ART and DESIGN COMPOSITIONS

Post 703 –by Gautam Shah

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8 BMW Welt, Munich, Germany Wikipedia Image by Maximilian Dörrbecker (Chumwa)

In art and design, we deal with forms, as holistic or composed entities. The holistic entities also turn compositions, when these are expressed through contexts like media (frame or the extent), setting (site, environment, landscape, illumination), or referenced (orientation, location, sensorial exposition). The pursuit of creativity is at several stages, in realizing the holistic form or graduating to a state of holism after the composition. The assimilation of several elements into a ‘formal’ composition creates a ‘striking’ arrangement, ‘balanced’ placements and an ‘organization’ with synergy and potency of new possibilities.

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For holistic forms, the creator, if the scale permits, can roll the entity to have an all-around experience, but the moment it is rested or delivered it gains a setting. For holistic forms that are too large, the roll around occurs over a ground, and that becomes its defacto rest. Holistic forms like sculptures or art installations have no functional livability, but as a static structure must rest and get set. Dynamic entities like balloons, space capsules or stations are rotated axially and sometimes three dimensionally to create a ‘dynamic equilibrium’.

9 Experience Music Project, Seattle,WA,USA Gehry Wikipedia Image by EMP-SFM

For composed entities it is necessary to have a bearing. Primarily it is the ‘ground’ where these sit, tie up or rest. And where such provisions do not exist, the bottom of the composition (closer to the omnipresent gravity) becomes one. Elements of the composition at the lower half of the field are closer to the ground and so perceived to be more static. The stability is also enhanced by elements of composition with mass wider in the lower parts. Inclusion of lighter elements such as air, water, sky, flowers, develops a sense of ethereal floatation. Surreal art has not escaped the gravity.

13A Michelangelo ART Ethereal floatation The Creation of Adam

13 Jeremy geddes defying the Gravity

Holistic or composed entities of art and design can remain personal, if are fleeting expressions. But most other expressions, to reach a wider community, must persist. Grounding is the first step towards the persistence. Grounding is related to the force de majeure, the gravity. Grounding creates a balance. Its lack unnerves our sense of regularity, but its oddity excites us. The balance is about distribution of mass around the vertical and across the perceptible zone. Vertical is the post struggle phase of gaining the equilibrium.

11 When Horses Gallop by Andres Barrioquinto

The height of the vertical is always referenced to the horizontal of the ground. The depth of perception stretches the ground in perspective, and proportionately reduces the vertical.

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Some form of equipoise is sought for compositions. The balance with equipoise forms symmetry. For equipoised balance the elements around vertical must remain with it, bearing the same effect of gravity, but their repositioning can cause un-equipoise. The symmetry around the vertical, however, is affected by the position of the vertical in the field of perception.

Delhi, Lotus Temple

7 Holistic form Matrimandir Temple of The Mother Auroville Pondichery India

Symmetry is more apparent in visual fields as two eyes can focus to a single object. Two ears need some attenuation to perceive the balance. For the sensation of touch balanced localization is difficult to achieve. Smell and taste buds have singular identity, but spatially too close for distinctive perception of balance.

15 Paul Klee

The zone of perception varies in extent and over time, mainly due to changes in contextual conditions and environment.

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The holistic entities are of many types, copycats, metaphoric or abstract. Copycats duplicate the original in altered scale, sensory (colour, texture) effects and purposes. The metaphoric expressions could be literal models or images of human or other beings (in natural or grotesque form). The abstract presentations remain obscure for their imagery or meaning.

5 Escultura de Frank Gehry El Peix, fish sculpture located in front of the Port Olímpic, in Barcelona, Catalonia, Spain 1992

The composed creations, unlike the holistic ones have many elements, some are mutually related, due to the purpose, proximity, similarity, counter balancing, scale, massing, etc. These constituents individually or in combinations evoke the past experiences. The past experiences are subjective and fluid. A composition remains a frame in a time slot of a happening.

