ADHERED FINISHES

Post 638 –by Gautam Shah

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Many materials, even if suitable for their engineering performance do not have an appropriate surface system, nor are they amenable to modifications towards such needs. Large number of objects that we use to day have applied surface systems. Applied surface systems consist of foreign materials, generically, either of same type, or of different constitution.

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Adhesives, Gums, Glues > Wikipedia image by Mr Brian

There are many methods of applying surface systems to base objects. Some surface systems stay in place due to gravity, whereas others may require some degree of fastening, achieved by mechanical fixing, adhesion, chemical reaction, ion attraction, etc. Many surface system use combination fixing, i.e. one method to achieve initial anchorage, and another for ultimate fixing. In some instances one system of fixing is operative for normal circumstances, and another one is provisioned for extra ordinary stress conditions.

pexels-photo-220680

Fixing Tiles on Walls > Pexels image by Victor Zissou

Fixing of a surface system: Fixing makes the applied surface system operate in consonance with the entity. The space between the surface system and the entity is reduced or eliminated by very close packing, or by introducing an intermediary element. Adhered surface system, cover the object interactively. Adhered surface systems nearly merge with the base entity, and as a result the transfer of stresses is evenly distributed. Adhesives do not form localized stress points like screws and nuts do. For this reason adhered surface systems could be much thinner, than the body necessary for mechanical fixing. A thin body surface system has greater flexibility, ductility, and stretchability, and so better unified behaviour with the base entity.

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Wood Glue > Pixabay image by Counselling Ulrike Mai Cape Town SA

Adhesives can join substances that are materially and dimensionally different and form-wise very difficult. Adhesive joints may be designed as required, to be elastic or rigid. Relatively low process temperature involved in adhesive bonding does not affect the crystallographic structure of the metal. Adhesives can create very extensive, multi layered laminar compositions without physically cutting or puncturing the materials.

640px-sc3a8vres_-_grand_atelier_-_garnissage_26_dc3a9coupage_21

Wikipedia image by Coyau

Limitations of adhesives are few but important. Adhesives require elaborate surface treatments, specific application conditions, curing procedures and considerable expense of time for setting. Inspection of the joint is difficult. Joint design becomes very critical compared with other mechanical and thermal processes. The adhesive itself may corrode the materials it is joining, or induce stresses during curing.

  1. A very strong adhesive will not allow a joint to open out, so there is a rupture elsewhere in the material.
  2. Too weak an adhesive fails and separates into two distinct layers.
  3. An adhesive may fail to adhere to one face

With correctly prepared surfaces, the adhesion at the interface is usually greater than the strength of the adhesive itself, and failures occur within the adhesive film. Failure of the adhesive film is usually caused by the propagation of cracks accelerated by the presence of discontinuities and flaws. Therefore, thin layered adhesives provide the strongest joints. Usually the adhesive selected should have similar strength characteristics to be adherends being bonded together. An exception would be where boding is only temporary pending another joining processes to be used. Most adhesives show optimum strength characteristics when in tension or compression closely followed by, shear. Often the high strength, thermosetting adhesives form brittle bonds that are adversely affected by vibration and impact loading, causing the bond to crack or shatter. Under such conditions a slightly weaker but more resilient adhesives may perform more satisfactorily. Adhesives may show a satisfactory strength characteristic under test conditions, but will tend to creep under sustained loads in service.

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Fixing chips > Pixabay image (Time to glue chips) Pixabay image by Windell Oskay

Adhered finishes often require an intermediary agent, the adherent, to achieve the bonding. The adherents have a dual or multilateral qualities, capable of adhering to the singular or multiple components of both, the surface system and the base entity. The adhesion is provided by surface tension, ionic attraction, friction and chemical bonding. Adhered finishes are occasionally removable but not easily demountable and relocatable. Adhered finishes also have size limitations. The joints in adhered, finishes occur as a thin divide between the two surface components, or as lap-over with a seam joint (stitched, folded, fused).

Adhered finishes, due to their simplistic technology can be employed on remote locations. The surface components are sometimes designed to have different personalities on the outside and the face to be attached to the base.

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Silicone Caulking > Wikipedia image by Achim Hering

Adhesives are used for joining a wide variety of similar and dissimilar materials such as: paper, wood, leather, glass, fabrics, ceramics, plastics, rubbers and metals. However, the largest sectors for adhesives are masonry structures, where large variety of cementing materials like, clays, Portland cement, lime, plaster of Paris (gypsum plasters), etc. are used. Another field akin to adhesives is of sealants, putties, mastic compounds, waterproofing agents, noise dampening coatings. Structural adhesives are expected to provide structural properties equal or often better than the materials being joined. Adhesives perform many other functions. Silicone and polysulfide rubber are used for dampening vibration (glass to window frames). Aircraft and automobile frame components are bonded by adhesives to save labour, weight, and expense of rivets like fasteners. Components joined with an adhesive cannot be separated but some demountable adhesives are available.

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Other Blogs on related topics

TYPES of ADHESIVES

https://interiordesignassist.wordpress.com/2015/06/14/types-of-adhesives/

ADHESIVES – Bonding

https://interiordesignassist.wordpress.com/2014/11/13/adhesives-bonding/

NATURAL ADHESIVES (Bio-adhesives)

https://interiordesignassist.wordpress.com/2014/10/25/natural-adhesives-bio-adhesives/

ADHESIVES

https://interiordesignassist.wordpress.com/2014/10/19/adhesives/

MASTIC, PUTTIES and CAULKING COMPOUNDS

https://interiordesignassist.wordpress.com/2014/11/01/mastic-putties-and-caulking-compounds/

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TYPES of ADHESIVES

TYPES of ADHESIVES

Post 448

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Adhesives join materially and dimensionally different materials. Adhesives can penetrate deep groves, closely spaced sides and other difficult to access forms to create a joint. Adhesives are very low viscosity or thin body materials so take up very little space. Even their overlapping joints do not add much to the thickness of the assembly. Adhesives allow uniform stress distribution, unlike screws and nuts which create localized stress points. Adhesive Joints may be designed as required, to be elastic or rigid. Adhesive joints can be demountable and very clean on removal.

Glues, Gums, Adhesives

Adhesives form a joint at ambient temperature and at very low processing temperature. Adhesive joining does not affect crystallographic structure of metals or plastics. Adhesives can create very extensive, multi layered laminar compositions without physically cutting or puncturing the materials.

Swanson_Shoe_Repair_26

Shoe sole joining with adhesive

Adhesives bonding are surface sensitive joining system. Adhesives require elaborate surface treatments, specific application conditions, curing procedures and sometimes considerable expense of time for setting. Screws, nut-bolts and other mechanical fixings nearly involve substantial mass of the material being joined, so often can join materials with weak surface components. But for adhesive bonding the integrity of the surface component, with the rest of the material is extremely important. Inspection of the joint is difficult. Joint design becomes very critical, compared with other mechanical and thermal processes. The adhesive itself may corrode the materials it is joining, or induce stresses during curing.

Plywood layers joined with Urea formaldehyde

Many of the adhesive products are used as sealants, masking pastes, caulking compounds, bulk fillers, water proofing materials, cracks and crevices filler, temporary to permanent holding compounds (such as for metal sheets, glass, etc.).

Senior Airman Collin Uvanni caulks the baseboards of the new post office at Bagram Air Field, Afghanistan, June 6, 2006.  The office, constructed entirely by the 1st Expeditionary Red Horse Group here, will nearly double the size of the existing post office.  (U.S. Air Force photo/Senior Airman Brian Ferguson)

Caulking

Adhesives have many formulations and forms, both of which are closely linked to the technique of applications, material surface types and shape configurations. Adhesives can be broadly defined by what they join, such as paper, wood, metals-ceramics-glasses, fibers-fabrics, plastics-elastomers, and biological entities like skin-bones-hairs. Adhesive joining technologies also are a method of categorization, such as liquid-paste spread, hot glues, tapes or patches, ambient temperature curing, baking, heat curing, fusing, surface softening or dissolving, pressure softening, instant bonding, contact adhesive, etc.

Solvent based adhesive

One of the largest markets for adhesives is for wood, paper and fibres. Wood adhesives are of basically two types: 1 Used for joining wood components by carpenters and workshops, these are Polyvinyl Acetate (PVA) and Acrylic emulsion-based adhesives, 2 Used for plywood composite manufacturing such as plywoods, particle boards, etc., such as the Amino resins made from Urea, Phenol and Melamine processed in combination with Formaldehyde.

Hockey stick reinforced with adhesive tape

For wood joinery workshops, and packing and labelling fields two major types of adhesives are used, Adhesives based on solvents and based on water. Water-based systems are mainly in the form of emulsions. Water-based formulations of Polyvinyl acetate (PVA), Ethylene vinyl acetates (EVA) and Methacrylate, are widely used. Solvent adhesives include acrylics and styrene-butadiene (SB) latex. Acrylic resins are used for removable and permanent pressure sensitive applications.

Super Glue

Neoprene or Polychloroprene was the first synthetic elastomer adhesive. It is widely used in shoe manufacturing. It is also used as a contact adhesive for attaching large surfaces and very quickly. It provides water and heat resistant bonds. Epoxy adhesives are widely used for structural applications. Epoxies offer reliable and good adhesion to all substrates. Urethane adhesives are environmentally tough, abrasion resistant and flexible adhesives. Instant adhesives such as cyanoacrylates provide an instantaneous bond and are called super glues. These are available as liquids, pastes, and gels, that set at normal or elevated temperatures. These are used for repair work of pipes, toys, ceramics, etc.

Scotch Tape

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ADHESIVES – Bonding

Post 243 –  by Gautam Shah

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Adhesive joining is one of the materials joining technology, others are:

Mechanical joining techniques include Nails, Screws, Seam forming, wedge or pin fixing and interlocking. Fusion joining entails melting of, one or both surfaces through heat, solvent or chemical action, used in welding of steels and plastics, metal forging, PVC solvent joining. Gravity-positioning use the earth’s gravity for stabilization of carpets, floor-spreads, cobble stones, etc. which stay-put when placed parallel to the gravity.

Mechanical Joining

Welding heat fusion joining

Cobblestone Flooring - Gravity fixing

Cobblestone Flooring – Gravity fixing

Advantages of adhesives are many. Adhesives can join substances that are materially and dimensionally different and form-wise very difficult. Adhesive joints are thin, overlapping and smooth. Adhesives allow uniform stress distribution, unlike screws and nuts which create localized stress points. Adhesive Joints may be designed as required, to be elastic or rigid. Relatively low process temperature involved in adhesive bonding does not affect the crystallographic structure of the metal. Adhesives can create very extensive, multi layered laminar compositions without physically cutting or puncturing the materials.

Limitations of adhesives are few, but important. Adhesives require elaborate surface treatments, specific application conditions, curing procedures and considerable expense of time for setting. Inspection of the joint is difficult. Joint design becomes very critical compared with other mechanical and thermal processes. The adhesive itself may corrode the materials it is joining, or induce stresses during curing.

Richmond_Olympic_Oval_intern_View

BONDING MECHANISM OF ADHESIVES

An adherend is a material or its surface attached to another by means of adhesion. To prevent failure of an adhesive it is necessary to prepare the adherend (surface or substrate). Surface preparations include cleaning, roughening or smoothening, and in some cases its chemical modification or coating.

An adhesive generally should have strength not greater than the strength of the adherend. It should be as rigid or flexible as the adherend. Adhesive should have a high bonding strength than a high structural strength and thermal expansion properties similar to the surfaces being joined. Adhesives must not contain solvents or volatile that can affect the adherend. Adhesives must not adversely affect the plasticizer or any constituents of the adherend.

Assentamento_com_argamassa_polimérica

Grouting

The adhesive bonding primarily facilitated by mechanical factors, in which the surface roughness or absorption properties of the adherends provide a key for the adhesive to grip. Adhesion for smooth materials such as metals, plastics and ceramics depends on the molecules of the adhesive and the surface molecules of the adherents. Rough surfaces have greater contact area. Mechanical adhesion can be increased by special surface treatments.

Polyethylene surfaces need to be modified by flame treatment for adhesive bonding. Aluminium requires anodizing with phosphoric acid. Carbon steel parts are coated with a zinc or iron phosphate conversion coating as an alternative to sand blasting or hand cleaning to roughen up the surface.

In order to form a bond adhesives harden via processes such as evaporation of the solvent or water, reaction induced with radiation such as heat or UV, polymerization, chemical reaction or phase change.

Wall paper fixing

In formation of an adhesive bond, a transitional zone arises in the interface between adherend and adhesive. In this zone, called the inter-phase, the chemical and physical properties of the adhesive may be considerably different from those in the non-contact portions. The inter-phase composition controls the durability and strength of an adhesive joint and is primarily responsible for the transference of stress from one adherend to another. The inter-phase region is frequently the site of environmental attack, leading to joint failure.

The mechanical behaviour of the bonded structure is also influenced by the joint design, and by the way in which the applied loads are transferred from one adherend to the other. The quality of an adhesive is usually judged against the adherend (i.e., the components being joined -metal alloys, plastics, composites, etc.) and the surface (that is the nature of the surface and its treatment).

The strength of the bond depends on two factors: Adhesion and Cohesion.

ADHESION

Adhesion is the ability of the bonding material -the adhesive to stick -adhere to the materials being joined -the adherends. The development of an adhesive bond occurs through more than one of these processes. First, a mechanical interlocking, occurs when the adhesive flows into pores and micro projections on the surface. Second, Interdiffusion results when liquid adhesive dissolves and diffuses into the adherend materials. The third mechanism occurs through, adsorption and surface reaction, when adhesive molecules adsorb onto a solid surface and chemically react with it. Finally, electrostatic attraction, forces develop at an interface between materials.

Cohesion

COHESION

Cohesion is the ability of the adhesive and/or the adherend to resist the applied forces within itself. Cohesion could occur even without an adhesive material if there is molecular attraction between surfaces that are in very intimate contact, as happens between two panes of glass. Materials with good surface wetting qualities, like water, also can help in cohesion. Cohesive failure is a constitutional failure of the adhesive, when two items separate out with adhesive remaining on both the substrate surfaces.

Surface resistance – Cohesion

ADHESIVE FAILURES

There are three ways in which an adhesive bonded joint can fail:

  1. A very strong adhesive will not allow a joint to open out, so there is a rupture elsewhere in the material.
  2. Too weak an adhesive fails and separates into two distinct layers.
  3. An adhesive may fail to adhere to one face.

PREVENTION OF ADHESIVE FAILURES

  • careful design of the joint,
  • correct selection of the adhesive,
  • careful preparation of the joint surfaces,
  • controlled application
  • environment at the joint (cleanliness, temperature and humidity).

With correctly prepared surfaces, the adhesion at the interface is usually greater than the strength of the adhesive itself, and failures occur within the adhesive film. Failure of the adhesive film is usually caused by the propagation of cracks accelerated by the presence of discontinuities and flaws. Therefore, thin layered adhesives provide the strongest joints. Usually the adhesive selected should have similar strength characteristics to be adherends being bonded together. An exception would be where boding is only temporary pending another joining processes to be used. Most adhesives show optimum strength characteristics when in tension or compression closely followed by, shear. Often the high strength, thermosetting adhesives form brittle bonds that are adversely affected by vibration and impact loading, causing the bond to crack or shatter. Under such conditions a slightly weaker but more resilient adhesives may perform more satisfactorily. Adhesives may show a satisfactory strength characteristic under test conditions, but will tend to creep under sustained loads in service.

Most woodwork adhesives are stronger than the wood, so it is the convenience of viscosity, hardening time, cost, durability, etc. that play important role in the selection. A gap of 0.076 to 0.15 mm in wood joints suffices for a thin adhesive layer to give optimum results.

SELECTION OF AN ADHESIVE

This depends on several factors such as:

  • Economics, batch size, and quantity,
  • Impermeable joints to seal liquids and gases,
  • Thermal or electrical insulation requirements,
  • Vibration and fatigue resistance,
  • Corrosion

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NATURAL ADHESIVES (Bio-adhesives)

Post 224 –  by Gautam Shah

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Kerala_kathakali_makeup

Bio-adhesives are comparatively a recent nomenclature to distinguish a variety of Adhesive materials that are of natural origin. These materials are often only ‘primarily processed’ and so are believed to retain their natural characteristics. Synthetic adhesives pose environmental concerns of volatile organic compound (VOC) emissions, safe disposal and recycling problems (very long life cycles). The health and safety issues relating to hazardous ingredients, in foods, medicines and bio-implants, cause concerns.

tragacanth-gum-231301_640Bio-adhesives like other natural materials tend to be bio-compatible, and so there is increased commercial interest in them. There use in certain applications such as for biomedical and topical uses such as the bonding of skin and body tissues are being studied. The uses of bio-adhesives are being assessed, as food additives and supplicants, due to low level of toxicity. Secretions by microbes, marine molluscs and crustaceans, are being researched with a view to applications in bio-mimicry.

