Post 574by Gautam Shah


Domains are nominally, Physical, Metaphysical and Metaphorical. At another level domains could also be Real or Virtual. Physical domains are landed or with dimensioned and marked territorial features. A Metaphysical domain is more relevant by the spread or extent of its activities or effectivity. Metaphorical domains subsist on analogical connections. Such domains rely on thought, concept, traditions, customs, beliefs, style, ethnicity, etc.


Spatial Domain > Wikipedia image by VeronicaTherese

A space domain has few distinguishing marks, such as the Core and Peripheral zones. Space domains are proximate or converge. Domains have users and their social interactions are triggered by the spatial organization of the domains. In the following FOUR articles, these issues are discussed.









Monte Alban Archaeological site Gran Plaza Oaxaca Oax, Mexico Wikipedia image by Hajor Released under and/or GFDL

Physical domains are landed or with dimensioned and marked territorial features. Physical domains have transient core and peripheral zones. The peripheral zones react with the local environment and so can have many spatial as well as temporal variations. Core-zone is a common or community area and continuously shared with others. Core-zone accommodates relocatable amenities. Compared to this, the peripheral areas are assigned to specific tasks, but the tasks shift around to take advantage of changing environment. The house in charge person, wife, mother or in few instances home-based craftsman occupies the core area. Enrichments occupy the boundary sections and define the space such as sanctimonious, utilitarian, storage etc. The core area often shifts towards the daylight zone near openings.

The markings of domains are characterized by the ambit of sensual perceptivity, communicable distancing, consistency of the spatial characteristics (coherent space and environmental conditions creating a unique space segment) and acceptability or confirmation by a section of the society.

Metaphysical domains have a non physical spread. Such domains cannot be perceived through the sensorial system. Their presence is intellectually and intuitively confirmed by the believers, but for others it remains obscure. Such confirmation requires a unitary image, so a strong centric core zone emerges, often with a definitive peripheral zone. To reflect the enhanced participation and democratic nature, the peripheral zones are made transparent.

Revered spaces, shrines, historical sites, haunted buildings, buildings without utilitarian functions or commercial purposes have a strong metaphysical genesis. Beliefs borne out of instincts, concepts, experiences, etc. are rooted to the core area. In the peripheral or threshold areas these have thinner effect, so are impacted by the ideologies flourishing in the neighbourhood. Inhabitants’ beliefs also may be born as a reaction (antithetic) to the neighbours’ ideology, and in such cases may not have any core roots.

Metaphysical entities like home, family, group etc. come into being in a space where communication, exchanges and the intimacy occur more efficiently then elsewhere. Such space units are also ‘home’ to many other beliefs and notions. These are associated with a person or group, and so have a strong presence. Metaphysical zones centering on a belief or remembrance of an event, person or entity are sustainable so far as believers, followers exist, conduct activities to further the belief or notion, or till a counter effect comes to be accepted.

The beliefs as a metaphysical factor cast a space that is sharper at the point of the origin, and prone to diffusion elsewhere. But for belief to survive and gain strength peripheries are necessary. Churches, temples, Ashrams have strongly defined territory through peripheral structures like gates, walls, Gopuram, etc.

Metaphoric domains require very little estate, however to support and enhance the metaphoric presence some spatial characteristics are employed. There being a single generative concept, the peripheral zones have a very small role and so a thin presence. The environment within is static, reflecting nearly solid barriers. Amenities, facilities and enrichment are purposive only, and so their relocation or any shifting of other elements due to them is not required.


Global Internet Realm > Wikipedia image by Shijan Kaakkara

 Convergent or Proximate Domains

A physical domain is a unique spatial entity. But often other domains are very close-by or converge onto it. The effect of it is seen as inward and outward transgression of the peripheral areas. The transgressions occur to enhance the spatial character, or take advantage of the neighbouring or convergent domain. Ariel windows, Bay windows, Chhatris, Balconies, Verandahs are typical outward transgressions, whereas Chowks, cutouts, shafts, courtyards, are examples of inward transgressions. With such transgressions the peripheral areas change, but core zone remains unaffected. Perhaps the only change that occurs with the core zone is due to the shift towards the vibrant periphery.