 

14 VR offers a way out of the inhibitions for Surrealist Art Movement relativity-escher

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CHARLES RENNIE MACKINTOSH

Post 700 –by Gautam Shah

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01 Chairs By Mackintosh

Charles Rennie Mackintosh (1868-1928) was a Scottish architect, designer, textile designer, product designer, graphics artist and water-colourist. He lived most of his life in the city of Glasgow. At young age he was afflicted with rheumatic fever, this resulted in a droop on one side of his face. Because of these disabilities, young Charles was encouraged to spend time in the countryside. And love for the countryside and flora was to enliven creativity through his life.

1 Tea Room Room_de_Luxe

9 TEA ROOM

Mackintosh was a reclusive child who had difficulties in understanding the emotions of others. He used his sketchbooks as a way to withdraw from the world, manage his own outbursts of rage. Mackintosh in his later years became an avid painter of flowers. Macintosh art work of nature in pencil and watercolour was exquisite and botanically accurate. Later in life, disillusioned with several un-built architectural designs, Mackintosh devoted himself as a watercolour artist. With Margaret, his wife, they painted many landscapes and flower studies.

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1 b Fetges CR Macintosh 1927

1 c weathercade Charles Rennie Mackintosh Willow Wood

‘Art is the Flower – Life is the Green Leaf. Let every artist strive to make his flower a beautiful living thing, something that will convince the world that there may be, there are, things more precious more beautiful – more lasting than life itself… you must offer real, living – beautifully coloured flowers – flowers that grow from, but above, the green leaf – flowers that are not dead – are not dying – not artificial – real flowers springing from your own soul – not even cut flowers – You must offer the flowers of the art that is in you – the symbols of all that is noble – and beautiful – and inspiring – flowers that will often change a colourless leaf – into an established and thoughtful thing’.

Mackintosh, Charles Rennie, 1868-1928; Wall Panel for the Dug-Out (Willow Tea Rooms, Glasgow)

3 Margaret MacDonald Mrs Mackintosh Opera Of The Seas 1903

Mackintosh joined Glasgow School of Art at fifteen and a year started working as a trainee draftsman with John Hutchinson. After that apprenticeship in 1889, he joined Honeyman and Keppie. In 1890 he won £60, as the coveted ‘Alexander Thomson Traveling Studentship for Public Design. He decided to go to Italy and Europe. This changed his life with varied design related experiences. It was here that Charles Rennie Mackintosh met fellow artist and future wife, Margaret MacDonald, who influenced his life intensely. Macintosh, wife Margaret, sister-in-law Frances and her husband Herbert Mac Nair, were known as the The Four or the Spook School’, and the Glasgow Style. They influenced the Glasgow art scene and European design movements such as Art Nouveau and Secessionism profoundly. The Four exhibited widely in Europe, both together and individually, and Mackintosh received commissions for furniture from patrons in Berlin, Vienna, and elsewhere in Europe’.

4 a Galagow School of ART

4 Mackintosh School of Art

Architecture of Charles Rennie Mackintosh is a contrast between strong right angles and floral-inspired decorative motifs with subtle curves’. The Glasgow School of Art project, considered to be the first Art Nouveau style building, gave him international reputation. It was constructed in two stages separated by nearly half a decade, allowed lots of improvisation during the second execution. During the period he completed a curious project, the Queen’s Cross Church. It is now restored and houses the Charles Rennie Mackintosh Society headquarters.

House for an art lover Glasgow)(3811523958)

Macintosh created a new design paradigm from the natural forms of plants and flowers in an age when most of the modernist designers were trying to rediscover Greek, Roman, Egyptian and other ancient expressions. ‘We must clothe modern ideas with modern dress’. A friend said, ‘the creations of Mackintosh breathe. The interior and exterior spaces designed by Charles Rennie Mackintosh sing of serenity, spirituality, and of rigorous attention to detail’. He had a knack of making hard surfaces and tough forms, soft and elegant. His was meticulous, delicate and extremely restrained. The husband-wife partnership created a unified expression. From around 1904, Mackintosh began to adopt more formal, angular geometry, gradually doing away the cursive form of Art Nouveau.

17 a Ruchill Church Mackintosh

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Charles Rennie Mackintosh’s only other ecclesiastical work was the Ruchill Free Church Halls which were completed in 1899. Significantly, the Free Church did not ask Mackintosh to design the adjacent church building.

‘The architect must become an art worker… the art worker must become an architect… the draughtsman of the future must be an artist…’ Charles Rennie Mackintosh.