sandcastle_worm_colony_in_laboratory

In 2005, researchers from the University of California, Santa Barbara (UCSB) discovered that the glue used by the phragmatopoma to build its protecting tube was made of specific proteins with opposite charges. Those proteins are called polyphenolic proteins that are used as bio-adhesives. They succeeded in obtaining the sequence of these adhesive proteins and described the detailed mechanisms by which the adhesive sets. Inspired by these results University of Utah researchers reported in 2009 that they succeeded in duplicating the glue that the worms secrete and use to stick sand grains together underwater. The typical amount of glue that the worm produces at once is approximately 100 picoliters, requiring 50 million to fill a teaspoon. They believe the glue to have applications as a bio-compatible medical adhesive, for instance to repair shattered bones.    >>> from Wikipedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sandcastle_worm

Adhesives are primarily bonding materials, but many such substances are also used as thickening and homogenizing substances in foods and medicines and as fragrance giving gums. Bio-adhesives consist of a variety of substances, but proteins and carbohydrates form a large section.

Steri-Strip_-_01

Natural adhesives or bio-adhesives are of three broad classes: Plant materials and exudates, such as starches, plant saps and resins, natural rubber, gum arabic, colophons, oils like linseed oil, and wax like carnauba wax, proteins like the soybean, and carbohydrates like starch. Animal products like casein, milk proteins, wax, glue and other gelatinous substances, shellac. Mineral products like Pozzolana and other natural cement products, silicates, asphalt, bitumen pitch. To these can be added, a range of modified natural products, typically various derivatives like a chlorinated rubber, cyclized rubber and rubber hydro-chloride.

colophane

Natural adhesives of vegetable origin include plant exudates such as: Gum arabic, colophon; Oils and waxes like linseed oil, carnauba wax; Proteins like the soybean, and carbohydrates like starch.

Natural adhesives of animal origin include various glues and other gelatinous substances, milk casein, shellac and bees wax.

shellac_varities

Natural adhesive like mineral substances include silicates, Pozzolana, asphalt, bitumen etc.

Natural elastomers are natural rubbers and their various derivatives like a chlorinated rubber, cyclized rubber and rubber hydro-chloride.

Birkenpech

Proteins glues such as a gelatin, and carbohydrates such as starch, have been used as glues by man since very ancient times. Postal stamps have natural wet-able glue despite synthetic alternatives. There are several applications where cooked starch or flour adhesives are used, such as for book binding, corrugated board, paper-bag production, paper tube winding, kite thread colouring, and wallpaper fixing. Casein glue is mainly used to stick labels on bottle labels. Animal glues are traditionally used for leather work, bookbinding and wood joinery.

Morandi.glue_.pot.final_

Animal Glues: The term animal glue is usually confined to glue prepared from mammalian collagen, the principal protein constituent of skin, bone, and muscle. When treated with acids, alkalies, or hot water, the normally insoluble collagen slowly becomes soluble. If the original protein is pure and the conversion process is mild, the high-molecular weight product is called a gelatin which is used for food or photographic products. The lower-molecular weight material produced by more vigorous processing is normally less pure and darker in colour and is called animal glue. Animal glue traditionally has been used in wood joining, book bindery, sandpaper manufacture, heavy gummed tapes, leather shoes and luggage items and similar applications. Joints with animal glue work well in dry to moderately moist weather, but with high humidity (80 % or more) growth of micro organisms weakens the adhesive. In spite of its advantage of high initial tack (stickiness), animal glue is being replaced by synthetic adhesives.

kerria-lacca

Protein Glues: Casein glue is made by dissolving casein, a protein obtained from milk, in an aqueous alkaline solvent. The degree and type of alkali, influences behaviour of the product. In wood bonding, casein-glues generally are superior to animal-glues in moisture resistance and ageing characteristics. Casein also is used to improve the adhering characteristics of paints and coatings (calcimine, distemper coatings).  Casein is now getting replaced by urea formaldehyde resins.

True_sago_palm_starch_product,papeda,gata-gata(Hatusua,W.Seram,Maluku,ID_thu01oct2009-1324h)

Blood Albumin Glue is made from serum albumin, a blood component obtainable from either fresh animal blood or dried soluble blood powder to which water is added. Addition of an alkali to albumen-water mixtures improves adhesive properties. A considerable quantity of glue products from blood was used in the plywood industry.