Convergent domains Edinburgh Castle and surroundings > Wikipedia image by Kim Traynor



Domains have Three basic constituents Formatted Space, Environment and Individual/s. A domain, as a space, is a segmented entity. Its primary segments are Core and Peripheral zones. A core is usually single, but peripheral zones are many. The core and peripheral zones often converge. Different peripheral zones also impinge over each other. The formatted space endows an exclusive character to the domain.

Core Zone of a space domain represents the commandeering mechanism and has a natural tendency to be singular and focal. The core zone has consistent environmental and spatial qualities, but its position within the domain may be transient. The shift is due to environmental conditions, functional needs, available facilities, amenities and enrichments.


Core versus Peripheral zones Flickr image by Stortinget

Core zones gain strength by the shape (form) of space. Space forms like concentric, conical, angular, circular etc. are focussed and so enhance the nature of a core zone. However, very extensive domains lack an effective focus. A dominant enclosure on one or few sides of a domain creates an inviolable shield, an identity of belonging, or a sense of orientation.

A core zone can be formed by the dimensional and cognition reach extent of the occupant. The reach extent also scales the domain space. Such core zones are very personal, so sustain themselves independently. A core zone may not exist clearly where very vivid surroundings form strong peripheral areas.

Core zone amenities shift due to spatial needs and environmental changes. This leads to demountable or relocatable amenities such as handy or mobile tools, multipurpose equipments, plug in tools, wireless gadgets, miniaturized appliances and modular and system’s engineering approach in design. Compared to these amenities in the peripheral zones are strongly dependent on the architectural and structural systems, and so are static.

Historically a core zone of the ‘Home’ was the ‘hearth’ (literally meaning a focus). It was considered safe, intimate and interactive for the family. The hearth was centric, without any abutting elements like a cave wall or a rock face. The ambit of the core zone was determined by the climate, the scale of the space, number of participants and level of interaction, and the degree of personalization required. There was only one such zone in the dwelling.

The home in charge -the mother was master of the core zone. Her role and presence had become so obvious that ‘the hearth, the mother and home’ were synonymous. In tribal and aboriginal homes the core area is a female domain. The core zone, was the natural centre of metaphysical spread ‘the home’, as much as the mother was de facto guardian of culture.

Today, however the hearth is not an inevitable element for safety, security or comfort. It is the quality of barriers and other gadgets that provide this. Dwellings now have many sub domains each belonging to an individual, smaller group, or configured for a set of tasks. Very few activities of the family occur at the one place and are scheduled in the same time slot. But the family members do share a lifestyle developed through metaphysical markings like beliefs (customs, taboos, etc.) and the metaphoric means.


Multiple or Convergent Core zones at Water Tower Place Chicago > Wikipedia image by Cosmos1976

Multiple core zones occur in very extensive domains. Such domains have weak central command and so allow formation of groups. The groups separate out primarily due to needs like physical accommodation, need for social intimacy and reach of communication. The groups may not seek a distinct territory or qualitative space segment, however, frequent such occurrences, show the existence of multiple qualitative space segments.

Multiple core zones also emerge where several overlapping or closely spaced domains operate within a larger domain space entity. Such core zones share the same spatial segment simultaneously or are programmed in same time schedules. Here the consistent elements are: spatial characteristics, environmental features, participants, amenities, facilities, tasks and activities. Multiple core zones tend to remain together, but often get separated by strong peripheral areas.

Arab tents had dual core areas within the basic form of the tent, one occupied by the women and used for main cooking, and the other half is used by men and for preparing coffee, etc. These two sections are divided by a mass of stored elements, such as mattresses, floor spreads, etc. The side flaps of the tent are stretched out to create peripheral zones of various sizes. The stretched width and the angle of the flap are conditioned by the sun’s position, wind direction, nature of tasks to be conducted and the need for privacy.

Cooking and dining once (and still do in many societies) belonged to a single core zone, but were separated as two concurrent core areas. These two core areas were further separated by a pantry area that was a peripheral zone to both. Entrance is buffered by a lobby, foyer, entrance hall, or vestibule from other sections of the house. Yards, verandahs, porches are used to separate out the building from the street.

Small or one room houses have multiple core zones. These zones exist in terms of activity space spreads, which often overlap in time. The multiple core zones match the space layout characteristics, such as four corners, the area near the door or window, the area abutting the wall, the axis formed between two opposite side opening. Traditional Sarai rooms are two and half man width (2.0+1.0 mid passage+2.0 = 5 Mts or 16.5 Ft). This allows two families or their men or women to occupy a side. The depth of the room is of less important.


Centric Core zone A Pompeian Interior > Wikipedia image

Centric and Non-centric Core Zones: Domains with emphatic barriers create a centric space entity. But domains with breach-able barriers or loosely defined peripheral identities have overwhelming outside influences that create a non-centric space.

Domains with a substantial core zone tend to be spherical. Such spherical domains with a centric core zone are invariably static, compact and finite. Domains with an opaque boundary are also similar. Domains with weak boundaries have vibrant peripheral areas. A shift of the core zone towards a benevolent peripheral area becomes inevitable. A very extensive domain also provides greater opportunity for such a shift. Non-centric domains have some directionality as these are strongly affected on one edge, or are attached to other domains. Non-centric domains require far more definitive space formatting then centric domains.

Historically kingdoms have had effective spread of their domain depending on how far and fast they could travel. Mughal kings with their luxurious retinue could not visit the peripheral areas, frequently resulting in weaker control. Compared to this Changiz Khan’s Kingdom extended far & wide, but not for very long. Lecture halls or areas where concentration is required have opaque boundaries and conical shape. A colony against a fort wall or along a river coast is a linear domain, subsisting on the strong peripheral advantage and so apparently may not have core presence.



Peripheral zones are vulnerable to outside influences due to their closeness with the edge and also their distance from the core section. A core zone is dominated by the domain’s main and common activity, but the peripheral zones are distinctive escape areas and so have diverse utility. Peripheral zones derive their functionality from nature of barriers. Peripheral zones emerge as an antithesis or concurrent space segment of the core zone. The peripheral zones are affected differently by the directional and temporal aspects of the environment. A peripheral zone is often relevant only for a while, to an individual, or for an activity.


Peripheral emphasis in space > Choir and East side of the rood screen of Saint Cecile Cathedral France > Wikipedia image by Benh LIEU SONG

Once the extent of the peripheral zone was determined by the concern for safety, warmth from the fire, the need for privacy, scale of the task-activity and distancing from elements (to reduce their intensity and reach). The barriers, where available formed the edge sections of the peripheral zone. These were also used for reclining, resting, hanging personal items and for expression (artwork).

Peripheral zones are primarily shaped by the core zone, but are more often affected by the nature of the periphery of neighbouring domains and happenings beyond. The edge areas allow a person to selectively taste the happenings of outside-world even while remaining inside. Peripheral zones are flexible, i.e. can be stretched or contracted from their nominal spread. Domain transgression occurs through the periphery. Peripheral zones are dual faced, so one can orient an activity towards or away from the core area.

Peripheral zones often develop as an acutely specific zone. Study nooks in bedrooms, coffee rooms with the dining area, hobby zones in kitchens, home offices with vestibules, retiring rooms in private offices, vaults in banks, store rooms with homes and offices, wardrobes, shower stalls, change rooms in boutiques, cashiers’ cabins, pilot or driver’s cabins, reception counter, janitor area, services ducts, podiums in lecture halls, green rooms with a performance stage, ticket booths, telephone kiosks, are all examples of peripheral zones separated from the core zones.

Peripheral areas mark the end of one space entity and beginning of another one. Peripheral zones are thresholds to other space entities, and occur or are perceived to be an intermediate or buffer state. Thresholds are interactive areas, and alter (qualitatively) the elements transiting through it. Their activeness arises from their level of transparency and thickness (mass of the barrier), both of which control (rate, direction) the exchange. Thresholds also occur as an interstice on the overlapping barriers, where two effects are simultaneously operative.

The space barriers, such as walls, roofs, awnings, curtains, partitions, ceilings, etc. form a focussed space. Yet these barriers also create segments that are more strongly attached to the periphery. The barriers, however, are always prone to change from outside effects. There are two distinct places for group behaviour mechanisms -the focal and the peripheral sections.

Lecture halls, bed rooms, modern kitchens are single activity and so focussed units, but road side cafes are peripheral. An older style kitchen sourcing its services off a wall was more peripheral, whereas modern kitchens have island workstations, is more of core centric arrangement. A drawing room like the dining area is focussed for an activity, but a family room is multi functional and so less focal. Fire was the focus of the primitive home, and TV has become the current focus of home gathering. A physical feed-based work station is peripheral, but a wireless notepad computer offers flexibility of being anywhere.



Domains as Space entities are used by owners or occupants, architectonic elements and spatial objects.

Space and Users or Occupants: For a user, occupation of a space triggers a set of behaviour. For occupation the user has to find the most appropriate location, orientation, body posture, facilities, amenities, and environment. One of the most natural and primal way is to search a focal location in the space. This is done by finding geometric junction (cris-cross of many spatial lines), by locating spatial balancing or focussing centres, by orienting to some feature of the space (like an entrance door, window), by being closer to something (wall, column, furniture), by associating with other occupants (through ‘social distancing’) or by creating new patterns (angular, floral, concentric, diffusive). Here other operative factors are: range of cognition (capacity to perceive), physical proximity (level of social interaction), nature of relationship (age, sex, social status) and possibilities of expression and communication.


Pennsylvania Station NY > Wikipedia image by Alan Turkus

The user also needs to have some control over the space, such as: Opportunity to change the location and position (including the posture) within the space; Choice to interact or not with others; adjust the spatial quality at micro level (scale and schedule-wise) and thereby the environmental conditions; Be noticed or notice others; Form sub-core zones, Shift to peripheral zones and be able to conduct exclusive tasks, and Way to leave the space either in full knowledge of others or without being noticed. A user, unless is an owner of a domain, will not be allowed to change the architectonic character of the space, import, shift or relocate amenities and facilities, alter the quality of environment that perhaps is not acceptable to others.

In very large spaces adjacent walls, hedges, mid columns, flower pots, water fountains, lamp posts, flooring, ceiling, and such other patterns and objects provide points of anchorage for space occupation. Spatial configurations like a stage, podiums, projection screens, speakers, singers, vivid objects, also hold interest by providing involvement.

In parties, hosts make a conscious effort to break intimate formations by removing or adding key or active persons, or repositioning and rescheduling the activities. In clubs and places of entertainment the environment (lighting, furniture, equipment) and programmes are reset to shift the focus off certain space segments. Group gatherings are designed to occupy different space segments (hall, terrace, lounge, library, garden lawn, etc.), variegated environmental conditions (bright vs diffused illumination, change of music, etc.) and diversions (toast by the host, magic shows, musical renderings, dancing, etc.).

Interpersonal Relationships and Spaces: Groups require space for interpersonal relationships, expression and its perception. However, the ‘depth’ required for such interactions in physical domains is irrelevant for virtual domains like telephony or video conferencing, chat rooms, hangouts, etc.

Interpersonal relationships have little relevance in acutely sized and highly defined spaces (ergonomically sized, shaped and provisioned with facilities), such as: toilets, kitchens, storerooms, study nooks, booths, etc. Larger spaces such as bedrooms, drawing rooms, office cabins, etc. allow interpersonal relationships, often in multiple varieties simultaneously.

Ideal place for the interpersonal relationship is the core section. This has least external disturbance, so should be an area of tranquility affording privacy. Yet peripheral zones are more preferred as a place for intimate relationships and commitment. In restaurants, cinema halls, public parks, large waiting areas, people move to corners and edges for seclusion. Threshold areas though peripheral, are public and vibrant. Threshold areas are considered ideal for noncommittal interaction.