50 Queens Church Mackintosh

Church buildings by Mackintosh > Mackintosh designed two religious buildings in Glasgow. Queen’s Cross Church is a former Church of Scotland in Glasgow. The site was on a corner location, with adjoining tenements and a warehouse. The Building started shortly after Mackintosh finished his competition design for the Glasgow School of Art. The design has Gothic features. The window features a blue heart. After being decommissioned in 1970, it serves as headquarters of the Charles Rennie Mackintosh Society. The adjoining church hall provides tearoom facilities with a display many Mackintosh artifacts including replicas of the chairs he designed for the Willow Tearooms.

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Mackintosh works had subtle Scottish flavour, but he consciously adopted freshness that marked his modernism. He was concerned for functional, practical and simplistic features. He never used heavy ornamentation of past styles. Much of his work includes contribution by his wife, Margaret MacDonald whose flowing, floral style complemented the formal, rectilinear architectural work. Unfortunately his work was appreciated only long after his death.

31 Bedroom furniture by Charles Rennie Mackintosh Wikipedia Image by Karora

By 1914 Mackintosh lost hope of ever receiving the recognition that he truly deserved. He became stubborn and uncompromising. His career and health both were low. After the stay in Walberswick, conditions began to improve. This was just before the war (WW-I), but he was called a German spy and for a while put under house arrest. He moved to London, in the early 1920s, to reignite his carrier. Here Macintosh began to concentrate on water colour art. Later they moved to France in 1923-27, where he painted scenes of the French coastline. He painted Port Vendres, near the Spanish border and the landscapes of Roussillon. He sought to capture the harmonious coexistence relationships between man-made and natural elements through architectural landscapes in watercolour paintings.

20 Hill House by Mackintosh

Macintosh was a meticulous person, and his working drawings included exhaustive details for architecture, decoration, and furnishings. His wife, Margaret MacDonald immensely contributed to this documentation. These drawings have helped restore many of the projects with original details. All his major architectural commissions like homes, commercial buildings, interior renovations and churches were between 1895 and 1906. Many of his projects, however, remained on paper.

Charles Rennie Mackintosh (Kelvingrove Glasgow) (3838792257)

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STYLING the STYLE – Part 1

Post 592 by Gautam Shah

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A style is a distinctive involvement by an individual. This approach is perceived by others to have diverse potential for application, in the same or different practices. The expression, in the physical work or the discourse, results from the local environment, such as the climate, geography, the society and the times. This gets also reflected in many other aspects of innovators’ personal lifestyle, and in some form dissipates in the society. So a personal style becomes universal by emulative confirmation. Some elements of the original style seem to persist in spite of the new environment, such as culture, technology, field of application and mode of expression.

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Tribuna of Uffizi > Wikipedia image by Johann Zoffany (1733-1810)

Mannerism spreads in a different locality, time period, different forms and fields. This shifting of emulation by individuals could be for a while, sporadic, but a group coalesces to propound it vigorously as cultural heritage or innovative approach. The select components include colour, pattern, form, emphasis, representation or construction, perceptive likeness and abstract or unknown conveyance of meaning.

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Pictorial brick depicting a Chinese Courtyard Wikipedia image by Editor at Large

The first art-form to be emulated were the uttered sounds. A community impresses other ‘neighbours’ by the arrangement, succinct meaning and the ‘manner’ of conveyance. These were intricately connected to universal conditions like postures, gestures, tools, foods, and rituals like hunting, caring for children, birth, death etc. The local character to the utterances was endowed by the spatial acoustics (of terrain and built spaces) and environmental affectations. The next art forms were the personalization of the body, tools, utilities and habitable environs. These patterns and colours were regional and tribe-based, due to local material resources and used for ‘universal conditions’.

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BaKongo masks Kongo, Africa > Ethnicity of manners > Wikipedia image by Ndoto ya Afrika

These forms were initially representations of the ‘culture’ but not stylized expressions. But few individuals were proficient in it. These were the mannerist of the society, appreciated for the skill and copied by others. But the mannerisms spread from local to regional segments. The spread was slow in time, and became diffused with distance. The operative distance was what one could travel, and recall the practice. The mannerists were not classicists to be discussed or commented upon by the critics. And wherever these practices, were fortified by terrestrial seclusion or political isolation, became ethnic traditions.

