REFLECTION OF BEHAVIOUR

Post 585 by Gautam Shah (9 of 16 Behaviour in Spaces)

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The space and environment provide the basic setting for the behaviour. And yet an individual’s behaviour projects different meanings to others. Behaviour of a person reflects the level of adjustments, adoption, comfort, need for change, nature of interpersonal relationships and degree of conditioning by the culture and geopolitical surroundings. This is a complex process where it is not possible to indicate the cause and effect. The behaviour is intended to perpetuate a space, or make it valid for a longer time. An individual personalizes the owned space to economize effort expended in frequent adjustments. For casual occupation, however, other adjustments are required.

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Encounter > Wikipedia image by Alex Proimos from Sydney Australia

 ● Shift in Space: One of the most perceived forms of behaviour is the shift in space. The shift in space is the change one causes in own-self, position or the surroundings. The shift in space is made to recast the relationship with the surroundings including other beings.

● Change of orientation: Primary shift occurs through change of orientation vis a vis an object, human being, object or a natural force (energy). The shift in orientation occurs by realigning the nodes of perception, such as turning nose towards or away from smell, view or ignore a sight, etc. It also occurs by being aware of a thing.

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Arnold Lakhovsky Conversation 1935 > Wikipedia image

● Orientation of the body: Orientation of the body limb like head and of the sensorial nodes like eyes, ears, nose, etc. are both different and synchronous phenomena. One, may talk to other, but avoid an eye contact or square face to face confrontation.

Chiefs of nations seat side by side at approximately 150° angle which allows them to ignore as well as interact selectively. In a stage performance, actors often speak towards the audience for preaching dialogues, and to each other for sentimental deliveries. Boss wants a secretary, stenographer or colleague to sit on the side rather then on front sides.

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Arrival Hong Kong Airport Wikipedia image by Manlewingoals

● Change of place: One changes the position and orientation frequently to calibrate the relationship with people and objects. Shifts are subtle (gestural or postural) to more elaborate like a change of place (positional). From the moment and point of arrival to a space one starts a search for destination, a place to confront objects and other beings in the space and perhaps strategy for escape. The process reflects the attitude of a person through gait, speed, clarity of the purpose, bodily changes, etc. One can perceive and schematize the approach by promotive as well as hindering means.

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Postures and Grades of distances in a meeting

● Anchoring to a place: In a space one needs to position to a place. So on entering a new space or when behaviour must be recast one first shifts the orientation, moves and searches for a place mainly to position and delays or accelerates the process by suitable interim engagements. Re-positioning helps to vitalize the relationships with objects and other beings. A strategy of behaviour is planned for objects and other beings that are already present or their presence is envisaged. One relies on spatial elements like a barrier, an edge, a differential in environment, a pattern, objects, amenities, facilities, nodes of services, other single human being or in groups to position. Other markings are metaphysical elements and metaphorical presences. A designer recognizes such entities, or implants or avoids them to make a space inhabitable or even hostile.

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Anchoring in space for Behaviour > Pixabay image by eak_kkk

● Sequencing in space: Behaviour in space is one momentum where one continues to shift in a planned or unplanned manner. Shifts are sequences of actions timed to match other happenings or to last for a duration-cycle. The unplanned sequences are exploratory or reflect compulsions to remain present in spite of intense discomfort.

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Hong Kong Ferry Piers > Wikipedia image by Raonspediwu

● Posturing: Postures reflect the human behaviour, and are means of controlling incursions by others, as much as it allows one to project participating or reserved personality.

Open body posture is one in which vulnerable parts of the body are exposed. Position of hands, fingers, feet and head, show an open versus closed body posture. Open posture is perceived as a friendly and positive attitude. People with open body posture are able to carry out multiple movements such as body movement while shifting the gaze.

A podium or a front desk is a very assuring platform for a speaker, but shields the expression through body language. A leader, on a higher platform, controls the assault from the audience, and thereby dominates. By standing against a wall one assures that intrusion from that side is blocked, but by occupying a corner one limits the escape routes. Sitting in an aisle seat (In comparison to a window seat) allows one the postural freedom, but makes one prone to disturbances. Front benchers have to be attentive. Occupying a geometrical centre or a spatial focus automatically enhances the interference.

A chair with arms rests, railings, bus or railway hang-straps encourage open posture. A moving object like a bus will not allow closed body posture. A deep seat that allows stretching of legs and excludes the crossing of legs, supports the open posture. A stool seat (without back) allows one to lean forward as an open posture.

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Edouard Bernard Debat-Ponsan Flirting

Closed body postures obscure the vulnerable parts of the body. The body parts like throat, chest, abdomen and genitals are covered with crossing of arms and legs or clasped palms. Similarly showing back of the hand, clenching hands into fists or withdrawing legs inwards represent closed postures. Hands clasped behind the back may also signal closed posture even though the front is exposed, because it can give the impression of hiding something or resistance to closer contact. Closed body postures give the impression of detachment, disinterest, unpleasant feelings and hostility. Clothing may also signal closed posture such as a buttoned suit, or a handbag or briefcase held in front of the person.

Sitting on the side of a fairly wide chair, leaning too much on one of the armrest, sitting upright (without touching the back) in an easy chair, sleeping very straight in a bed, keeping hands in pockets of the garment, are some of the signs of closed body postures.

A person with a higher (social) position nominally takes a more relaxed posture, like seating down to talk, and that seems less challenging; whereas, a person with a lower (social) position, often maintains balanced or formal posture by placing both hands on the lap or at the sides, standing with balanced body or prefer to remain standing (until asked to sit).

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Posturing for eye level contact > Wikipedia image

● Eye level and its focus are some of the most important means of behaviour exposition. Eye level and focus related physiological deficiencies can be corrected through appropriate postures. Postures can adjust the distance and help de-focus the ‘gaze’, by taking a side seat or stand or by seating behind a desk. Often the opponents are disadvantaged by offering an uncomfortable seat, a seat lower in height and placing them in a non-axial position. Opponents are discomforted by providing them a fixed position with little or no chance for sub-posturing, like very narrow space, unbalancing, scary or distracting position. One, as an opponent can correct such conditions: by sitting or standing upright, by aligning body and sensorial faculties in the same direction, by heavily gesticulating, and raising the voice.

● Inclination of the body: During conversation, a person unconsciously inclines or moves body or head, either close to or away from the opposite person. The action depends on the sex and age of the opposite person and the nature of the topic. An inclination towards the opposite person can be an expression of sympathy and acceptance, whereas moving or inclining away can show dislike, disapproval, or a desire to end the conversation.

An intense conversation with heavy gesticulation or posture changes can be subdued by adding to the distance between the parties. Deep seating or reclining elements and mirrors not only reduce gesticulation, postural changes but also intensity of the conversation. In waiting rooms seats are distanced and do not face the receptionist. A TV monitor that shows the class or office space disciplines the users.

● Synchronous or empathetic behaviour: During intense conversations participants have a tendency to imitate each others behaviour. They emulate postures and gestures. Such synchronous behaviour encourages deeper relationship, provided necessary support means are available, such as: correct distance, equalized ergonomic facilities, and nonspecific environmental conditions.

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This post forms 9th of the Sixteen part of Lecture series on Behaviour in Space that I will be offering for the spring semester starting Jan 2016 (to mid April2016) at School of Interior Design, Faculty of Design, CEPT University, Ahmedabad, India.

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BLOG LINKS on FURNITURE DESIGN

Post 584 by Gautam Shah

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These are few BLOG LINKS on FURNITURE DESIGN

● Measures and Modulation

● Postures

● Space Planning

● Designing Furniture Elements

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MEASURES and MODULATION

UNDERSTANDING the ISO MODULAR MEASURES for DESIGN Blog Post 519 Dt 21Sept 2015

MODULAR MEASURES Blog Post 427 Dt 19 May 2015

MODULATED MEASURE SYSTEM Blog Post 219 Dt 20 Oct 2014

IMPLICATIONS OF DIMENSIONAL COORDINATION # 1 Blog Post 421 Dt 12 May 2015

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A reading of Moliere in a Salon by Jean Francois de Troy 1728 Wikipedia image

POSTURES and DESIGN

POSTURES and MEANINGS for design Blog Post 526 Dt 3 Oct 2015

POSTURES and BEHAVIOUR Blog Post 347 Dt 25 Feb 2015

POSTURES for Furniture Design -1 Blog Post 250 Dt 20 Nov 2014

POSTURES for Furniture Design – 2 Blog Post 259 Dt 29 Nov 2014

POSTURES for Furniture Design – 3 Blog Post 537 Dt 28 Oct 2015

BODY POSTURES Blog Post 193 Dt 23 Sept 2014

BODY POSTURE SYSTEMS Dt 26 June 2014

BODY POSTURING and DESIGNING for it Blog Post 510 Dt

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Judo formalism > Wikipedia image by http://www.usmc.mil + Cpl.Jeff Sisto

SPACE PLANNING for INTERIOR DESIGN

SPACE PLANNING for TASKS Blog Post 212 Dt 13 Oct 2014

SPACE PLANNING Blog Post 269 Dt 9 Dec 2014

SPACE PLANNING by Visual and Non-visual means Dt 23 March2014

SPACE PLANNING -Developments Dt 18 March 2014

COMFORT CONDITIONS in INTERIOR SPACES Blog Post 443 Dt 8 June 2015

SEATING ARRANGEMENTS and INTERACTIONS Dt 24 April 2014

SOUND and SMALL SPACES Post 128 Dt 27 Aug 2015

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Robert Irwin: Scrim Veil -Black rectangle – natural light Whitney museum of American art New York 1977 > Wikipedia image by Mduvekot

 DESIGNING FURNITURE ELEMENTS

WAINSCOTING -wood panelling Blog Post 461 Dt 1 July 2015

ALMIRAH – 1 Blog Post 514 Dt 11 Sept 2015

PANELLING SYSTEMS Dt 15 May 2014

DESIGN of STORAGE SYSTEMS Blog Post 466 Dt 6 July 2015

DESIGNING STORAGE SYSTEMS Blog Post 419 Dt 10 May 2015

STORAGE SYSTEMS Dt 2 Dec 2009

STORING Blog Post 207 Dt 7 Oct 2014

STORING – II Blog Post 209 Dt 10 Oct 2014

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Greek Furniture > Wikipedia image by Giovanni Dall’Orto

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BAKELITE PLASTICS -the beginnings

Post 583 by Gautam Shah

Clay was the first plastic material that could be formed to desired shape. Clay gains ‘plasticity-a moulding or shaping capacity, due to its grain shape, size and distribution and addition of water. A natural metal nodule or a purified one from the ore, on heating becomes, ‘plastic’. This property was not available with materials like wood and stone. Materials like Bamboo or Cain, have the capacity to bend, but cannot be reshaped or moulded. Plasticity is the property of material to be deformed repeatedly without rupture by the action of a force, and remain deformed after the force is removed.

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Potters clay > Wikipedia image by Yann

Historically few natural materials that exhibited the plastic behaviour were known, but without clear perception of the categorical behaviour. These natural materials were organic polymers or bio-derived materials such as egg and blood proteins. In 1600BC. Mesoamericans used natural rubber for balls, bands, and figurines. Treated Cattle’s horns were used for their translucency in lanterns and windows. Materials with similar properties were developed by treating casein -a milk-protein with lye. Casein was also used as gum material. Bitumen was used as a water proofing material for boats and also as a joint material for masonry. Plant-based starch materials on being cooked showed flow-behaviour. Lac, an insect exudate was used as gum or joining material in India. The lac was used for cast mouldings since 1868. Rubber, a plant exudate was used since 1535, as water proofing material and for shoe making.

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Cattle horn spectacles > Wikipedia image by Daderot

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Bakelite body Radio at Bakelite Museum > Wikipedia image by Robneild at en,wikipedia

Polymers were not distinctly identified till around 1900s, however during 1860s Thomas Graham noted that some dissolved organic compounds -typically cellulose, cannot be purified into a crystalline form. This was different organization of matter. Graham called them ‘colloids’, after the Greek word for glue =kolla. This was the beginning of the Age of Plastics or Polymer Age. (Plastic =plastikos Gk = mouldable) (Poly+mer=many molecules).

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Parkesine (London) developed the first plastic from plant origin cellulose by reacting it with nitric acid, to form a cellulose nitrate. Celluloid was plasticized with camphor, dissolved in alcohol and hardened into a transparent elastic material. On heating it could be moulded and coloured with pigments. It was a substitute material, for than (1860) widely used ivory balls for billiards. The product was patented under the trademark Celluloid. It was also used later in the manufacture of objects ranging from dental plates to men’s collars. Celluloid, despite its flameability and capacity deteriorate when exposed to light, was commercially successful.

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Ericsson Bakelite phone > wikipedia image by Holger.Ellgaard + sjalv laddat upp

The first totally synthetic plastic was the phenol-formaldehyde resin, Bakelite. In the early 1900s, Bakelite, the first fully synthetic thermoset, was reported by Baekeland. Baekeland’s was looking for a replacement for shellac that had difficult supply. And that is the reason, their first product a soluble phenol-formaldehyde like shellac was called ‘Novolak. Baekeland also worked on a process to strengthen wood by saturating it with a synthetic resin of phenol and formaldehyde.

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Bakelite chips colour chart 1924 > Wikipedia image

Baekeland reacted Phenol with Formaldehyde (an exothermic reaction) but stop the reaction midway, while the product was in liquid state (called A stage). ‘ The A resin (Resol) could be made directly into a usable plastic, or it could be brought to a solid B stage (Resitol) in which, though almost infusible and insoluble, it could still be ground into powder and then softened by heat to a final shape in a mould. Both stages A and B could be brought to a completely cured thermoset C stage, by heating under pressure. This last stage was Bakelite C, or true Bakelite.’
In 1927 the Bakelite patent expired and the market were flooded with competitive thermo setting resin products of Urea and Melamine formaldehyde, and other new thermoplastic resins such as cellulose acetate, polyvinyl chloride, poly-methyl methacrylate, and polystyrene.

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Bakelite, was recognized as the ‘National Historic Chemical Landmark’. Bakelite was mouldable material with electrical non-conductivity and heat-resistance properties. He saw a wide variety of uses of the resin with many different filling materials such as cotton, powdered bronze, slate dust, wood and asbestos fibres. It was used widely in electrical appliances replacing bulky ceramic components. It was used for kitchen handles, radio and telephone casings, kitchenware, jewellery, pipe stems, toys etc. His one of the first patents describes ‘Method of making insoluble products of phenol and formaldehyde’. Bakelite Company began to produce many material forms, but laminating varnish, was most successful products. Laminating varnishes are used for coating copper circuits, paper, fabrics and for manufacturing laminate sheets. Blocks or rods of transparent cast resins, known as artificial amber, that could be machined or carved to shapes were used for pipe stems, cigarette holders and jewellery.

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Old style vacuum cleaners with Bakelite body > Wikipedia image by Rosebud23

Baekeland’s heat and pressure patents expired in 1927 soon placing the company under severe pressure from competitors like Catalin. Catalin is also a phenol formaldehyde resin, but produced by a different, two-stage process. It was produced without any fillers like sawdust or carbon black. It can be worked with nominal carpentry tools like files, grinders and cutters, and polished to dull gloss. Another advantage of it was its transparency and capacity to take bright colours.

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Colourful buttons made of Catalin of 1930s > Wikipedia image attribution: Chemical Heritage Foundation

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BLOG LINKS for WOOD and WOOD FINISHING

Post 582 by Gautam Shah

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These are few links on Wood and Wood Finishing processes and materials. Categories covered are:

● WOOD-TIMBER

● WOOD FINISHING

● WOOD COATINGS

● PAINTS-THINNERS

● COMPOSITES

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Sawn Timber > Wikipedia image by Kotivalo

 WOOD-TIMBER

WOOD RESOURCES Blog Post 217 Dt 14 Oct 2014

SOFTWOODS and HARDWOODS Blog Post 513 Dt 8 Sept 2015

WOOD COMPOSITES Blog Post 378 Dt 28 March 2015

ROSEWOOD Blog Post 376 Dt 26 March 2015

SOME VARIETIES of WOODS of Indian subcontinent Post 126 Dt 12 July 2015

WOOD-BASED PRODUCTS Blog Post 177 Dt 7 Sept 2014

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Finishing a kokeshi in Japan >Wikipedia image by Fg2

WOOD FINISHING

WOOD SURFACE FINISHING Blog Post 472 Dt 13 July 2015

WOOD FINISHES Blog Post 306 Dt 15 Jan 2015

WOOD FINISHES- Dt 22 July 2014

NATURAL OBJECTS and SELF FINISHES Dt 1 Aug 2014

SURFACE FINISHING PROCESSES Blog Post 504 Dt 24 Aug 2015

SURFACE LEVELLING Blog Post 291 Dt 31 Dec 2014

WHAT ONE CAN DO TO A MATERIAL ? Blog Post 334 Dt 12 Jan 2015

JOINTS in SURFACE FINISHES Blog Post 469 Dt 9 July 2015

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Japanese Lacquer ware in the Ostasiatiska museet, Stockholm, Sweden >Wikipedia image by Daderot

WOOD COATINGS

WOOD SURFACE PREPARATIONS for CLEAR COATINGS Dt 28 April 2014

CLEAR COATINGS Blog Post 182 Dt 12 Sept 2014

CLEAR COATINGS- Post 119 Dt 4 March 2015

SHELLAC or LAC COATINGS Dt 26 April 2014

UNDERSTANDING LACQUERS Blog Post 498 Dt 16 Aug 2015

LACQUERS or NC LACQUERS Blog Post Dt 27 April 2014

VARNISH Dt 25 April 2014

COATINGS as thin Surfacing Blog Post 482 Dt 25 July 2015

CLEAR versus PIGMENTED COATINGS Blog Post 553 Dt 29 Nov 2015

PRIMER COATINGS Blog Post 442 Dt 7 June 2015

APPLICATION of COATINGS Blog Post 300 Dt 9 Jan 2015

COATINGS -surface finishing technologies Blog Post 238 Dt 8 Nov 2014

FILM FORMING PROCESS in COATINGS Blog Post 173 Dt 3 Sept 2014

SINGLE or MULTI-COAT SYSTEMS Blog Post 437 Dt 30 May 2015

METAL COATINGS Blog Post 438 Dt 1 June 2015

GILDING Blog Post 471 Dt 13 July 2015

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Exterior Maple Wood deck staining Flickr image by Olger Fallas

PAINTS-THINNERS

SOLVENTS and THINNERS for coatings Blog Post 320 Dt 29 Jan 2015

PAINT THINNERS – 1 Blog Post 416 Dt 8 May 2015

PAINT THINNERS – Part 2 Blog Post 423 Dt 30 March 2015

SOLVENTS for THINNERS Blog Post 492 Dt 9 Aug 2015

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Wood chips composite board > Wikipedia image by C. Sander and durch Urheber

 COMPOSITES

FILLERS and COMPOSITES Blog Post 169 Dt 30 Aug 2014

COMPOSITES – Part 1 Blog Post 156 Dt 17 Aug 2014

INTERFACE OF MATRIX AND FILLER in COMPOSITES Blog Post 180 Dt 10 Sept 2014

MATRIX of COMPOSITES Blog Post 168 Dt 29 Aug 2014

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Glue laminated Large span wood beam at Richmond Olympic Oval, > Wikipedia image by Thelastminute (Duncan Rawlinson)

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SPATIAL SETTINGS for HUMAN BEHAVIOUR

Post 581 by Gautam Shah (8 of 16 Behaviour in Spaces)

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NEIGHBOURHOOD       –The first setting for human behaviour:

A neighbourhood is a space with uncertain markings. The extent of a neighbourhood is flexible, depending on the person’s physical reach capacity, vehicles or means used, routing, climate, obstructions and the linkages such as bridges, access conditions etc. A mother will not allow a child beyond visual field or shout-out reach. A youngster reaches out to known places like friends’ house, school or playground. Buildings and objects on daily routes of travel seem part of the neighbourhood. Objects beyond the cross barriers, such as busy roads, water-bodies, railway-tracks, hillocks etc. are considered parts of other neighbourhoods. Neighbourhoods are politically and administratively defined as wards, zones, sections or postal code zones.

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Neighbourhood -Flushing Main St Kissena Blvd NYC > Wikipedia image by Yanping Nora Soong

The neighbourhood is a sharing space and so intra-personal activities occur here. The intra-personal behaviour rests on exploitation of the spatial conditions of the neighbourhood, such as, proper orientation, anchoring to potential locations, distancing from other humans and objects, scheduling the use-occupation, calibrating the spread of activities and by regulating the intensity of interactions. The neighbourhood space becomes a setting for behaviour more by exploitation of the features and less by way of design.

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Broad water Farm London > Wikipedia image by Iridescenti

The neighbourhood, though a public space of uncertain extent and for nonspecific users, is reasonably changing and manageable realm. The manageability develops from social attitude not to disturb the fabric that provides familiarity, reliability, predictability and security. This fabric, however, gets disturbed by new buildings, new settlers in large numbers, rapid changes in urban-architectural character.

The space and the environment, as recognized here, are beginning of an individual as well as mutual process of domestication. The behaviour in interior space ensues and persists due to the neighbourhood exterior. The involvement of exterior and interior is also stepped up by various types of inward-outward transgressions. The exterior neighbourhood space is reflection of the interior space, a carry over of the past, perception of future, or an extension of the present.

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Village in Kaita Nigeria > Wikipedia image by Shamsurabiu

 INTERMEDIATE ZONES       second setting for human behaviour:

The involvement of exterior with interior space is graded. There are two major types of grading mechanisms: Threshold areas and adjunct structures. Both of these subsist on gaps, cleavages and openings in the barriers of space making elements. The thresholds have a physical depth which alters the transition occurring through it. These depths are often inadequate to occupy or conduct a task. So adjunct structures like a verandah, shades, etc. help the process of transition.

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A proposal on the threshold by Edmund Leighton (1900) Wikipedia

The threshold areas and adjunct structures abutting the gaps, cleavages and openings are used for different types of transits and so support distinctive behaviour. Such varied uses of intermediate zones are of two main categories as seen in barriers of the interior space being transgressed inward or outward. Inward transgressions like Chowks, courtyards and cutouts, bring in the experience of the exterior. Outward transgressions like Verandah, Chhatris, pavilions, Galleries, bay, oriel and Mashrabiya windows, distend the interior space. These intermediate zones are always attached to the barrier system of the space making elements, in other words, connected to the peripheral zone. The intimate connection to the peripheral zone permits extension of the activity nominally occurring in that zone.

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Udaipur Rajasthan India Zarokha Gallery Flickr image by McKay Savage

INTERIOR SPACE     –third arena for human behaviour:

An interior space is finite due to its omnipresent enclosure. The enclosure is, however, relieved through the exchanges taking place through the gaps, cleavages and openings and the inward and outward transgressions. The concurrency of the interior space with the exterior provides spatial and environmental variations. The interior space is constituted by Six elements: 1 -Thresholds, 2 -Adjunct structures, 3 -Outward distensions, 4 -Inward ingress, 5 -Peripheral zones and 6 -Core zone.

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Crosby Theater at Santa Fe > Wikipedia image by Chyeburashka (talk / contribs)

 A threshold is a symbolic divide, and whatever spatial spread it has is a metaphoric effect. But it stops guests and discourages one venturing out. Adjunct-structure near a threshold adds physical spread and extends the periphery of the interior space. This structures offer multipurpose space but yet it remains an extension of the nearby interior space, such as drawing room, bed room, kitchen. Very specific spaces, such as storage, toilet, prayer room, etc. if have such adjunct structures, the specificity is lost. Outward-distensions Increase the interior spread of the peripheral zone or create a new one. It remains a space within a space and is affected by the happenings in the core zone. Inward-ingress provide the environmental variation to the static core zone, very often disturbing the dominance of the core. Peripheral-zones allow wide variety settings for human behaviour, but these are location and situation specific and core zone dependent. Core-zone is multipurpose area and, so time scheduling and activity spread, are key determinants of human behaviour. Both are exploited for social interactions but needs for environment, privacy, intimacy, expression and communication force an activity first to the peripheral zones and then to inward and outward transgressions.

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Bazaar ao Silk Mercers in Cairo > Wikipedia + Wellcome blog post (archive)

 VIRTUAL SPACES     –-Fourth sphere for human behaviour:

Virtual space is unreal on one or both the counts, exterior and interior. Here the physical presence of either exterior or interior realms, are made through notional representations. Many such conditions created with make-believe conditions, and so have limited efficiencies, or very concentrated space and intensive time experience. Make-believe do mould the human behaviour with compact and direct effects. Make-believe effects are useful for their novelty or experience.

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Metro station Paris > Wikipedia image by Stephen Butterworth from Atlanta, GA USA

Other indirect manifestations of human behaviour are in the expressions’ through art, craft, performances, writing, etc. Here the expressions represent a set of emotions and so are interpreted for the expression of behaviour. The exercise is likely to be very subjective, yet an ethnic society or mature culture offers some common insight.

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Steampunk Cafe Capetown > Wikipedia image by Author http:www.yatzer.com

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This post forms 8th of the Sixteen part of Lecture series on Behaviour in Space that I will be offering for the spring semester starting Jan 2016 (to mid April2016) at School of Interior Design, Faculty of Design, CEPT University, Ahmedabad, India.

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SPACES SIZES and SHAPES

Post 579 by Gautam Shah (7 of 16 Behaviour in Spaces)

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For any space shape and size are two major factors that condition the human behaviour. A space can have many different shapes irrespective of the size, and so it is an absolute function. The size makes a shape relevant when it adequately relates to the human body, and so it is a relative function. Shape and Size are considered concurrently for spatial relevance. Spatial relevance has many facets.

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Train concourse, new Pennsylvania station Washington DC  Wikipedia image

Functional adequacy is very important for spatial relevance, and is checked on: tasks conduction, social interaction, degree of proximity for intimacy and privacy, security, cognition, physical reach, communication and expression. Functional adequacy is achieved by ergonomic facilitation in the space. The Reach in space is physical and cognitive. Former is important for functional satiation, and the later one for sensorial perception. For both the purposes, the quality and depth or extent can be modulated by reach extension tools. Social interactions in a space are afforded by means and modalities available for expression and communication. Space size and shape bear upon the intimacy and privacy one experiences.

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Fluid distribution in micro-gravity conditions Wikipedia image by CFCF

SHAPE of SPACE

A shape can exist in great many sizes, but the scale and proximity of the shape forming elements such as the barriers and environmental effects signify the shape. A very tall Gothic cathedral ceiling has presence through its audio feel then visual detail. Shape configurations have a strong vertical, horizontal or inclinations relating to the gravity. Shapes are closed or open ended. Some shapes are open to attachments but others show potential of growth through distensions. Indian Parliament building a rotunda in shape has very little scope for attachments. Similarly Louvre had very little extension possibilities due to historic style and functional need (housing extra large sized Egyptian artefacts). The shape expansion by addition or distension is linear, planner or volumetric, and local, pervasive, directional or haphazard. A spatial shape reflects the constituent forces, so a shape could be transient or consistent. Shapes are repeated for an array and create interrelationships through proportions, analogy, sequencing, proximity, etc.

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Airbus A340 Kitchen-Pantry unit > En wikipedia image by w:user:Acidbomber

SIZE of SPACE

Size is fundamentally scaled to the human being, but it also represents control, spread and distance. These also reflect the effort and duration required to operate the space segment. At Absolute level the size is perceived as the difference between the Length and Width of a space. It is seen as a narrow or wide entity. The height confers its own scale of narrowness or broadness to the space. Height accentuates or de-emphasizes the character of the space nominally contributed by the relation between the Length and the Width. The equality of Length and Width of space marks a balance. The orientation of smaller or larger size gives a feel of a deep and shallow space. All these terms also give a sense of direction (long vs short) in the space.

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Scouts training vessel Wikipedia image by Joe Mabel Sea

The nature of cognition, reach, communication and exchanges are function of the space size. The levels of intimacy, the loss of objectivity and subjective involvements that occur in a space, are governed by its size. The size is seen as a facility of accommodation and also future potential for alternation, improvisation, and personalization. Size in a neighbourhood space is perceived in terms of reach. Here the recognition of reach also defines its functional adequacy for interpersonal relationships and related behaviour. The sizes are defined by the mutual relationship between people, spatial elements, barriers, and their cognition.

A hazy or foggy atmosphere dulls the perception of such elements as much as a bright sunny day highlights the spatial elements through enhanced light and shadow differentiation. Past midnight in absence of nearby background noises far-off sounds are acutely heard, increasing the extent of the neighbourhood space.

Patients in a large hospital ward experience a very large space to be strange compared to their home, because the space size proportions are different, surfaces are harder and less absorbent (causing reverberation to be different), background noises are less passive, during day or night illumination levels are brighter, furniture and furnishings are unusual. These experiences occur during periods of sickness and weakened mental faculties.

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Catacomb in Rome > Wikipedia image by Bgabel

A space is perceived to be small, adequate or large in terms of various tasks, and in nature of responses it offers such as echoes, reverberation, reflection, illumination, glare, vision. Same space may be seen to be of a different size depending on the recent experience. Occupation of domains with unusual proportions (combinations of lengths, widths, and height) and sizes require extra efforts of accommodation.

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Tall space of Salt Cave in Mount Sodom Israel > Wikipedia image by Wilson44691

Functionality and the environment are difficult to separate, as one seems to manifest the other. For a lay person, spaces within the known range (of recognition) are predictable and so manageable. The strangeness or alienation is reduced by introducing scalable elements. The scalable elements in a space include repetitions, rhythmic evolution, structured patterning, sensory gradation, acceleration-de-acceleration, graduated changeovers, linkages, relationships through modulation and proportioning, etc.

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Mini house > Wikipedia image by Source Weekend with Dee by Tammy

SMALL SPACES

Small spaces are small absolutely and relatively. A space is considered small if one, two, or all of its dimensions (Length, Width, Height) are small in comparison to the occupant’s body size, and inadequate for task requirements. A space is considered small (narrow) if one of its horizontal-spread dimensions (either Length or Width) is proportionately smaller.

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Small spaces are often considered intimidating and claustrophobic because the core zone nearly embraces the entire space, leaving no or very small peripheral space zones. Such an exclusive core space zone is too susceptible to affectations from neighbouring domains. Small spaces evoke overwhelming power of the barriers, such as no echoes, or no depth for perspective perception. Small spaces are intimate and show good recognition. Small spaces aid intra-personal communication and exchanges. But very small spaces become too personal for reasonable or objective communications. Small spaces are acutely specific for one or few activities, and so are manageable. Small spaces may be functionally adequate by themselves, but do not permit even a temporary expansion of an activity. Small sub-space modules have a tendency to merge and form a larger system, as it saves estate wastage in peripheral zones. Small spaces have bulged (transgressed) peripheral zones.

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 LARGE SPACES

Large spaces have large core zone and equally large peripheral zones. Very large spaces have diffused or multiple cores. Diffused cores have poor recognition, communication and exchange capacity. In large spaces the distanced barriers are also less commanding in the quality of the core zone. A large space with fewer occupants may seem impersonal compared to small spaces that in some way infuse intimacy. Large spaces allow individualization, but group formation becomes uncertain. Large spaces confer power to the individual who can own it and have the reach capacity to control it.

Amphi theatre performances require large frill dresses, loud dialogue delivery, spaced out movements -theatrics, real or make-believe sub-zoning of the stage. Large space audiences can be reached through public address system, a large podium, stage setting, colour-light highlighting, etc. People in large spaces like airports and marriage halls reach out to others through wild gestures, shouting etc.

Large spaces seem alien as the edges are less definitive. Here the peripheral zones are too segmented and varied. Occupation of large spaces is a challenging task. One needs to find points for anchorage, a direction for orientation, presence of other human being (or an animal like a dog) for confirmation, and a ready strategy for exit in any exigency.

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Large space with off centric core zone > Wikipedia image by Rodejong

NARROW SPACES

Narrow spaces have one of the floor dimensions (width or length) proportionately smaller. Spaces with a strong linear (directional) character seems narrower. Narrow spaces are functionally single-purpose, such as stairs, passages, roads, corridors, etc. Narrow spaces discipline the movement. The functional inadequacy of narrow spaces could also be physical, a carryover of the past experiences, or a psychological condition. Taller spaces often seem narrower compared to a shallow (low height) space with the same floor spread. Narrow spaces have domineering effect of the side barriers, more so, if these are opaque that is without any break or transgression. Narrow spaces allow formation of small groups. Linear distance among the groups increases the privacy and intimacy.

Narrow spaces may have multi-core spaces due to the specific conditions available locally such as near the doors, windows, columns, corners, benches, niches, public address systems, focussed illumination spots, air movement-delivery and ventilation nodes (fans, air conditioners, heaters), stair entrances, junctions (cross corridors, floor cutouts), signboards, parapets, ash trays, etc. Narrow spaces in their longer direction are leading and focussing, and in the shorter direction are diffusive and non-attentive. Art galleries tend to be linear spaces as exhibits are smaller, Areas with master pieces in museums are non linear for distanced viewing. The hall of mirrors, Versailles, is a classic example of long space, opaque on one side and fully windowed on the other side.

Liverpool Infirm Ward

Liverpool infirm ward Flickr image by University of Liverpool Faculty of Health & Life sciences

WIDE SPACES

A wide space is very ambiguous a term. All large sized spaces are also wide spaces, because here both the dimensions are functionally more than adequate. A corridor is long (so essentially narrow) element, but could have generous width, making it a wide lobby or a hall. A space seems wider if it is less occupied and sparingly furnished (a vacant hall). Shallow spaces (low height) seem wider and larger. Wide spaces have distanced barriers and so mid space elements like columns, central furniture pieces, floor cut outs, etc. gain importance. A space may seem wide if its barriers are non opaque, and allow vision, movement, etc. across it. Wide spaces allow group formation. Individuals and groups have intimacy and privacy due to inter group distancing. Wide spaces, if adequately dimensioned permit sub-core activities near their peripheries.

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Narrow space Gamla stan, Stockholm, Sweden Wikipedia image by Mastad

TALL AND DEEP SPACES

Tall is a ‘height’ identity and Deep is frontal distance distinction. In both the cases the side barriers have a strong impress that often restricts or affects the apparent size perception. Tall and deep spaces acutely reveal their functionality. Chowks, cutouts, light wells, stair wells, under sides of domes, etc. are all directional (vertically stretched) and static (non changing) spaces. These are considered ideal for non diversionary activities like study, meditation and prayer. Exhibitions, museums emulate this effect, by spot lighting the displayed items. Tall and deep spaces restrict the transmission of background noise (nearly absorb all the reflected sound, allowing only the direct waves).

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Very tall space for Mass prayer at Istiqlal Mosque, Jakarta, Indonesia Wikipedia image by Gunawan Kartapranata

FORMS OF SPACES

Our perception faculties are directional and nodal. Hearing and vision, are bi-nodal. Vision, smell and taste faculties are frontal, whereas touch is non-local. Balanced or equilateral spaces, such as a square, round, or a triangle shaped, are difficult to occupy at their nominal centres. For such balanced spaces a non-centric location that is towards a contributing periphery is better.

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Shapes like convex, concave or parabolic curvatures modify the movement. Planes that slope away or towards the user, mean opening or closing of the form. Right and left turns have culture specific relevance which may override presumed biological preferences. The nature of activities in a space help highlight or de-emphasize the shape. A spiral stair’s circular movement enhances its vertical scale, but a right or left turning spiral could, respectively, mean upward or downward movement orientation. Minarets and Gopuram narrowing skyward enhance the vertical direction.

Goddard Space Flight Center Visitor Center  Exhibits August 2015

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British Parliament has opposite benches in long rectangular room, signifying one is either for the government (ruling party) or in opposition. Many other parliaments in multi party democracies have segmental circle forms, with speaker occupying the cut end. Equal participation seminars are held in square or circular rooms. One way affairs, like press conferences were once held at the smaller end of a rectangular room, but are now held with a wider end as backdrop to facilitate video shooting. Lectures, discourses are focussed to the speaker. Fashion shows use the long axis of a rectangular space to be with the spectators. In an Olympic main stadium is a multi game facility, where events like opening – closing ceremonies get a highly defined shape – form, but smaller items of athletics get a de-emphasized (nonspecific) a shape entity.

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Reichstag German Parliament Berlin > Wikipedia image by Mary-Grace Blaha Schexnayder

Monuments designed for posterity (historic buildings, memorials), government buildings, institutions associated with discipline (army training, hospitals, research laboratories) overwhelmingly have cubical shapes or regular circular forms. A square or a circle subsist on their own and seem to survive in all types of conditions. Inversely a free or irregular shape may not last, unless it is properly oriented, and made to fit well in a setting. Geometry of a form is transmittable across cultures.

Closed in overhead forms like domes, pyramids, tents, etc. seem to provide greater cover and so protection, compared to regular cubical or flat roofs. Sloped roofs and floors not only indicate an orientation but enforce concentration (or dissipation). Slopes indicate a gradual change whereas stepped forms show a sequential change. Slopes have been used to merge different domains, and steps to demarcate the divisions.

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HK TST Isquare mall windows > Wikipedia image by Teipangshan102

ENVIRONMENT IN SPACES

An individual experiences environment and space as a single happening. A space entity offers several sub environments in its peripheral areas which in turn highlight an aspect of a space. The multilateral mix of environment and spatial characteristics, when combined with the daily, seasonal and diurnal variations of the environment provide for great variety of choices. The choices allow one to explore, improvise and individualize a habitable territory.

Environment is conditioned at specific locations. Such efforts include architectonic elements like shading devices, barriers, reflectors and receptors, insulation, time delay mechanisms, etc. These are overt attachments to the building shell, facilitating a task. But very often the space-form is moulded to serve these purposes.

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Cooking and dining, were activities occurring close to the hearth, but cooking preceded the dining. These time scheduling allowed them to be separated. Similarly, dining was an occasion for family get-togethers but presence of an outsider disturbed the intimacy of the family. So cooking, dining and social gathering spaces separated from one another as sub-core zones. In single room houses such territories are metaphorically identified, flexible in size, and relocatable. In large buildings these are physically marked as rooms and have metaphysical associations.

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This post forms 7th of the Sixteen part of Lecture series on Behaviour in Space that I will be offering for the spring semester starting Jan 2016 (to mid April2016) at School of Interior Design, Faculty of Design, CEPT University, Ahmedabad, India.