Starch0

Starch and dextrine: Starch and dextrine, are extracted from corn, wheat, potatoes, tamarind or mango seeds or rice. They constitute the principal types of vegetable adhesives that are, soluble or dispersible in water and obtained from plant sources throughout the world. Starch, and dextrine, glues are used in corrugated board, packaging, and as a wallpaper adhesive.

Kite Strings

Natural Gums: Natural gums, are extracted from their natural sources, also are used as adhesives. Agar-agar, Calcium alginate, a marine-plant colloid (suspension of extremely minute-particles), is extracted by hot water and subsequently frozen for purification. Algin, is obtained by digesting seaweed in alkali and precipitating either the calcium salt or alginic acid. Gum arabic is harvested from acacia trees that are artificially wounded to cause the gum to exude. In India Babool, Neem, provide such gum exudates (Hindi-Gund), some of which are also used in sweets, and Ayurvedic-herbal preparations. Another exudate is natural rubber latex, which is harvested from Hevea trees. Natural gums are used chiefly in water-re-moistenable products.

cattien_ceramic_bowl

Bituminous Adhesives: Bitumen and coal tar derivatives are available as hot melt or softening, emulsion and solvent diluted materials. The hot melt or softening materials have a tendency to run at high temperatures. Bituminous materials are used for fixing waterproofing felt and roof insulation boards.

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ADHESIVES

Post 218 ⇒   by Gautam Shah 

ADHESIVES

Historical perspective

An adhesive is a substance that as an intervening agent binds two similar or dissimilar surfaces (or objects) together and resists their separation. The term adhesive is used for substances such as the glue, gum, cement, mucilage, mastic compound, sealant or caulking compound.

Plant exudate Gum

Plant exudate Gum

Surfaces stick or remain together when forces that cause attraction are operative. A force of attraction is any type of force that causes objects to come together even if those objects are not close to each other or not touching each other. Gravity is one such force. The electrostatic force cause attraction due to differential electrical charge. The magnetic force affects objects that have magnetic properties.

Using Natural Starch

Using Natural Starch

Adhesive substances are many types. It is a solid that is dissolved by heat or solvent, a natural liquid that remains wet, a substance that in the presence of a reactant shows binding capacity, and a material that forms a longer chain (polymerization) over age or with chemical action.

Adhesives are joining substances, and offer unique advantages. The use of adhesives offers superior binding or joining in many situations. Its advantages are evaluated against other joining systems such as seaming, stitching, tying, knotting welding, forging, soldering, fusion joining, mechanical fastening, etc.

The adhesive like substances are valued, for non-invasive joining (without drilling, melting), ability to join similar and non similar materials, capacity to distribute stress across the joint surface, often without damaging the visual aspects of the objects, in some cases for demountable joining, functionality over wide range of temperature and other environmental conditions and facility to work without heavy duty equipments or energy use.

Adhesive are disadvantageous, in varied stress conditions due to environmental as well as structural loading conditions, require a large surface for adequate bonding and do not allow assurance inspection of joint integrity.

Gold Foil fixing with adhesives

Gold Foil fixing with adhesives

Earliest adhesives were plant exudates like gums and resins, and of animal origin like hide gums. The adhesives were perhaps used for joining, dissimilar materials for tools making, broken ceramics, and for waterproofing boats and canoes. Many of the primitive applications of binding materials were similar to use of painting or surface coatings materials.

Bitumen

Bitumen

Adhesive materials like, gums, glues, starches, egg whites, casein and other proteins, have been used in art work painting to fix various types of colourants. The Egyptians have extensively used animal-glues in tombs, furniture, ivory and papyrus items. Many societies worlds over have used adhesive materials to fix decorations on adornments, ornaments, etc. In Europe during the middle ages, egg whites were used to decorate parchments with gold leaves. Adhesives made of starch were used by Egyptians dating back 3,300 years, for bonding non-woven fabrics from fibres of reed plant -papyrus, and as a sizing material.

Roman concrete Vault of Pozzolana cement

Roman concrete Vault of Pozzolana cement

Limes and natural cementing materials like Pozzolana (volcanic ash), calcium carbonate and sulphates, were used in masonry work. Bitumen, tar pitches, and beeswax were used as caulk or sealants and also as adhesive for fixing statues and other repair work.

Cement masonry

Cement masonry

Wooden objects were bonded with glues from fish, horn and cheese. Hide glue was extensively produced in Holland and Fish glue was produced by the British, in 1750s.

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