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Arrest of St Mark in Synagogue with Muslim dress influences > Wikipedia image by Giovanni di Niccolo Mansueti (1485-1527)

No one had qualms about adapting, converting and mixing influences like Gods, fables, heroes, religious rights, drama characters, dogmas, recipes, motifs, festivals, dresses and adornments. This was part of personal creativity, but was also used for convincing a sponsor or buyer for it. Roman art is influenced by neighbouring cultures but was also used for the rulers. ‘Roman art periods are branded with rulers or dynasties’ and not by the art-creators. Roman arts and crafts in spite of adaptations from others, and after being ‘emulated by other across times and territories, maintains its own essence.

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Cross regional influences Philae Columns Egypt > Wikipedia image by Mohammed Moussa

Any art-form, be it a personal statement or representation of ‘manner’ can be analyzed, on hindsight, into various effects. It originates from time and space realities. Its components find justification or raison d’etre when distanced. Most styles are identified by critics or rivals more for deriding it rather than appreciating it. Historic art and architectural styles were identified after the relevant periods were nearly extinct, or its originators not in practice. This was perhaps due to lack of faster communication and wider dissemination. Lack of communication did not allow immediate coalescence of thoughts and dissemination was slow as image transmission was nearly nonexistent. The art-forms, such as art, architecture could only be visited or transmitted over longer duration. The essence of the style, however, spread through many crafts, artefacts, adornments, performing arts, literature, etc.

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Monkeys as Judges of Art > Wikipedia image by Gabriel von Max (1840-1915)

This spread became faster and intensive during the Industrial age for several reasons, publication of quality images through print media, faster and easier travel by steam-power over land and sea, weakening of the moneyed sponsorship by likes of church, industrial houses, political powers, etc. and greater distribution of arts and crafts. Creative people began to interact with others more frequently, who unlike the non-practicing critics were less derisive. The creators on their own were more conscious of meaning of expression and were self-critic.

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Shawls of 19th C France > Wikipedia image by Durin

StyleBeards

Beard Styles

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MEANING of CRAFT – 1

Post 516  -by Gautam Shah

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640px-Old_bull_cart

Craft is an activity involving skill of making things by hand. The skill of making things by hand evolves with experience. So in this sense not only the skill but resultant products continue to evolve. Craft-work could be a hobby to keep oneself engaged or a pursuit for personal satiation, and a profession for earning a livelihood. Craft activity is a personal engagement, in spite of family, clan or employees partnering it. All human activities have some element of craft-work, as some degrees of innovations are involved in routine work. The innovations relate primarily to productivity, or doing things in easier (lesser effort) manner, and in quicker way. Other efforts include efficient use of materials, working with better tools, devising superior forms, endowing new functions, safety, well being and security.

A handcraft shop Udupi India Wikipedia image by Author Vaikoovery

Elephants at Thrissur Pooram Festival Kerala, India Wikipedia image by Rajesh Kakkanatt

Craft-work allows growth of personal skills, development of physical fitness, body limb coordination, refinement of cognitive abilities, expression of thoughts and feelings, interpersonal relationships, and socio-cultural recognition. Craft is considered a stress buster activity. Craft-items, cumulatively represent both ethnicity and external influences. The craft products form a legacy of solutions that are local and time-tested, and so familiar and reliable.

: Wooden crafts for sale at the municipal market of Patzcuaro, Michoacan Wikipedia image by Author Thelmadatter

Indian stringed puppets Wikipedia image by Author Nicolás Pérez

Craft is an expression of human activity that relies on design, improvisation, enterprise, abstraction of the form, reality of functionality and compression of diverse meanings. Craft has a recognizable shape, size and existence. It persists without the creator, but has with it the flavour of the place and time of its origin. Crafts denote materials, processes and recognizing the ‘good’ (or aesthetics) things. The ‘good’ things are sought to be recreated and improved upon through new materials and processes. Routine production processes output products of consistent form and quality, like bricks, ceramic pots, etc., and are not craft’s endeavours. This means craft items are substantially varied versions of the earlier products.

