BLACK Part – II

Post 517  by Gautam Shah

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Black soot covered walls Almeida Júnior – Country Kitchen – oil on canvas 1895

Black is one of the prime colours, used by humans. Red, though is very vivid and fascinating colour in the history. Red and Black have ethereal connection, and both seem almost indistinguishable in monotone perception. This was one of the reasons that in the black-white cinema era, heroines avoided red dresses and lipsticks. The infamous Psycho shower scene of blood, was shot with not red liquid but most palatable chocolate syrup. The BW movie Jezebel (1938 with cast Bette Davis, Henry Fonda, George Brent), based on Brilliant scarlet dress (outrageous) the heroine wore, was actually Brown in colour. It was a well-deliberated move. Was this the story of red colour in dark dimly lit cave paintings of Paleolithic age? Could they have perceived black from the red, when both of which were extensively used. Paleolithic painters had several sources of black, such as wood charcoal, bone charcoal, manganese oxide, in addition to the tonal variations caused by the surface binding mediums like water, tallow, fish oil, eggs, wax etc. The hue variations were caused by the direction, and intensity of the lighting torch or fire used to see the paintings.

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Black is the ‘strongest colour’ (or in scientific language the most remarkable absence of all colours of the spectrum). It was used as draft line of the figure, for highlighting the silhouette of the figure, in few instances for defining the colours’ edges, for containing and bounding the running colours of low viscosity. Paleolithic painters used black (and also other colours such as ochres and red oxides) to shade the artwork for tonal effects. The tonal variations served the purpose adding a depth dimension, for emphasizing the important segments of the composition, and only in later periods for light shading. Light shading with subtle use black was to indicate the direction of the source and often to the root of the magical power.

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Carbon Black with high ash content

Carbon Black Pure

Black has been a great additive to tone up (or down) other colours. It, however, is a very strong shade tinter, even better than the whites available in early periods. Black, true to its nature, would reduce the brightness (visual impact) of the colour, compared with the addition of the white. Black added colours contribute depth to the colour. By the time of Iron age, the technique of adding black to vary the tones became much less popular. This was mainly due to the availability of multiple shades of ochres, oxides, etc. Blacks of different origins were added to whites of various types (such as calcium carbonate, barytes, gypsum) to achieve vast range of greys for use in mural paintings.

Red Black combination in Cave Art > Reproduction of a bison of the cave of Altamira Wikipedia image by Author Rameessos

The most difficult part was how to reduce or alter the tonal quality of black? Addition of white reduced it to grey shade, a completely alienated entity of black. In painting, the lightness of a shade was adjusted through mixture with white or black, but now by adding a colour. This was done first by using black of different origin, than by mixing very dark colours such as red oxide, black iron oxide, dark amber, and by adding low opacity ‘white minerals’. When yellows, reds and oranges are mixed with small amounts of black, it can cause a change to very a different shade.

Greys by avoiding the Black >> Gare Saint Lazare, 1877 Claude Monet (1840–1926)

Blacks, greys and other shades shift with the addition of black, often to a level that scared many seasoned artists and crafts-persons. The scare was more forbidding due to the metaphoric association with Gods, human behaviour and varied perceptual interpretations. Blacks of all origins, however, had one positive advantage that this was non fading or non destructible colours. Their tinting strength was fairly good and the perceptible shade was just ‘black’ with very few sub-variants. But its effect on other colours after mixing or through sheer proximity was extremely profound.

Impressionists avoided use of Black > Auguste Renoir – Dance at Le Moulin de la Galette

Art teachers, have been telling their apprentices, juniors and students to keep away from black. The same advise still holds true even today. If you are an interior designer, architect or builder, do not play around with black, unless you have the capacity for course correction or complete redo. Blacks are very opaque, and have a very high tinting strength, so a small amount can cause devastating effect. The small amount is very ill-defined and difficult to measure a term, and thoroughly mixing it into a larger mass without industrial equipment, an impossible task.

rosa-1911660_640Artists can mix few darker colours and get away with a ