PERSONAL AND BUILDING SAFETY –a List + Links to Blogs

Post 658 -by Gautam Shah

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Detectable_Warnings

ANTI-LIGATURE –Issues for Design -8 https://interiordesignassist.wordpress.com/2016/06/28/anti-ligature-issues-for-design-8/

ANTI-LIGATURE https://interiordesignassist.wordpress.com/2014/04/04/anti-ligature/

SAFETY ASPECTS of DESIGN https://interiordesignassist.wordpress.com/2016/04/15/safety-aspects-of-design/

Penhaligon_Burlington_Arcade_2431

SECURITY in BUILDINGS https://interiordesignassist.wordpress.com/2015/01/05/security-in-buildings/

DOOR SECURITY https://interiordesignassist.wordpress.com/2014/07/13/door-security/

SPACE PLANNING and NON VISUAL CUES https://interiordesignassist.wordpress.com/2015/04/17/space-planning-and-non-visual-cues/

MANAGING the RISKS https://interiordesignassist.wordpress.com/2014/11/03/managing-the-risks/ 

Risk on Brinks

DE-WINDOWING http://talking-interior-design.blogspot.in/2016/11/de-windowing.html

FENCES https://interiordesignassist.wordpress.com/2014/08/28/fences/

GUARD RAILS https://interiordesignassist.wordpress.com/2015/04/08/guardrails/

COMPONENTS of RAILINGS https://interiordesignassist.wordpress.com/2015/05/04/components-of-railings/

RAILINGS AND PARAPETS https://interiordesignassist.wordpress.com/2015/01/12/railings-and-parapets/

GRILLS https://interiordesignassist.wordpress.com/2014/09/30/grills/

TYPES of BARRIERS https://interiordesignassist.wordpress.com/2016/01/07/types-of-barriers/

MANAGING the RISKS https://interiordesignassist.wordpress.com/2014/11/03/managing-the-risks/

ECONOMICS of RISKS https://interiordesignassist.wordpress.com/2014/11/10/economics-of-risks/

Door of a traditional Indian House

Sheth ni Pol Ahmedabad --a gated community

City Gate Prem Darwaja Ahmedabad

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ANTI-LIGATURE –Issues for Design -8

Post 614 –by Gautam Shah

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Anti-ligature products and processes are mainly used to stop someone from doing a hazardous act by tying, fastening or binding to something. It is a provision that discourages self harm or suicidal tendencies of a person under stress or with mental disorder. Anti-ligature means prevent people from causing self harm by attaching ligature to door handles, locks, grills, light fixtures, etc.

640px-mg_paed

Pediatric patient bed > Wikipedia image by Binodkpn

Abuses, of ‘self-harming’ nature occur with persons who may be ‘using it as a coping mechanism to relieve emotional pain or discomfort, or as an attempt to communicate distress’. Places where such ‘self-harm’ occurs, include homes, schools, care-homes, detention centres, prisons, hospitals and juvenile offenders’ remand homes. The means include using architectural components, hardware, clothes, adornments, ropes or linear elements for strangulation, cause cuts with sharp edges, jumping off a precipice (height related dangers), electrocution and drowning.

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Prison cell amenities > Flickr image by Global Panorama

Anti-Ligature is rather an unusual term. Ligature derives from Latin ligatura, from ligare = ‘to tie‘. A dictionary defines Ligature as:

  • a thing used for tying something tightly.
  • a cord used in surgery, especially to tie up a bleeding artery.
  • in music a slur or tie.
  • in printing a character consisting of two or more joined letters.

A ligature is defined as a ‘thing used for tying something with a cord‘ Cords of silk, gut, wire, or other materials have been used as tourniquet to control venous and arterial circulation for a very brief period of time. During surgery the blood flow is also stopped by pressure blocking the cut ends of arteries. (In surgical procedures minor bleeding nodes are also hot pinched -by burning the tissue, through a cautery –cauterization).

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Child-proof fence > Wikipedia image by I,Tony Wills

Anti-ligature Design is implemented for safety and security in jails, mental asylums, hospitals, children’s areas. Anti-ligature design is used for public spaces to prevent malicious damage to the property. It is used with reference to furniture, furnishings, utilities, facilities and amenities. Malicious use of architectural components, street utilities and furniture, public transport facilities, is a concern for all designers. The public misuse occurs with many intentions like: to misuse the elements, vent-out dissatisfactions through anger, use the extra ordinary reserve energies, occupy time in some activity or draw attention through behaviour. This is phenomenon common to both, developed and developing countries.

632px-corner_of_harrison_street_28burra_bazar29_and_strand_road2c_calcutta_in_1945

Signage at Burra Bazar (Harrison st) and Strand road Calcutta India > Wikipedia image by Clyde Waddell

Anti-ligature is also increasingly used for ‘anti-vandalism’. Anti-vandalism strategies are required to prevent wilful or malicious destruction caused by removal or destruction of units or components from public or private property such as parks, bus stations, road sides or schools etc. Anti-ligature technology makes such entities no-removable.

vandalism_dummy_newspaper_vendors

Knocked over dummy newspaper vendor in Munich > Wikipedia image by LepoRello

The acts of willful destruction of private and public facilities and amenities are also abuses. These are not intended for self-harm but physical changes, removal or destruction to parts and components at places such as parks, bus stations, road sides or schools etc. Anti-vandalism strategies are required to make such entities fixed (non -removable), temper-proof and non alterable.

parrywatercolour

Water colour ART by John Orlando Parry ‘A London street scene 1835’ Wikipedia image

An anti-ligature product or a strategy is one that prevents a ligature from staying secure. The primary function of anti-ligature furniture is to deny anyone from using it as a means from which to attach anything, break it down to sharp-pointed edges, climb over to cause height related hazards, or inflict the parts on others.

