l    Lt    kl

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ISO MODULAR PREFERENCES

The SI also recognized that, measures as above are either too large or small for nominal use. Such a widely spaced (1000 factored) measurement system was not amenable to unit formation for processes like planning, design, production, transportation, fabrication or execution, etc. ISO (International Standards Organization) as a result devised a practical modular system of dimensions known as ISO Modular Preferences. Most National Standards (including Indian Standards) are recommending and enforcing the same for various products and processes.

 

The ISO Modular Preferences help in both, dividing a whole into logical parts and combining parts into a rational whole. It also accommodates traditional modular systems, such as foot-Inch and earlier versions of the metric systems. Typically, the Foot (12″), the most popular measure of FPS has been accommodated (but not the 1/4 or 1/5 part of the Meter such as 20 or 25 cm or 200 or 250 mm). This was done for wider acceptance and to achieve a gradual changeover.

 

  • ISO’s Four Preferences for Modular Coordination:
  • First Preference                 30 cm or 300 mm = 12″
  • Second Preference            10 cm or 100 mm = 4″
  • Third Preference                5 cm or 50 mm = 2″
  • Fourth Preference              2.5 cm or 25 mm = 1″

 

First Preference is favoured by the building materials’ industry. Plywoods and other wood products are available in modules of 300 such as 600, 900, 1200, 1800, 2400 etc. Large buildings are designed with 300 as the modular measure. But, for smaller spaces such as Bedrooms, toilets, second preference of 100 is used as a module.

 

Second Preference is considered to be the most appropriate one for Building components and Planning. Glazed Tiles are available in multiples of 100 mm, with sizes like 100 x 200, 200 x 200, 200 x 300 etc., and also in sizes such as 150 x 150, 150 x 200 etc. as a carry over from the old system. Fabrics have widths of 600, 900, 1000, 1200, 1800 etc. When we order Windows or Doors the width x height are measured in 100 mm increments.

 

Third and Fourth Preferences are more preferred for objects smaller then 300 sizes. These preferences are not to be used for basic object sizes of more than 300, unless there are strong economic or functional reasons for doing differently.

Raw material to product and wastage management through dimensioning discipline

Raw material to product and wastage management through dimensioning discipline

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IMPLICATIONS OF THE MODULAR COORDINATION OF DIMENSIONS

 

There are many products where smaller modulation or variations are desirable such as Garments and Shoes. ISO Modular Preferences, do not consider the variations in naturally available materials. Furniture, fittings and fixtures designed with ergonomic profile or serving anthropometric, inconsistencies have no specific accommodation in this system.

 

ISO is a modular system to form a grid or matrix for macro planning and in that sense takes a superior position. Components and parts are expected to fit in the system. As a result, work-sizes of components and assemblies should be determined by taking account of space for joint and allowance for tolerances.

Garment Sizes

Garment Sizes

 

The ISO modular system is based on SI system (a derivative of the metric system) which originally was rational and contrived, and continues to be so. This type of Modular Coordination of Dimensions, is unnatural and does not exactly relate to human body. Its implications to our senses are extremely limited. It creates an ‘order that lacks beauty’. The system does not harmonize the variable tolerances’ requirements, and differences in fitments sizes.

size_chart_childrens

Ergonomic-Anthropometric variations

ISO Modular system has very simple and predictable progression-digression, unlike many mathematical orders and systems like Corbusier’s Modulor system.

 

ISO Modular Preferences, as a universally agreed system of preferred measures, disciplines design, procurement, production, conveyance, handling, storage, distribution, usage, wastage and reuse or recycling of materials. The system has provided a level ground to compare standards of various countries, and evolve world standards (ISO) for various products, services and work or operational procedures. It has made the writing of specification lucid and logical. It simplifies taxation procedures, costing, estimating, and valuation. It also rationalizes deployment of human and energy resources. It has made quality control procedures very objective.

Universal parts

Universal parts

 

At any cross section of time, there are many creative people, who feel stifled by such an Abstract Dimension Modulating System. But one must also concede that by its universal acceptance (through ISO), a logical dimensioning tool has been made available to a vast majority of people. The Dimensioning Tool defies all localized traditions, cultural variations, anthropometric distinctions, racial biases and geographical peculiarities. The system is unaffected by time or space.

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DIMENSIONAL MODULATION and PROPORTIONS

Post 175 ⇒   by Gautam Shah 

 

DIMENSIONAL MODULATION and PROPORTIONS

Here in few slides How measures are modulated is shown.  Measures are modulated with human limb sizes, for coordination with other measures, such as Length, Height, Width and Up-down, Left-right, Far-near, etc. Measures that are beyond sensorial capacities of perception are reduced or converted to other scales. Measures in pure numbers have a mathematical order which persists through reduction, enlargements, etc. Measures are also divided-added up to form a series.

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Slide25

25 Measures and dimensional referencing

Slide26

26 Sensing objects beyond their size measures

Slide27

27 Sensory affectations

Slide28

28 Surrogate – Metaphoric – Symbolic representations

Slide29

29 Graphical presentations

Slide30

30 Dealing with scaled and graphical representations

Slide31

31 System of Modulation and proportions -1

Slide32

32 System of Modulation and proportions -2

Slide33

33 System of Modulation and proportions -3

Slide34

34 System of Modulation and proportions – 4

Slide35

35 Numeric orders – Pure numbers

Slide36

36 Modulation with Human limb sizes

Slide37

37 ISO Modulation for Papers

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FINISHING of MATERIALS

Post 174 ⇒   by Gautam Shah 

Finishing surface of Pottery

Material finishing processes are employed essentially for changing the surface textural quality, by alteration, removal or addition. The Finishing processes may improve sensorial aspect (touch-feel-texture), look-colour-pattern, adhesion-wettability, weldability-solderability, corrosion resistance, tarnish resistance, chemical resistance, wear resistance, hardness, electrical conductivity, etc. An unfinished surface is often called mill finish. The finishing processes include acid-alkali treatment, chemical reactions, electro chemical deposition-removal (plating), mechanical procedures, burnishing, singeing, washing, coating, plastering, cladding, etc.

Sharpening a Sword

Of these processes GRINDING, POLISHING, HONING, LAPPING AND BUFFING, are briefly described here.

GRINDING

Grinding removes material from the surface to roughen a normally glossy surface like Glass, or polishes a rough surface like Stone. Grinding requires material of higher hardness than the surface material. Grinding is usually a step up or down procedure, using graded series of coarse to fine or fine to course abrasives. The grinding media or abrasives are of many types and forms, such as Carborundum, sandstone, emery, pumice, sand, glass and diamond powders, leather, jute, etc.

Brass polishing -an etching type of surface removal or ‘grinding’

Where a material constitution permits, very fine grinding may polish the surface. Grinding is also a cutting operation, where the material is cut or removed as minute chip, swarf or dust.

Grinding wheels usually consist of particles of a synthetic abrasive, such as silicon carbide or aluminium oxide, mixed with a vitrified or resinoid bonding material. Grinding can be coarse or fine, depending on the size of the grit used in the grinding wheel. Metal and glass can be ground to a mirror finish and an accuracy of 0.0000025 cm. Abrasive are used as grinding wheels, sandpapers, honing stones, polish, cut-off wheels, tumbling and vibratory mass-finishing media, sandblasting, pulp-stones, ball mills, and many other tools and products.

Stone surfaces are chiselled to split the material into thinner sections, to remove the weathered crust and also to level out the surface. Grinding and polishing is done to Hard materials such as building stones, marbles, granites, metals, glass; Precious and Semiprecious stones like gems, diamonds; Animal products like ivory, bones, horns, teeth, leather; Plant products like timbers, seeds; Ceramics like pottery products, bricks, cement concrete and other cement products.

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Grinding-Finishing a Tri-suction RCC floor

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POLISHING, HONING, LAPPING, BUFFING

Polishing uses extremely fine abrasive substances, such as jewellers rouge, Tripoli, whiting, putty powder and emery dust to rub or burnish an extremely smooth and brilliant finish on the surface of a material. The polishing materials are coated on the surface of cloth, felt, leather, rubber pr polymer wheels or as belts. Metal surfaces are levelled and finished by honing and lapping. Honing removes less than 0.0125 millimetres of material from the surface to eliminate micro scratches and machine marks from ground machine parts. It is done with bonded abrasive sticks or stones that are mounted in a honing head. Lapping is a process in which a soft cloth (wool, linen and chamois-leather) impregnated with abrasive pastes (rubbing compounds), is rubbed against the surface of a work-piece. Honing and lapping, are essentially metal finishing techniques. Buffing is a term used for polishing of metals. Buffing is done with polishing compounds and brushes of various shapes, and materials, likes: (animal hair, synthetic fibres, plant fibres -coir), flex, wool and leather. Barber polishing the razor on a leather stripe is a buffing process that levels out small nicks on the blade.

Barber’s Razor grinding stone and Honing leather straps

There are four types of precision grinding machines: Centre-type grinders used for tiny valve spools to steel mill roles. Centre-less grinders used for bowling balls, surgical sutures, and tapered roller bearings. Internal grinders are employed for inside diameters of gears, bearing races, and similar parts. Surface grinders are used for die tops, bench surfaces.

Lapping is used to produce a high-quality surface finish or to finish a work-piece within close size limits. Dimensional tolerances of 0.00005 millimetres can be achieved in the hand or machine lapping of precision parts such as gauges or gauge blocks.

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