Old men making handicrafts in Naqsh-e Jahan Square

Agra India artisan producing marble stone inlays wikipedia image by Author David Castor (dcastor)

Craft-items are real products where there is an intensive exploration of materials, processes and the meaning. It is not just intellectual and physical activity of making a tangible object, but also the discovery of meaning. Craft making is devoid of any absolute result or exact definitions, but rather an approximation and realization of essence. A complete piece of craft becomes an art. It is contingent, so one moves on to something else, without certainty or expectancy. It is an experience that inculcates a desire, to do something different.

Mata Ortiz pottery from Chihuahua FONART exhibition 2010 in Mexico City Wikipedia image by Author AlejandroLinaresGarcia

There are indistinct differences between the work of art and pieces of craft. The works of Art are exclusively centred on the meaning, often subjugating the materials and the processes of manipulation. The craft item is an embodiment of manipulated materials. The applied arts though manifest the materials, but do not reflect the processes of materials’ conversions. Since industrial age massive manufacturing capacities have distinguished handicrafts. Craft-items can be produced by using automated tools and other machine-based processes. This has created some categorizations of folk-crafts, country-crafts and tribal crafts.

Basket weaving Cameroon Wikipedia image by Author ymea Permission (Reusing this file) CC-BY-SA. Autorization by OTRS (ticket n° 2006062110007771).

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ART COATINGS

Post 432 – by Gautam Shah

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Lascaux2

Coatings are thin surface finishing techniques. A thin film is achieved by using a material that is in a liquid state or is convertible into a liquid phase. A coating may or may not have a colourant, but on drying achieves various degrees of transparencies. Coatings are applied to entities to alter the appearance, improve the tangibility and to provide a protective cover. Historically, however, coatings have been used for illustration and decorative effects.

The discovery of mixing dishes suggests that liquid pigment mixed with fat was also used and smeared with the hand. The subtle tonal gradations of colour on animals painted in the Altamira and Lascaux caves appear to have been dabbed in two stages with fur pads, natural variations on the rock surface were exploited to create the effects of volume.

Sleeping_Antelope_Tin_Taghirt

The simplest way of marking cave walls was to make finger-traces in the soft layer of clay covering the rock. Lime stone walls were engraved and filled in with iron oxide (hematite, or ochre), or the black pigment as manganese or charcoal. These materials were usually available locally. Analyses of pigments, reveal the use of extenders such as talc or feldspar, to increase the bulk of pigments. It also shows traces of animal and plant oils, used for binding. The pigment in paste form was applied with fingers, and also tools like animal-hair brushes or crushed twigs. Lumps of pigment discovered on cave floors may have been used as crayons, but since they do not mark the rock well, they were more likely to be sources of powder. Colour was often sprayed, from the mouth or through a tube. A network of ladder, supports and scaffolding was used to reach the ceilings and upper portions of walls. Light was provided by hearths, or portable burning torches.

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Primitive coatings were daubing of clays, minerals, charcoal, lamp blacks often mixed with mediums such as water, tallow, vegetable excretion and juices, urine, blood, bitumen. Binding mediums were employed to fix the mineral or colourant particles on the surface. Some of the binding mediums were evaporative and worked only as a `leveller’ for particulate matter. By 6000 BC, in China, calcined (fired) mixtures of inorganic compounds and organic pigments and binding mediums (vehicles) were prepared from gum arabic, egg white, gelatin, and beeswax.

Some oily mediums though superior in fixing and longer lasting, but collected dust on aging. Oil mediums became darker in colour due to oxidation, or just peeled off. Some of the mediums were destroyed due to fungus and algae. Later little more complex substances such as starches of rice and maize, pine wood extracts, egg albumin, bees wax, hydrated limes, gypsum, etc. were used.

PREHISTORIC ART FORMS

There are basic TWO sets of Arts. Fixed arts are built-forms, wall murals and architectural embellishments. These could have been part of either exterior and interior environments. Portable arts, comprise of objects or artefacts. These usually remained in protected environments. Fixed arts were largely painted and scratched or engraved, but portable arts had, at least in initial periods, natural finishes by way of selection and production processes.

Venus_vom_Hohlen_Fels_Original_frontal

Portable arts consist of wide variety of object forms and material combinations. Compared to the fixed Arts the objects are smaller in size. The portable objects show all, the surface treatments, embellishments and coating applications. The objects of this category show greater integration of all the three interventions and greater detail or involvement. Large number and wide variety of objects have been preserved and recovered even from regions where Fixed Arts entities have not survived. Portable arts’ objects are smaller and personal hobby or a family craft creation. The colour and surface quality were matter of choice or discoveries through innovation in production.

Paulnabrone

Fixed Arts entities that have survived are surface treatments or renderings through show painting, scratching, engraving and daubing methods. On the other hand, the surviving built-forms, if considered as art-forms, represent technological milestones of material handling, supporting and construction planning. Fixed arts were large scale or important societal activities, involving entire community by way of voluntary participation or forced labour. The involvement of the community was for seasonal or occasional rituals. The leader, conductor or priest of the ritual and the team were the select few experts who initiated and updated the (art) entities over and over again. Such art-forms indicate occupation or interventions of several generations, as much as for more than 300 years.

Bradshaw rock paintings

Portable Art objects are incidental that is the availability, shape, size, colours, texture, etc. define the range of treatments. Many times the purpose it will serve evolves during the process of treatments. Such objects show material combinations. many different finishes were achieved, by change of forms and exploiting the tools. Material processes like heating, singeing, sintering, baking, beating, shaping, cutting, chopping, grinding, drilling, etc., were also used in farming and cooking. It was one seamless manner of learning.

Venus_of_Brassempouy

The materials were stones, precious stones, metal nodules, mineral and other colourants, woods, grasses, twigs, hides, leathers, skins, furs, hairs, shells, teeth, horns, bones, ivory, raw clay objects, baked clay ceramics, seeds, fruits, etc.

The objects formed were totems, body adornments, tools, implements, ritual and burial objects, cooking utilities, toys for children, amenities and dwelling embellishments.

Collier_de_Penne

These were exchanged, gifted to others or offered in rituals. The objects began to have consistent expressions. The varied metaphors, passing from one generation to other, ultimately became abstract. Coins, plaques, seals, etc. represent multiple conversions of expressions like a language.

Ggantija_Temples,_Xaghra,_Gozo

Fixed Art objects like built-forms, though functional utilities were built for community and for political purposes.

The public use entities were irrigation facilities, forest clearance, dykes, bridges, walks or passages, drinking water resources, community surround structures, security amenities and storage arrangements. These were not ‘decorative arts’ but symbolized technological innovations. Some like burial stones and dolmen had items of personalization.

Cave_Paintings_Bhembetika_(22)e

Fixed Arts objects like wall arts show skills of surface preparation, rendering or painting and surface finishing. These creations also show art of surface preparation by way of grinding, etching, daubing, engraving and colourant application. Wall-arts exist in odd narrow corners, at very high elevations, tall ceilings, day time dark corners and in nearly inaccessible places. The effort must have required support structures, bridges, scaffolds, illumination and ancillary works to protect the creations from moisture.

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TEXTURES and MATERIALS

Post 162by Gautam Shah

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398px-Directional_light_and_photographic_texture

A surface, is often the reason, why an object is being preferred or rejected for a use, and continues to survive in a particular setting. A user perceives the surface of a material-object in many different conditions. A surface is the most proximate and tangible part of an object. The proximity to a surface defines its visual experience whereas the tangibility refers to the mainly tactile sensorial characteristics. Texture is an important qualitative parameter of a surface definition. Textures are intimately linked to specific objects, and deviation from that is immediately registered.

Texture by Modification

Textures are part of naturally occurring objects. We also fashion new finishes by varying the textural qualities. An object acquires a specific colour ‘tinge’ as the texture affects the angle of reflection of light. The angle of perception also has similar effect. The quality of light (the spectral range) and its brightness affect the perception of texture.

WalkerBranch_amo_seasons_2012-13

  • There are more than 20 mathematical parameters applied to surface description, and some of the terms are: roughness, irregular features of wave, height, width, lay, and direction on the surface; camber, deviation from straightness; out of flat, measure of macroscopic deviations from flatness of a surface.

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Structure background wallart, backgrounds textures.

We perceive textures through Two basic manners. Visual textures occur through variations in grades of monochrome or coloured surfaces, aided by the shape, size, direction of objects. Contour variations cause tactile textures. But without going closer to the object we perceive the textures through play of shadows and illumination. At this remote perception the texture is visual happening.