640px-vandals_have_spray-painted_this_subway_car_-_nara_-_548273

Wikipedia image through National Archives and Records Administration 548273

The design strategies for anti-ligature and anti-vandalism are to form a product of single material or through substantial synthesis of sub-items. The assembly joints and fixing zones are concealed or made inaccessible. Materials are non strippable, tear-able, breakable, or one can be cut or chipped off. Design elements like sharp corners or edges, apertures, punctures, grooved joints are avoided. Components that require different textures for visually hindered or for holding grips are created from (by way of embossing, engraving, etc.) the same body-material, while avoiding any applique treatments. Other methods of anti-ligature and anti-vandalism design include by removing access to harmful or harm-worthy items beyond reach. Mono colour and single texture items are less apparent and so less likely to attract attention.

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This is the 8 th article of 20 topics series on ISSUES for DESIGN

SAFETY ASPECTS of DESIGN

Post 599 by Gautam Shah 

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640px-2011_London_riots_looted_bike_shop

Malicious use of architectural components, street utilities and furniture, public transport facilities, is fairly common, both, in developed and developing countries. The intention, if any, is to misuse the elements, vent-out dissatisfactions through anger, use the extra ordinary reserve energies, occupy time in some activity or draw attention through behaviour.

Urilift_Triple,_Hague

Such abuses, of ‘self-harming’ nature occur with persons who may be it “using it as a coping mechanism to relieve emotional pain or discomfort, or as an attempt to communicate distress”. Places where such ‘self-harm’ occurs, include homes, schools, care-homes, detention centres, prisons, hospitals and juvenile offenders’ remand homes. The attempts include using architectural components, hardware, clothes, adornments, ropes or linear elements for strangulation, cause cuts with sharp edges, jumping off a precipice (height related dangers), electrocution and drowning.

Fashion Street Bombay

The acts of willful destruction of private and public facilities and amenities are also abuses. These are not intended for self-harm but physical changes, removal or destruction to parts and components at places such as parks, bus stations, road sides or schools etc. Anti-vandalism strategies are required to make such entities fixed (non -removable), temper-proof and non alterable.

640px-mrt-2_train_interior

Self-harm was once thought to relate to “Ligature” (word derives from Latin ligatura, from ligare = ‘to tie‘). A ligature is defined as a “thing used for tying something with a cord” Cords of silk, gut, wire, or other materials have been used as tourniquet to control venous and arterial circulation for a very brief period of time. During surgery the blood flow is also stopped by pressure blocking the cut ends of arteries. (In surgical procedures minor bleeding nodes are also hot pinched -by burning the tissue, through a cautery -cauterization).

575px-tourniquet_28psf29

 The ligature -word was once used for joining two or more grapheme, letters or characters as a single glyph, to help faster writing or condensed expression. An example is the character æ as used in English, in which the letters ‘a’ and ‘e’ are joined. The “&”, ampersand deriving from =and-per-se (since 1st C AD was a ligature of handwritten Latin letters e and t spelling et=and). Ligature is also used in Music for group of notes intended to be played or sung as one phrase or by repeating the same syllable. Tie bars around steel of RCC columns or beams are also called ligature.

park-1196206_640

From Ligature comes a rather unusual term Anti-Ligature. If the ligature is to ‘tie’ causing a pain or harm, anti-ligature is to prevent situations or conditions where one has opportunity to cause harm. It is used with reference to furniture, furnishings, utilities, facilities and amenities. Anti ligature products and processes are meant to hamper someone from doing a hazardous act by tying, fastening or binding to something. It is a provision that discourages self-harm or suicidal tendencies of a person under stress or with mental disorder. Anti-ligature means prevent people from causing self harm by attaching ligature to door handles, hooks, hollows, apertures, locks, grills, light fixtures, etc.

playground-648903_640

An anti-ligature product or a composition is one that prevents a ligature from staying secure. The primary function of anti-ligature furniture is to deny anyone from using it as a means from which to attach anything, break it down to sharp-pointed edges, climb over to cause height related hazards, or inflict the parts on others.

640px-griffith_park_vandalism

Anti-ligature products or compositions are also employed for anti-vandalism. There are, though few basic differences. ‘Ligature’ in its broadest sense is related to self-harm, often non-malicious in nature. Vandalism is intentional and causes harm to ‘public’ properties, but rarely inflicts injuries to own-self or others.

640px-graffiti_tags

The primary aim in designing this type of furniture is to eliminate the possibility of attaching a wire or cord, disassemble or break it down into smaller parts, use it for climbing or as a reach tool, lick, chew, swallow or ingest its parts or products, or use it as defensive-offensive tool.

640px-bench_street_furniture_old_nicosia_republic_of_cyprus_15

The design strategies for anti-ligature and anti-vandalism are to form a product of single material or through substantial synthesis of sub-items. The assembly joints and fixing zones are concealed or made inaccessible. Materials are non strippable, tear-able, breakable, or one can be cut or chipped off. Design elements like sharp corners or edges, apertures, punctures, grooved joints are avoided. Components that require different textures for visually hindered or for holding grips are created from (by way of embossing, engraving, etc.) the same body-material, while avoiding any applique treatments.

2581209678_2ed1e1b358_z

Other methods of anti-ligature and anti-vandalism design include by removing access to harmful or harm-worthy items beyond reach. Mono colour and single texture items are less apparent and so less likely to attract attention.

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