Group behaviour mechanism in Space Image Flickr source: Neko II > Wikipedia image by Sultry

The group behaviour mechanisms exploit the space characteristics to infuse emotional and social functionality. Group behaviour depends on individuals as well as interactions among such individuals. An individual projects psychological and sociological responses. The group behaviour though erratic has a degree of commonality – raison d’être (cause) of formation of the group. The common approach of the group is an assurance that their peculiar behaviour is not an aberration but a probable happening.


This post forms 5th of the Sixteen part of Lecture series on Behaviour in Space that I will be offering for the spring semester starting Jan 2016 (to mid April2016) at School of Interior Design, Faculty of Design, CEPT University, Ahmedabad, India.


Post 572by Gautam Shah


A domain is a very ambivalent term. It is a sphere, area, orbit, field, arena, demesne, land region, or realm. Domains have two obvious features: 1 people who create and command it and, 2 features that indicate the effective extent. A domain could also be an abstract effect, an idea of a space, exploited to sustain the myth of a place. The domain as abstract effectuality is circumstantial, a metaphysical, metaphorical or virtual entity.


Fortified domain –Carcassonne Castle Wikipedia image by Petitemontagnedujura

Physical domains are territorial domains. People occupy lands naturally, forcefully or notionally and distinguish it as domain by personalization of the place. Lands have defining barriers or edges that define the effective extent of the domain. Domains, have features that highlight their size, character, activity, identity, distinctiveness, exclusivity, knowledge, effectivity, ownership, rights, and conformity

Metaphysical domains operate without any dependence on a territorial form. Free Mason Society, Veggies (Vegetarians), Cults (Hare Rama Hare Krishna), Religions, are such metaphysical domains.


Initiation of an apprentice into Free Mason around 1800 >> Wikipedia image

Metaphorical domains have a founding representation or notion. All acts and beliefs, confirming or extending the existence, are acts of participation in commanding the domain. Metaphoric domains are relevant to only a particular class of occupants. Others are unaware of it, or intentionally ignore it. Graphics, symbols, signage, languages, codes, gestures (body language), forms, proportions, colours, expressions, etc. are some of the allegorical presences. Art movements, fashion styles, literary movements create metaphoric domains. Some spatial features and environmental conditions often occur in concert, and so presence of one, metaphorically triggers the other. Historical monuments, places of reverence (temples, ashrams), and memorials have such eminence. Nightclubs, amusement parks, exhibitions, public buildings like airports, also have abstracted elements.


What began as a metaphysical domain entity is now a landed domain… but soon may revert to metaphysical state > Wikipedia image by Austin McKinley

Virtual domains come into being through a wider affirmation of a concept. The governance is through the adherence and advantage out of it. Internet communities like World Wide Web (WWW), G+, Face Book, Tweeter or Blogs are examples of such realms. These are not tied to any geographical region or political power. ISO Quality Management System per 900x is also such a domain. These domains have multiplicity of participation, and as the connections are dynamic, the domain seems virtual.


Social Domain > Chichicastenango Market Guatemala Wikipedia image by Chmouel Boudjnah en wikipedia

Convergence of Domains occurs as all types of domains coexist in a contagious, overlapping or merged environment. They derive their functional efficiency through coexistence and dependence. It is not possible to separate out atmospheric strata from one another. Similarly social domains represent areas for specific behaviour, but are not territorial. Social interactions flourish consistently in certain types of spaces depending on the number of participants, their reach to each other, the means of communication and recognition. These spaces qualitatively contrast with ‘non-social spaces’.


Issac Oliver’s allegorical painting (1590-95) Contrasting virtuous and licentious dress behaviour >> Wikipedia image

Domains also occur as an antithesis, a contrasting element, to the real or notional (virtual reality) entity. If one exists (even if notionally) the other manifests, in a kind of parallelism. Heaven contrasts with the real world, and also has an antithesis as hell. If lands are solid then skies are ethereal.


Neighbourhood as a domain >> Wikipedia image by Challengethelimits

Physical domains have well-defined edges, and so a space with supportive environment. The space is further enriched by including facilities for environmental control and amenities for conducting the tasks. The manageable space is within the limits of human cognition, inside the ambit of nominal physiological capacities, and the extendable reach capacities (through devices). Such domains become very strongly defined space for living or behavioural setting. Such domains have a centric or eccentric form, but receding power as one move away from its core, and at some point other influences diminish its power. Rulers or masters of such domains do not like such infinite receding effects, so rather create barricades or boundaries.

Berlin, III. Weltfestspiele

Stalin cult in E Berlin > Image Attribution: Bundesarchiv, Bild 183-11500-0994 / Martin / CC-BY-SA 3.0

Metaphysical domains occur when there is a tacit understanding among the believers as to what acts are for or against the survival of the domain. The domain persists, depending on the number of believers or followers, and their dedication for the cause. Such influences can also be a legacy. Metaphysical domains show a receding zone of effectuality as the staunch believer or perpetrator of the cult occupy the centre. A vigorously active metaphysical domain projects an entity that is reliable, secure, predictable, proven, acceptable to many. A metaphysical domain does not require a terrain location for identity, however, participants at some stage move to a terrain-based identity, as it provides stability. In this sense the physical and the metaphysical domains converge.


Beatles cult >> Wikipedia image

For a metaphysical domain, areas distancing occur both in time and space. But it is sought to be re-strengthened, by physical means controlling the dynamism (variability) of the environment in the peripheral zones, by suitable space characteristics such as size, shape scale, the quality of barriers, illumination, sound reverberation, axis, orientation, etc. For stage performances the actors use large garments, extensive gestures and loud delivery of dialogues, so that last person becomes part of the show. The weak or receding areas of a metaphysical domain can also be strengthened by use of metaphors. The weak areas are intentionally populated by ‘hard-core’ believers, so that their confirmative behaviour is emulated by lesser believers. Political meets have ‘back seat boys’ (rabble-rousers) whose over enthusiastic behaviour arouses the mood.


Air traffic controller over an air space domain

Metaphoric domains occupy no physical estate, and so are economical and efficient. The regulations are by acceptance and realization that confirmation or participation is advantageous. In spite of the overwhelming fear that it may penetrate into privacy and intimacy domains of social life, such domains offer great scope for expression and communication. The culture of metaphoric domains is now replacing the nominal means of cognition and behavioural responses. It replaces the reality so completely that one often forgets what the reality is, was, or could be. This happens when metaphors have several layers of conversions.


Vsat at Salaga Ghana >> Wikipedia image by IICD

Domains remain primarily a territory or a space to live. Domains become metaphysical as a behavioural setting, and for responses to the environment and others (beings) it serves a metaphorical purpose. A physical domain is beset with too much political interference, a metaphysical one may not be a democratic one, but there is a selfish interest in confirmation of a metaphoric entity.


This post forms 4th of the Sixteen part of Lecture series on Behaviour in Space that I will be offering for the spring semester starting Jan 2016 (to mid April2016) at School of Interior Design, Faculty of Design, CEPT University, Ahmedabad, India.


Post 569 by Gautam Shah



As a person marks, possesses and occupies a meaningful territory it becomes a place for inhabitation. The territory forms the Role Locus for behaviour. It will satisfy biological, social, psychological and cultural needs. A role locus is 1 -a Space for inhabitation, 2 -a Zone of individuality and 3 -a formal or symbolic form. The role locus is a person centric entity, where an individual or a group leader, is the conductor.



Wikipedia image by Gorupka from Tomaj, Slovenia

The role locus is an inhabitable place. It has realistic bounding limits or barriers. It is a physical reality, finite in scale, sized and shaped for the occupant. It is a dimensioned territorial entity reflecting the cognitive capacities and ‘reach capacities’ of the occupant.


As a zone of an individuality, the inhabitable place has a personal imprint or relevance. Such a place is sometimes overlayed with the personal values, beliefs, feelings, intuition, etc. The place of inhabitation as a zone of individuality, it is intensely evident at the point of origin or close to its creator, but diffuses out with distance.