LIST of BLOGS on COLOURS

COLOURS, COATINGS, PAINTS, PIGMENTS

Post 578 by Gautam Shah

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Colours > Wikipedia image > source Candy by Author terren in Virginia

1 UNDERSTANDING LACQUERS

https://interiordesignassist.wordpress.com/2015/08/16/understanding-lacquers/

2 LACQUERS or NC LACQUERS

https://interiordesignassist.wordpress.com/2014/04/27/lacquers-or-nc-lacquers/

3 SOLVENTS for THINNERS

https://interiordesignassist.wordpress.com/2015/08/09/solvents-for-thinners/

4 WOOD SURFACE FINISHING

https://interiordesignassist.wordpress.com/2015/07/13/wood-surface-finishing/

5 PAINT THINNERS Part 2

https://interiordesignassist.wordpress.com/2015/05/14/paint-thinners-part-2/

6 PAINT THINNERS Part 1

https://interiordesignassist.wordpress.com/2015/05/08/paint-thinners-1/

7 ROSEWOOD

https://interiordesignassist.wordpress.com/2015/03/26/rosewood/

8 INDUSTRIAL PAINT FINISHES

https://interiordesignassist.wordpress.com/2015/03/07/industrial-paint-finishes/

9 APPLICATION of COATINGS

https://interiordesignassist.wordpress.com/2015/01/09/application-of-coatings/

10 COATINGS -Surface finishing technologies

https://interiordesignassist.wordpress.com/2014/11/08/coatings-surface-finishing-technologies/

11 CLEAR COATINGS

https://interiordesignassist.wordpress.com/2014/09/12/clear-coatings/

12 FILM FORMING PROCESS in COATINGS

https://interiordesignassist.wordpress.com/2014/09/03/film-forming-process-in-coatings/

13 WOOD SURFACE PREPARATIONS for CLEAR COATINGS

https://interiordesignassist.wordpress.com/2014/04/28/wood-surface-preparations-for-clear-coatings/

14 SHELLAC COATINGS and FRENCH POLISHES

https://interiordesignassist.wordpress.com/2014/04/26/shellac-coatings-and-french-polishes/

15 VARNISH

https://interiordesignassist.wordpress.com/2014/04/25/varnish/

16 MULTI COATS of PAINT SYSTEMS

http://talking-interior-design.blogspot.in/2014/03/multi-coats-of-paint-systems.html

17 WOOD FINISHES

http://talking-interior-design.blogspot.in/2014/07/wood-finishes.html

18 CLEAR COATINGS

http://talking-interior-design.blogspot.in/2015/03/clear-coatings.html

19 CEMENT SURFACE FINISHES

http://talking-interior-design.blogspot.in/2015/06/cement-surface-finishes.html

Colour Palette

Colour Palette Flickr image by Rocco Lucia

20 CRAFT of WALL PAINTING (Neolithic)

http://talking-interior-design.blogspot.in/2014/02/the-craft-of-wall-painting-neolithic.html

21 CRAFT of WALL PAINTING (Palaeolithic)

http://talking-interior-design.blogspot.in/2014/01/the-craft-of-wall-painting-palaeolithic.html

22 COATINGS

http://talking-interior-design.blogspot.in/2013/09/coatings.html

23 COATINGS Iron age

http://talking-interior-design.blogspot.in/2013/09/coatings-iron-age.html

24 PRIMITIVE COATINGS Surfaces, Materials and Techniques

http://talking-interior-design.blogspot.in/2013/09/primitive-coatings-surfaces-materials.html

25 LIME-WASH

https://interiordesignassist.wordpress.com/2014/06/01/lime-wash/

26 PAINTING WHITE – 1

https://interiordesignassist.wordpress.com/2015/07/27/painting-white-1/

27 PAINTING WHITE – 2

https://interiordesignassist.wordpress.com/2015/07/29/painting-white-2/

28 BLACK Part – 1

https://interiordesignassist.wordpress.com/2015/08/07/black-part-i/

29 COLOURANTS DYES and PIGMENTS

https://interiordesignassist.wordpress.com/2014/07/15/colourants-dyes-and-pigments/

30 RED Colours of ancient times

https://interiordesignassist.wordpress.com/2015/05/22/red-colours-of-ancient-times/

31 ART COATINGS

https://interiordesignassist.wordpress.com/2015/05/25/art-coatings/

32 PRIMITIVE COATINGS # 1

https://interiordesignassist.wordpress.com/2015/05/03/primitive-coatings-1/

33 NATURAL IRON OXIDE PIGMENTS 4 # SIENNA and UMBER

https://interiordesignassist.wordpress.com/2015/05/01/natural-iron-oxide-pigments-4-sienna-and-umber/

34 NATURAL IRON OXIDE PIGMENTS -3 # Ochers

https://interiordesignassist.wordpress.com/2015/04/28/natural-iron-oxide-pigments-3-ochers/

35 NATURAL IRON OXIDE PIGMENTS – 2 # Red Oxides

https://interiordesignassist.wordpress.com/2015/04/27/natural-iron-oxide-pigments-2-red-oxides/

36 FLOOR PAINTS

https://interiordesignassist.wordpress.com/2015/03/21/floor-paints/

37 ARCHITECTURAL COATINGS -beginnings of OIL PAINTS

https://interiordesignassist.wordpress.com/2015/02/15/architectural-coatings-beginnings-of-oil-paints/

38 SURFACE PREPARATIONS

https://interiordesignassist.wordpress.com/2014/09/26/surface-preparations/

39 WHITE PIGMENTS

https://interiordesignassist.wordpress.com/2014/08/05/white-pigments/

40 CEMENT PAINTS

https://interiordesignassist.wordpress.com/2014/07/09/cement-paints/

 

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Colourful Shoes Morocco Wikipedia image source > http://www.flickr.com/photo/cloudzilla/2718019182/ by cloudzilla

41 OIL BOUND DISTEMPERS -OBD

https://interiordesignassist.wordpress.com/2014/07/03/oil-bound-distempers-obd/

42 CEMENT FINISHES part 2

https://interiordesignassist.wordpress.com/2014/06/27/cement-finishes-part-2/

43 DRY DISTEMPER or CALCIMINE

https://interiordesignassist.wordpress.com/2014/06/03/dry-distemper-or-calcimine/

44 ECOLOGY and COATINGS

https://interiordesignassist.wordpress.com/2015/03/09/ecology-and-coatings/

45 ENCAUSTIC PAINTING

https://interiordesignassist.wordpress.com/2014/06/06/encaustic-painting/

46 COLOURS and BUILDINGS

https://interiordesignassist.wordpress.com/2015/01/20/colours-and-buildings/

47 GLOSS

https://interiordesignassist.wordpress.com/2014/09/20/gloss/

48 COMPOSITION of COATING

https://interiordesignassist.wordpress.com/2014/07/29/composition-of-a-coating-3/

49 COLOURED GLASS

https://interiordesignassist.wordpress.com/2014/08/03/coloured-glass/

50 GRISAILLE -monochrome form of presentation

https://interiordesignassist.wordpress.com/2014/07/28/grisaille-monochrome-form-of-presentation/

51 WATER COLOURS

https://interiordesignassist.wordpress.com/2014/07/10/water-colours/

52 FRESCO PAINTINGS

https://interiordesignassist.wordpress.com/2014/06/24/fresco-paintings/

53 PRIMER COATINGS

https://interiordesignassist.wordpress.com/2015/06/07/primer-coatings/

54 SINGLE or MULTI COAT SYSTEMS

https://interiordesignassist.wordpress.com/2015/05/30/single-or-multi-coat-systems/

55 BRUSHES

https://interiordesignassist.wordpress.com/2015/03/29/brushes/

56 ENAMELS

https://interiordesignassist.wordpress.com/2015/02/18/enamels/

57 TEMPERA

https://interiordesignassist.wordpress.com/2015/01/24/tempera/

58 GP -General purpose paints

https://interiordesignassist.wordpress.com/2014/08/26/gp-general-purpose-paints/

59 COLOURS -Perception and Expression

https://interiordesignassist.wordpress.com/2015/03/07/colours-perception-and-expression/

Acrylic Colours stux

Acrylic art colours Pixabay image by stux

60 EMULSIONS

https://interiordesignassist.wordpress.com/2016/01/30/emulsions/

61 CLEAR versus PIGMENTED COATINGS

https://interiordesignassist.wordpress.com/2015/11/29/clear-versus-pigmented-coatings/

62 SELECTING and APPLYING a COATING

https://interiordesignassist.wordpress.com/2015/11/27/selecting-and-applying-a-coating/

63 COLOUR MODELS (RYB)

https://interiordesignassist.wordpress.com/2015/10/14/colour-models-ryb/

64 BLACK Part – II

https://interiordesignassist.wordpress.com/2015/09/17/black-part-ii/

65 MASONRY PAINT FINISHES

https://interiordesignassist.wordpress.com/2015/11/17/masonry-paint-finishes/

Artists coloursby skeeze

Artists’ colours Pixabay image by skeeze

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MASKING of OPENING PART – III – FRAMING

Post 575by Gautam Shah

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Masking is an overlay on an opening such as a window, door or gap. The overlay could be an additional system, opportunistic exploitation of the surroundings, or an arrangement for doctoring the perception. There is an attempt to change the quality of view, such as increasing or decreasing the clarity of view; add directional emphasis, such as horizontal, vertical or some other direction and alter the proportion and scale of the view; to divide the view into smaller geometric or floral sections and to camouflage or conceal the opening itself, the shape, location or purpose.

Framed View

Framed View through Opening > Pixabay image

Masking of openings happens over the gap portion, but Framing of openings occurs on surrounding portions of the gap. Masking and framing often serve similar purposes, which are of camouflaging the shape of the opening. Shape modulation also affects the size perception. Openings gain a tectonic meaning in consonance with the site, the environment, people and other building elements. Primary framing takes place, on how an opening is composed within a barrier system.