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Surface texture is a roughness that can be quantified by the vertical deviations from its “ideal form”. Surface roughness is a very subjective term what is rough for some context may be perceived to be smoother for other conditions. Surface textures are perceived for their extent. Surface texture is also sensed in terms of its proximity as well as its tangibility. A brick wall may be very rough to touch but a very extensive surface may not be perceived to be so rough.

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Textured surfaces have larger area, so greater reactivity with the environment. Roughness of the surfaces and have higher friction coefficient so susceptible higher wear. Surface irregularities are nucleation nodes for trapping of moisture and promote corrosion. Surface texture allows better adhesion.

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Textures are created by several methods, such as:

  • Removal of material >> Etching, Scraping, Roughening, Filing, Grinding, Engraving, Notching, Sculpting, Machining, Blasting, Shearing, Shaving, Singeing, Spluttering, etc.

Burnishing

  • Addition of material >> Painting, Printing, Dyeing, Metalizing, Material deposition, Plastering, Coating, Nitriding, Carburising, Galvanizing, Gilding, etc.

Diamond Polishing

  • By displacement processes like contraction and expansion >> Brushing, Rubbing, Ironing, Chasing, Repousse, Forming, Hammering, Forging, Beating, Levelling, Rolling, Buffing, Washing, Bleaching, Enamelling, Surface Alloying, Denting, Forming, Re-rolling, Peening, Spinning, Twisting, Weaving, Knitting, etc.

Road Paving-Rolling -surface creation

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GRISAILLE -monochrome form of presentation

Postby Gautam Shah

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13 Grisaille

In the later Middle Ages a new style, purged of colours, emerged to create artworks like painting, glass compositions and fabric arts etc. Grisaille painting is a technique where an image is executed entirely in shades of gray and modelled for the illusive effect of relief sculpture. The use of colour was a gray-scale palette like black, grey or single tones. This emerged perhaps as metaphorical simplicity for religious modesty or as a dissolution of the distinction between sculpture and drawn arts. The chosen palette merged the three-dimensional sculpture or built-form, and the two-dimensional drawings.

10 Grisaille

 

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The Grisaille sobered up the art, sculpture and architecture scene. In architecture, the clerestory windows of Gothic cathedrals replaced the saturated coloured glasses with patterned grisaille glass. This created interior architecture that was more honest to the form than the effect. It also devalued the story telling-board function of the windows.

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Grisaille style of monochrome or single hue presentations, encouraged the exploitation inherent patterns and textures of the architectural surfaces. The art of creating depth or its illusion through form-shape, shadows, silhouettes and forward-backward was re-explored.

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In French, Grisaille has also come to mean any painting technique in which translucent oil colours are laid over a monotone under-painting.

Grisaille (French: gris =grey), is an artwork form where Grey and its various tones are used to create sculptural effect in paintings. It is largely a monochrome form of presentation, though few other colours are also used. Frescoes with Brown tones have been called Brunaille, and with Green tones Verdaille.

Grisaille as technique is similar to Chiaroscuro. It uses shades as one basic tone to present many materials. It is also similar to charcoal or sinopia used for preparing a sketch, understudy, or prefigure outline.

9 Grey_Passion_by_Hans_Holbein_the_Elder_-_Staatsgalerie_-_Stuttgart_-_Germany_2017

Grisaille form could be a painting or glass-art or an understudy for a painting. ‘Rubens and his school sometimes use monochrome techniques in sketching compositions for engravers.’ Grisaille was often used, to see the validity of a proposed sculptural composition. It was used to imitate classical sculptures in wall and ceiling decorations. In French, Grisaille has also come to mean any painting technique in which translucent oil colours are laid over a monotone under-painting.

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This art-form was preferred for being faster and cheaper. Sometimes, however, it was intentionally used for being less committal and also for its aesthetical beauty. Grisaille art-form was used by glass painters for colouring in place of stained glass or pot glass. Grisaille windows were popular because the monochromatic panes of white glass with black or brown painted outlines offered a very sober and brighter interior environment. It saved money, and worked well as a replacement for stained glass or leaded windows.

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