In formal or symbolic form the place of inhabitation arises from few essential features that allow one to perceive ‘a substantial space entity’. Such a representational space could be part of our experiences or are intuitive part of the psyche. The metaphoric entity prevails among certain class of people, who tacitly agree or have been socially or politically conditioned to accept to represent certain expressions, actions, etc. Such impressions of place are representative, immaterial, allegorical, pseudo, make-believe, or of ‘virtual reality’.


Flickr image by LandBetweenTheLakesKYTN

A role locus is a place or setting where human behaviour manifests. It is a marked and recognized territory for its potential of inhabitation. The place has three essential qualities: Location value of reflecting the strength of its connections. These are due to proximity and convergence of other spatial elements. Physical features are the dimensional accommodations, orientation, environmental conditioning, amenities and facilities. Potential for improvisation is an intimate and exclusive realization. It may include associations that personalize the place.


Flickr image by FMSC -Haiti

Role Locus has certain features or markings. These include physical characteristics that define the sphere of sensorial perceptivity and reach, communicable distance, consistency of the spatial characteristics (similarity of space and environmental conditions creating a unique space segment) etc. It can have metaphysical flavour such as awe, prestige, discipline, belief, fear, etc.


How an individual establishes, a role locus is one of the most important aspects of sociological responses. Possession and occupation of a space immediately translates as to the degree of social reactivity. It regulates the nature of interaction with others, privacy, degree of accessibility or isolation, as reflected in aloofness, loneliness, alienation, participation, leadership, devotion, cohabitation, etc.



The place identity leads to a place attachment.

Harold Proshansky, and others, of City University of New York have explored the concept of place identity as a ‘substructure of the self-identity of the person consisting of broadly conceived cognition about the physical world in which the individual lives’.

Tuan (1980), Relph (1976) and Buttimer (1980), shares a couple of basic assumptions. As a person, lives and creates memories within a place, attachment is built and it is through one’s personal connection to a place, that he or she gains a sense of belonging and purpose, which then gives significance and meaning to their life’.

‘There is reciprocal interaction between people and their physical environment; people affect places, and places (and the way places are affected) influence how people see themselves’.

Casey (2001) states that identity is created both internally in the mind, and through the body’s interaction with the outside world -there is no place without self, and no self without place.



This post forms part 3 of the Sixteen part of Lecture series on Behaviour in Space that I will be offering for the spring semester starting Jan 2016 (to mid April2016) at School of Interior Design, Faculty of Design, CEPT University, Ahmedabad, India.


Post 567 by Gautam Shah


All beings show prime behaviour towards possession of space for inhabitation. Inhabitation is instinctive as well as learned behaviour for survival and proliferation. The sequence leading to inhabitation begins as realization, possession and occupation of a space. This is simply a territorial spread, which when delineated for its extent becomes a personal place in the universe.


Marking the territory > Standing stones of Stenness Scotland Wikipedia image by BillC

Inhabitation establishes a Role Locus (a stage or setting). Animals do such branding with urine, excreta or enzymes (odours), Primitive people have done it by leaving traces of occupation, such as the ashes of the extinguished fire, engraving on a tree trunk, stacking few stones or marking the land. The territorial spread is marked by fencing, posts, scoring corners, clearing the vegetation or making changes over the landscape. The branding and delineation often occur simultaneously. The place-identity could be for the individual (or family), community or group. The space possession could be cursory, experimental, notional and transient, till full potential of size, shape, environmental qualities and sensorial characteristics are realized over several visits.


Rhino marking own territory with excreta Wikipedia image by Jonathan GroB

A place has three essential qualities, A location value, as seen in the connections that reflect the proximity and convergence of other places or neighbourhoods. The location features like dimensions, orientations, environment, terrestrial character, amenities and facilities. It also includes associations that personalize the space, such as history, neighbours, precincts, etc. The potential for improvisation is due to the preexisting conditions. The space, environmental features, components and neighbours, all make an inhabitable entity.