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Door Framing II nd Floor Balcony at Palace of Raio > Baroque era Residence at Braga, Portugal > Wikipedia image by Sara silva

Technologically shutters of doors and windows, pivoted or hinged, have been square edged. This in turn forced the shape of openings to be square edged. Doors, windows and gaps, till about pre-gothic period were overawed by the powerful geometry of the squared edges. The only option was to taper the faces of sides and bottom sill. Lintel bottom remained flat, being structurally inviolable. Occasionally stepped or layered lintels were used.

Gothic Tracery

Gothic window tracery St Mary Church, Snettisham, Norfolk, England > Flickr image by Spencer Means

Square lintels or the round arch-vault, was a necessity for massive Romanesque structures. Gothic period, however, saw some degree of liberation from the square cornered rounded arched openings, mainly due to the thinner walls and use of pointed arch. But this advent was accompanied by shutter-less fixed glass openings. The shuttered opening like doors, however continued to have squared lintel heads, framing and shutters.

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Serrated door Framing Amiens Cathedral > Wikipedia image by Mattana

The square edge, for the first time was consciously and successfully dissolved during the Rococo period. The Rococo period had two important facets: Motifs over interior face of openings in the form of painted stucco work, and architectonic elements and sculptures over the exterior face of the opening. This integration of elements over the openings, however, never transgressed the square edges of the frame or shutter. It had to wait till Art Deco and Art Nouveau periods when few adventuresome breached the omnipresent straight lines of the openings.

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Masking and Framing of Door at Art Nouveau Building from architect Jules Lavirotte Paris France Sculptures by Jean Francois Larrive 1875-1928 > Wikipedia image by Pline

The framing transformations first occurred in the print media, artwork and jewellery items like photo-pendants. Photo and painting frames continued with the squared edges on the inner face. These were of Two types: Tapered inward or outward. Over the period all forms of frames drew inspiration from each other.

1 Frames_France

Photo Frame 18 C > Wikipedia image by FA2010

2 Frame.png

Photo Frame 18 C France Wikipedia image by FA2010

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Flickr image by Plum leaves

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Photo image Florence > Wikipedia image by FA2010

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Door Frame emulating the Photo Frame 18th C Venice > Wikipedia image by Hiart

Few Art Nouveau experiments altered the door frame and shutters with floral ingress. These experiments saw 3D modulation and integration of the architectonic elements along with masking and framing appendages. These were craft and technology based multi-material solutions devised along with the form of the building -in a way an integrated architectural resolution.

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Bloomsbury Tavern Night view of windows > Flickr image by Eric Huybrechts

Openings have a dual personality, of the inside and outside, and both have been differently treated for functional, technical and scaling reasons. The framing references are different for both. On the interior face great many masking elements including soft furnishings are available to condition the view outward. The options on outer face are fewer, but major one is the day time perception of the opening, in complete contrast to inside illumination at night time.

Ney York Times Night View

New York Times Building NYC Night time > Wikipedia image by Jleon (talk)

The masking of view out or inward, is done through real or make-believe depths formed by repetition of series of identical, receding or increasing frames. Such multiple frames occur in colonnades, corridors, passages, avenues and walkways.

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Corridors of Miranda House Delhi. Repeat elements framing the view >Wikipedia image by Dell335

Framing can provide its own third dimension, or the depth aspect to the opening. The depth aspect was primarily used for inducing a perspective view. Framing took advantage of depth of the massive structure, such as in Romanesque period. The sides, top and bottom edges of the openings, on both the inside and outside faces, were chamfered or cut square. The additional surfaces of intrados and extrados were articulated to not only enhance the perceptible extent of the opening, but treated with sculptural texture for adding to the extent of a visual surface. Side surfaces of the openings created a frame within frame.

..92 durch ..94 ersetzt

Pediment over openings Siracusa Cathedral Sicily Italy > Wikipedia image by pjt56—

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DOMAINS and SPACES

Post 574by Gautam Shah

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Domains are nominally, Physical, Metaphysical and Metaphorical. At another level domains could also be Real or Virtual. Physical domains are landed or with dimensioned and marked territorial features. A Metaphysical domain is more relevant by the spread or extent of its activities or effectivity. Metaphorical domains subsist on analogical connections. Such domains rely on thought, concept, traditions, customs, beliefs, style, ethnicity, etc.

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Spatial Domain > Wikipedia image by VeronicaTherese

A space domain has few distinguishing marks, such as the Core and Peripheral zones. Space domains are proximate or converge. Domains have users and their social interactions are triggered by the spatial organization of the domains. In the following FOUR articles, these issues are discussed.

DOMAINS and SPACES

● Part-I  ● DIFFERENT TYPES OF DOMAINS and ZONING

● Part-II ● CORE ZONES

● Part-III ● PERIPHERAL ZONES

● Part-IV ● DOMAIN SPACE USES

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DOMAINS and SPACES ● Part-I ● DIFFERENT TYPES OF DOMAINS and ZONING

monte_albc3a1n_archeological_site2c_oaxaca

Monte Alban Archaeological site Gran Plaza Oaxaca Oax, Mexico Wikipedia image by Hajor Released under cc.sa and/or GFDL

Physical domains are landed or with dimensioned and marked territorial features. Physical domains have transient core and peripheral zones. The peripheral zones react with the local environment and so can have many spatial as well as temporal variations. Core-zone is a common or community area and continuously shared with others. Core-zone accommodates relocatable amenities. Compared to this, the peripheral areas are assigned to specific tasks, but the tasks shift around to take advantage of changing environment. The house in charge person, wife, mother or in few instances home-based craftsman occupies the core area. Enrichments occupy the boundary sections and define the space such as sanctimonious, utilitarian, storage etc. The core area often shifts towards the daylight zone near openings.

The markings of domains are characterized by the ambit of sensual perceptivity, communicable distancing, consistency of the spatial characteristics (coherent space and environmental conditions creating a unique space segment) and acceptability or confirmation by a section of the society.

Metaphysical domains have a non physical spread. Such domains cannot be perceived through the sensorial system. Their presence is intellectually and intuitively confirmed by the believers, but for others it remains obscure. Such confirmation requires a unitary image, so a strong centric core zone emerges, often with a definitive peripheral zone. To reflect the enhanced participation and democratic nature, the peripheral zones are made transparent.

Revered spaces, shrines, historical sites, haunted buildings, buildings without utilitarian functions or commercial purposes have a strong metaphysical genesis. Beliefs borne out of instincts, concepts, experiences, etc. are rooted to the core area. In the peripheral or threshold areas these have thinner effect, so are impacted by the ideologies flourishing in the neighbourhood. Inhabitants’ beliefs also may be born as a reaction (antithetic) to the neighbours’ ideology, and in such cases may not have any core roots.

Metaphysical entities like home, family, group etc. come into being in a space where communication, exchanges and the intimacy occur more efficiently then elsewhere. Such space units are also ‘home’ to many other beliefs and notions. These are associated with a person or group, and so have a strong presence. Metaphysical zones centering on a belief or remembrance of an event, person or entity are sustainable so far as believers, followers exist, conduct activities to further the belief or notion, or till a counter effect comes to be accepted.

The beliefs as a metaphysical factor cast a space that is sharper at the point of the origin, and prone to diffusion elsewhere. But for belief to survive and gain strength peripheries are necessary. Churches, temples, Ashrams have strongly defined territory through peripheral structures like gates, walls, Gopuram, etc.

Metaphoric domains require very little estate, however to support and enhance the metaphoric presence some spatial characteristics are employed. There being a single generative concept, the peripheral zones have a very small role and so a thin presence. The environment within is static, reflecting nearly solid barriers. Amenities, facilities and enrichment are purposive only, and so their relocation or any shifting of other elements due to them is not required.

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Global Internet Realm > Wikipedia image by Shijan Kaakkara

 Convergent or Proximate Domains

A physical domain is a unique spatial entity. But often other domains are very close-by or converge onto it. The effect of it is seen as inward and outward transgression of the peripheral areas. The transgressions occur to enhance the spatial character, or take advantage of the neighbouring or convergent domain. Ariel windows, Bay windows, Chhatris, Balconies, Verandahs are typical outward transgressions, whereas Chowks, cutouts, shafts, courtyards, are examples of inward transgressions. With such transgressions the peripheral areas change, but core zone remains unaffected. Perhaps the only change that occurs with the core zone is due to the shift towards the vibrant periphery.

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Convergent domains Edinburgh Castle and surroundings > Wikipedia image by Kim Traynor

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DOMAINS and SPACES ● Part-II ● CORE ZONES

Domains have Three basic constituents Formatted Space, Environment and Individual/s. A domain, as a space, is a segmented entity. Its primary segments are Core and Peripheral zones. A core is usually single, but peripheral zones are many. The core and peripheral zones often converge. Different peripheral zones also impinge over each other. The formatted space endows an exclusive character to the domain.

Core Zone of a space domain represents the commandeering mechanism and has a natural tendency to be singular and focal. The core zone has consistent environmental and spatial qualities, but its position within the domain may be transient. The shift is due to environmental conditions, functional needs, available facilities, amenities and enrichments.

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Core versus Peripheral zones Flickr image by Stortinget

Core zones gain strength by the shape (form) of space. Space forms like concentric, conical, angular, circular etc. are focussed and so enhance the nature of a core zone. However, very extensive domains lack an effective focus. A dominant enclosure on one or few sides of a domain creates an inviolable shield, an identity of belonging, or a sense of orientation.

A core zone can be formed by the dimensional and cognition reach extent of the occupant. The reach extent also scales the domain space. Such core zones are very personal, so sustain themselves independently. A core zone may not exist clearly where very vivid surroundings form strong peripheral areas.

Core zone amenities shift due to spatial needs and environmental changes. This leads to demountable or relocatable amenities such as handy or mobile tools, multipurpose equipments, plug in tools, wireless gadgets, miniaturized appliances and modular and system’s engineering approach in design. Compared to these amenities in the peripheral zones are strongly dependent on the architectural and structural systems, and so are static.

Historically a core zone of the ‘Home’ was the ‘hearth’ (literally meaning a focus). It was considered safe, intimate and interactive for the family. The hearth was centric, without any abutting elements like a cave wall or a rock face. The ambit of the core zone was determined by the climate, the scale of the space, number of participants and level of interaction, and the degree of personalization required. There was only one such zone in the dwelling.

The home in charge -the mother was master of the core zone. Her role and presence had become so obvious that ‘the hearth, the mother and home’ were synonymous. In tribal and aboriginal homes the core area is a female domain. The core zone, was the natural centre of metaphysical spread ‘the home’, as much as the mother was de facto guardian of culture.

Today, however the hearth is not an inevitable element for safety, security or comfort. It is the quality of barriers and other gadgets that provide this. Dwellings now have many sub domains each belonging to an individual, smaller group, or configured for a set of tasks. Very few activities of the family occur at the one place and are scheduled in the same time slot. But the family members do share a lifestyle developed through metaphysical markings like beliefs (customs, taboos, etc.) and the metaphoric means.

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Multiple or Convergent Core zones at Water Tower Place Chicago > Wikipedia image by Cosmos1976

Multiple core zones occur in very extensive domains. Such domains have weak central command and so allow formation of groups. The groups separate out primarily due to needs like physical accommodation, need for social intimacy and reach of communication. The groups may not seek a distinct territory or qualitative space segment, however, frequent such occurrences, show the existence of multiple qualitative space segments.

Multiple core zones also emerge where several overlapping or closely spaced domains operate within a larger domain space entity. Such core zones share the same spatial segment simultaneously or are programmed in same time schedules. Here the consistent elements are: spatial characteristics, environmental features, participants, amenities, facilities, tasks and activities. Multiple core zones tend to remain together, but often get separated by strong peripheral areas.

Arab tents had dual core areas within the basic form of the tent, one occupied by the women and used for main cooking, and the other half is used by men and for preparing coffee, etc. These two sections are divided by a mass of stored elements, such as mattresses, floor spreads, etc. The side flaps of the tent are stretched out to create peripheral zones of various sizes. The stretched width and the angle of the flap are conditioned by the sun’s position, wind direction, nature of tasks to be conducted and the need for privacy.

Cooking and dining once (and still do in many societies) belonged to a single core zone, but were separated as two concurrent core areas. These two core areas were further separated by a pantry area that was a peripheral zone to both. Entrance is buffered by a lobby, foyer, entrance hall, or vestibule from other sections of the house. Yards, verandahs, porches are used to separate out the building from the street.

Small or one room houses have multiple core zones. These zones exist in terms of activity space spreads, which often overlap in time. The multiple core zones match the space layout characteristics, such as four corners, the area near the door or window, the area abutting the wall, the axis formed between two opposite side opening. Traditional Sarai rooms are two and half man width (2.0+1.0 mid passage+2.0 = 5 Mts or 16.5 Ft). This allows two families or their men or women to occupy a side. The depth of the room is of less important.

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Centric Core zone A Pompeian Interior > Wikipedia image

Centric and Non-centric Core Zones: Domains with emphatic barriers create a centric space entity. But domains with breach-able barriers or loosely defined peripheral identities have overwhelming outside influences that create a non-centric space.

Domains with a substantial core zone tend to be spherical. Such spherical domains with a centric core zone are invariably static, compact and finite. Domains with an opaque boundary are also similar. Domains with weak boundaries have vibrant peripheral areas. A shift of the core zone towards a benevolent peripheral area becomes inevitable. A very extensive domain also provides greater opportunity for such a shift. Non-centric domains have some directionality as these are strongly affected on one edge, or are attached to other domains. Non-centric domains require far more definitive space formatting then centric domains.

Historically kingdoms have had effective spread of their domain depending on how far and fast they could travel. Mughal kings with their luxurious retinue could not visit the peripheral areas, frequently resulting in weaker control. Compared to this Changiz Khan’s Kingdom extended far & wide, but not for very long. Lecture halls or areas where concentration is required have opaque boundaries and conical shape. A colony against a fort wall or along a river coast is a linear domain, subsisting on the strong peripheral advantage and so apparently may not have core presence.

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DOMAINS and SPACES ● Part-III ● PERIPHERAL ZONES

Peripheral zones are vulnerable to outside influences due to their closeness with the edge and also their distance from the core section. A core zone is dominated by the domain’s main and common activity, but the peripheral zones are distinctive escape areas and so have diverse utility. Peripheral zones derive their functionality from nature of barriers. Peripheral zones emerge as an antithesis or concurrent space segment of the core zone. The peripheral zones are affected differently by the directional and temporal aspects of the environment. A peripheral zone is often relevant only for a while, to an individual, or for an activity.

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Peripheral emphasis in space > Choir and East side of the rood screen of Saint Cecile Cathedral France > Wikipedia image by Benh LIEU SONG

Once the extent of the peripheral zone was determined by the concern for safety, warmth from the fire, the need for privacy, scale of the task-activity and distancing from elements (to reduce their intensity and reach). The barriers, where available formed the edge sections of the peripheral zone. These were also used for reclining, resting, hanging personal items and for expression (artwork).

Peripheral zones are primarily shaped by the core zone, but are more often affected by the nature of the periphery of neighbouring domains and happenings beyond. The edge areas allow a person to selectively taste the happenings of outside-world even while remaining inside. Peripheral zones are flexible, i.e. can be stretched or contracted from their nominal spread. Domain transgression occurs through the periphery. Peripheral zones are dual faced, so one can orient an activity towards or away from the core area.

Peripheral zones often develop as an acutely specific zone. Study nooks in bedrooms, coffee rooms with the dining area, hobby zones in kitchens, home offices with vestibules, retiring rooms in private offices, vaults in banks, store rooms with homes and offices, wardrobes, shower stalls, change rooms in boutiques, cashiers’ cabins, pilot or driver’s cabins, reception counter, janitor area, services ducts, podiums in lecture halls, green rooms with a performance stage, ticket booths, telephone kiosks, are all examples of peripheral zones separated from the core zones.

Peripheral areas mark the end of one space entity and beginning of another one. Peripheral zones are thresholds to other space entities, and occur or are perceived to be an intermediate or buffer state. Thresholds are interactive areas, and alter (qualitatively) the elements transiting through it. Their activeness arises from their level of transparency and thickness (mass of the barrier), both of which control (rate, direction) the exchange. Thresholds also occur as an interstice on the overlapping barriers, where two effects are simultaneously operative.

The space barriers, such as walls, roofs, awnings, curtains, partitions, ceilings, etc. form a focussed space. Yet these barriers also create segments that are more strongly attached to the periphery. The barriers, however, are always prone to change from outside effects. There are two distinct places for group behaviour mechanisms -the focal and the peripheral sections.

Lecture halls, bed rooms, modern kitchens are single activity and so focussed units, but road side cafes are peripheral. An older style kitchen sourcing its services off a wall was more peripheral, whereas modern kitchens have island workstations, is more of core centric arrangement. A drawing room like the dining area is focussed for an activity, but a family room is multi functional and so less focal. Fire was the focus of the primitive home, and TV has become the current focus of home gathering. A physical feed-based work station is peripheral, but a wireless notepad computer offers flexibility of being anywhere.

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DOMAINS and SPACES ● Part-IV ● DOMAIN SPACE USES

Domains as Space entities are used by owners or occupants, architectonic elements and spatial objects.

Space and Users or Occupants: For a user, occupation of a space triggers a set of behaviour. For occupation the user has to find the most appropriate location, orientation, body posture, facilities, amenities, and environment. One of the most natural and primal way is to search a focal location in the space. This is done by finding geometric junction (cris-cross of many spatial lines), by locating spatial balancing or focussing centres, by orienting to some feature of the space (like an entrance door, window), by being closer to something (wall, column, furniture), by associating with other occupants (through ‘social distancing’) or by creating new patterns (angular, floral, concentric, diffusive). Here other operative factors are: range of cognition (capacity to perceive), physical proximity (level of social interaction), nature of relationship (age, sex, social status) and possibilities of expression and communication.

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Pennsylvania Station NY > Wikipedia image by Alan Turkus

The user also needs to have some control over the space, such as: Opportunity to change the location and position (including the posture) within the space; Choice to interact or not with others; adjust the spatial quality at micro level (scale and schedule-wise) and thereby the environmental conditions; Be noticed or notice others; Form sub-core zones, Shift to peripheral zones and be able to conduct exclusive tasks, and Way to leave the space either in full knowledge of others or without being noticed. A user, unless is an owner of a domain, will not be allowed to change the architectonic character of the space, import, shift or relocate amenities and facilities, alter the quality of environment that perhaps is not acceptable to others.

In very large spaces adjacent walls, hedges, mid columns, flower pots, water fountains, lamp posts, flooring, ceiling, and such other patterns and objects provide points of anchorage for space occupation. Spatial configurations like a stage, podiums, projection screens, speakers, singers, vivid objects, also hold interest by providing involvement.

In parties, hosts make a conscious effort to break intimate formations by removing or adding key or active persons, or repositioning and rescheduling the activities. In clubs and places of entertainment the environment (lighting, furniture, equipment) and programmes are reset to shift the focus off certain space segments. Group gatherings are designed to occupy different space segments (hall, terrace, lounge, library, garden lawn, etc.), variegated environmental conditions (bright vs diffused illumination, change of music, etc.) and diversions (toast by the host, magic shows, musical renderings, dancing, etc.).

Interpersonal Relationships and Spaces: Groups require space for interpersonal relationships, expression and its perception. However, the ‘depth’ required for such interactions in physical domains is irrelevant for virtual domains like telephony or video conferencing, chat rooms, hangouts, etc.