A village in Rajasthan, India Wikipedia image by Hamon  jp

The spatial features once developed in a place create place attachment. The place attachment is due to the effort and rarity of opportunity. It soon turns into pride, awe, prestige, discipline, belief, fear, and legacy of personal values, attitudes, feelings and beliefs. A place of inhabitation has neighbours, no matter how few, and far apart. Possession and occupation of the place, immediately offers some degree of social reactivity. One may not have any physical contact with anyone, and it may be just empathetic recognition. The social reactivity regulates the nature of interaction with others, privacy, degree of accessibility or isolation, as reflected in aloofness, loneliness, alienation, participation, leadership, devotion, cohabitation, etc.


Marina Bay sands Singapore Wikipedia image chensiyuan

Inhabitation is a continuous process of improvising the means and methods for living. It involves, forming a space (a built form) with environmental responses, rendering it with required sensorial attributes, provisioning for the functional needs of living. The living includes personal acts like grooming, eating, resting, etc., living with others (including family life), communication, earning a livelihood, and other diversionary activities like revelry, grief, etc.”


Searching a space for inhabitation Rio de Janeiro Brazil, Wikipedia image from source Flickr: Pavao-Pavaozinho favela 

The realm with a spatial organization has an implicit environment. The realm comes into being with functional facilities such as tools, gadgets, equipments, etc. The realm is further personalized by ‘enrichments’. The space-form, environment, functional facilities and enrichments all together create a space for inhabitation.

“As a person, lives and creates memories within a place, attachment is built and it is through one’s personal connection to a place, that he or she gains a sense of belonging and purpose, which then gives significance and meaning to their life”.

“There is reciprocal interaction between people and their physical environment; people affect places, and places (and the way places are affected) influence how people see themselves”.


Three Piegan (Blackfeet) chiefs 1900 Wikipedia image


This post forms 2 of the Sixteen part of Lecture series on Behaviour in Space that I will be offering for the spring semester starting Jan 2016 (to mid April2016) at School of Interior Design, Faculty of Design, CEPT University, Ahmedabad, India.



Postby Gautam Shah


Exploiting the Small spaces



Small spaces are small absolutely and relatively. A space is considered small if one, two, or all of its dimensions (Length, Width, Height) are small in comparison to the occupant’s own body size and inadequate for task requirements. A space is considered small (narrow) if one of its horizontal-spread dimensions (either Length or Width) is proportionately smaller.


Small spaces are often considered intimidating and claustrophobic because the core zone nearly embraces the entire space, leaving no or very small peripheral space zones. Such an exclusive core space zone is too susceptible to affectations from neighbouring domains. Small spaces evoke overwhelming power of the barriers, such as the walls, roof and floor. Such spaces have no echoes, or no depth for perspective perception.



Small spaces are intimate and show good recognition. Small spaces aid intra-personal communication and exchanges. But very small spaces become too personal for reasonable or objective communication. Small spaces are acutely specific for one or few activities and so are manageable. Small spaces may be functionally adequate by themselves but do not permit even a temporary expansion of an activity. Small sub-space modules have a tendency to merge and form a larger system, as it saves estate wastage in peripheral zones. Small spaces have bulged or transgressed peripheral zones.



Large spaces have large core zones and equally large peripheral zones. Very large spaces have diffused or multiple cores. Diffused cores have poor recognition, communication and exchange capacity. In large spaces the distanced barriers (such as the walls, roof and floor) are less commanding. The distanced barriers also permit a core zone to exist on its own. A large space with fewer occupants may seem impersonal compared to small spaces that in some way infuse intimacy. Large spaces allow individualization, but group formation becomes uncertain. Large spaces confer power to the individual who can own it and have the reach capacity to control it.



Amphi theatre performances require large frill dresses, loud dialogue delivery, spaced out movements -theatrics, real or make-believe sub-zoning of the stage. Large space audiences can be reached through public address system, a large podium, stage setting, colour-light highlighting, etc. People in large spaces like airports and marriage halls reach out to others through wild gestures, shouting etc.


Large spaces seem alien as the edges are less definitive. Here the peripheral zones are too segmented and varied. Occupation of large space is challenging. One, however, needs to find points for anchorage, a direction for orientation, presence of other human being (or an animal like a dog) for confirmation, and a ready strategy for exit in any exigency.