Interpersonal relationships have little relevance in acutely sized and highly defined spaces (ergonomically sized, shaped and provisioned with facilities), such as: toilets, kitchens, storerooms, study nooks, booths, etc. Larger spaces such as bedrooms, drawing rooms, office cabins, etc. allow interpersonal relationships, often in multiple varieties simultaneously.

Ideal place for the interpersonal relationship is the core section. This has least external disturbance, so should be an area of tranquility affording privacy. Yet peripheral zones are more preferred as a place for intimate relationships and commitment. In restaurants, cinema halls, public parks, large waiting areas, people move to corners and edges for seclusion. Threshold areas though peripheral, are public and vibrant. Threshold areas are considered ideal for noncommittal interaction.

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Group behaviour mechanism in Space Image Flickr source: Neko II > Wikipedia image by Sultry

The group behaviour mechanisms exploit the space characteristics to infuse emotional and social functionality. Group behaviour depends on individuals as well as interactions among such individuals. An individual projects psychological and sociological responses. The group behaviour though erratic has a degree of commonality – raison d’être (cause) of formation of the group. The common approach of the group is an assurance that their peculiar behaviour is not an aberration but a probable happening.

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This post forms 5th of the Sixteen part of Lecture series on Behaviour in Space that I will be offering for the spring semester starting Jan 2016 (to mid April2016) at School of Interior Design, Faculty of Design, CEPT University, Ahmedabad, India.

STATES of MATTER and COMPOUNDS

Post 573by Gautam Shah

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Materials have three fundamental states of matter, namely Gas, Liquid, and Solid. The state denotes the structural rigidity and resistance to changes of shape or volume. The state or phase of a matter is due to the temperature and pressure. Most substances are solid at low temperatures, liquid at medium temperatures, and gaseous at high temperatures. The state or the changeover of a phase is not always distinct. The temperature at which any given substance changes from solid to liquid is its Melting point, and the temperature at which it changes from liquid to gas is its Boiling point. In the reverse order the Gas to a Liquid transition is known as Condensation, and Liquid to Solid change as Freezing.

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Mixing Oil, Vinegar and Mustard for whipping into emulsion > Wikipedia image by jeffreyw

Solids have molecules held very close to each other, and so maintain the rigid form without any need for a container. Solids formed by slow cooling have constituent atoms, molecules, or ions packed in a regular order and are called crystalline. Solids cooling down very rapidly have no long-range order for the position of the atoms and so have amorphous structure. Solids can be broadly categorized as organic (Such as the wood, paraffin wax, naphthalene and a wide variety of polymers and plastics) versus inorganic (such as metals, alloys, minerals). Solids are formed when definite bonds exist between component atoms and molecules.

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Air entrained coffee of South India > Wikipedia image by Babithajcosta

Liquids are mostly non-compressible fluid, able to conform to the shape of its container but able to retain more or less constant volume irrespective of the pressure.

Gases are compressible fluids able to take the shape of the container by expanding (or compressing) to fill it.

Plasma is the fourth state of matter following solid, liquid, and gas. Plasma is an ionized (electrified) form of gas. It has a collection of charged gaseous particles containing nearly equal numbers of negative and positive ions. Unlike other gases, plasma may self-generate magnetic fields and electric currents, and respond strongly and collectively to electromagnetic forces.

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Plasma cutting machine Wikipedia image by Steve Brown Photography

Compounds are combination of materials in the same or different phases. Compounds can be separated by a chemical reaction. If a compound is uniform, it is called Homogeneous, and nonuniform compounds are called Heterogeneous. Homogenization is a process of distributing one substance, uniformly throughout another (Ice creams, ketch-ups, etc. are homogenized). A mixture is made from molecules of elements and compounds that are simply mixed together, without chemical bonds. Mixtures can be separated using techniques such as filtration, chromatography, evaporation and distillation.

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Salt + water solution > image attribution: Chris 73 / Wikipedia Commons

Solution: Solution is a homogeneous mixture of two or more substances. The substance present in larger quantity is usually called the solvent, and the other substance present in smaller quantity and dissolved is called the solute. The solvent can be either a liquid or a solid and the solute can be either a gas, a liquid, or a solid. Carbonated water is an example of a Gas (carbon dioxide) dissolved in a Liquid (water). Mixtures of gases, such as the atmosphere, are sometimes referred to as solutions as well. Solutions are distinct from colloids and suspensions in that the particles of the solute are of molecular size and are evenly dispersed among the molecules of the solvent. Solutions appear homogeneous under the microscope, and the solute cannot be separated by filtration. Salts, acids, and bases ionize when they are dissolved in water. Certain metals are soluble in one into another, in the liquid state and solidify with the mixture of atoms preserved. If such a mixture can solidify for different proportions of the two metals, they are said to form a Solid solution of metals.

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Compounded materials occur in following forms: (Medium in Phase)

  • Solid in Solid > Alloys
  • Solid in Liquid > suspension, solution, dispersion
  • Solid in Gas > smoke, airborne dust
  • Liquid in Solid > gel
  • Liquid in Liquid > emulsion, mixture
  • Liquid in Gas > fog, aerosols
  • Gas in Solid > solid foams
  • Gas in Liquid > froth, liquid foam, aerated soda
  • Gas in Gas > atmospheric air
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Cutting tools of Alloys > Wikipedia image by Glenn McKechnie

SOLID in SOLID  A solid solution is a solid-state solution of one or more solutes in a solvent. Solid solutions occur in nature as minerals formed under heat and pressure. It is formed when two metals are completely soluble in liquid state. Typically Brass has copper (64 percent) as the solvent atoms and zinc (36 percent) are solute atoms. Such a mixture is considered a solution (rather than a compound) when the crystal structure of the solvent remains unchanged by addition of the solutes, and when the mixture remains in a single homogeneous phase.

SOLID in LIQUID  Salt or Sugar get dissolved in water forming a Solution. Solution like, amalgams (mercury in silver) are uniform throughout and are homogeneous. On the other hand Sand, Rocks, and wood form heterogeneous mixture where each constituent retains its own chemical identity and properties. A suspension is a heterogeneous mixture containing solid particles that are larger than one micrometer for sedimentation. Colloids have finer suspended particles and do not settle. For suspension to occur some excipients or suspending agents or mechanical agitation is required.

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Smog at Brighton UK by Wikipedia image by Richard Rutter

SOLID in GAS: Very small particles (less than 0.002 mm) can float around in air and larger particles (greater than 0.5 mm) roll along closer to the ground. Smoke and airborne dust are solids in gas medium. The process is used to separate particles of different sizes through mechanical cyclonic effect.

LIQUID in SOLID: Gels are dispersion of molecules of a liquid within a solid. The solid is in continuous phase and liquid is a discontinuous phase. Liquid in solids combinations also manifest when excess amounts (than required for equilibrium) of solute are added to a liquid, a condition called super-saturation occurs. Supersaturated solutions are unstable, and may remain in that state for an indefinite period of time if left undisturbed. However, when solid particles are added at this stage, it encourages crystal growth. A sol is a colloidal suspension of very small solid particles in a continuous liquid medium. Sols are quite stable (often due to presence of dispersion agents) like the blood, pigmented ink, cell fluids and paints. Artificial sols may be prepared by dispersion or condensation.

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Hai dressing gel > Wikipedia image by Bangin

LIQUID in LIQUID: Liquids are miscible or immiscible and chemically they are colloids where both phases are liquids. The particle or droplet size is very large, then it is more likely dispersion or suspension, otherwise it is likely to be an emulsion or a solution.

LIQUID + GAS: Liquid in gas creates a visible mass, as the small particles of liquid have greater surface area, detracting the light. Fog is a natural phenomena considered as a low-lying cloud. Aerosols have liquids in the form of solutions, suspensions, emulsions, and semisolid preparations. Aerosols use propellants of two types: Liquefied-gases and compressed-gases.

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Aerosol cans > Wikipedia image by http://streetflies.org/stue

GAS + SOLID: A suspension of liquid droplets or fine solid particles in a gas is called an aerosol or particulate. In the atmosphere these consist of fine dust and soot particles, sea salt, biogenic and volcanogenic sulfates, nitrates, and cloud droplets. Gas entrained, solids create solid-foams, here the volume of gas is large, with thin films of liquid or solid separating the regions of gas. Solid-foams have two forms: Closed cell-foams, the gas is trapped inside pockets of solid material, and in Open-cell foams the gas pockets connect with each other. Open or continuous cell forms of pliable walls are compressible due to freedom for air to move around.

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Aerogel > Wikipedia image from NASA

 GAS + LIQUID Foams and froths are colloidal systems, where the gas form bubbles in a liquid medium. Liquid foams are made long lasting by addition or presence of a stabilizer or surfactant. Proteins (eggs, oils, gums) are used as foaming agents. Carbon dioxide dissolved in water is used in aerated drinks and firefighting systems. Foaming is not always a desirable condition such as in lubricating oils. Typically air releasing agents or conditions reduce the foaming. Aerogel is a synthetic porous ultra-light material (98.2% air) that is derived from a gel by replacing liquid with air. The result is a solid with extremely low density and low thermal conductivity. It is known as frozen smoke, solid smoke, solid air, or blue smoke.

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Liquefied Petroleum gas is a mix of Propane and Butane with a powerful odourant the Ethanol  > Wikipedia image by Krish Dulal

GAS + GAS: Gases have particles with vast separation in comparison to liquids and solids. This separation usually makes a colourless gas invisible, and offers greater scope for mixing. Mixtures of gases, such as the atmosphere, are called solutions. Gas mixtures are used in a brewery for sparging or purging, that is to remove a (harmful) gas, and for blanketing or inerting to fill up the residual volume with a benign mix. Anesthesia and diving gear have gas mixing facilities in addition to adding water vapour.

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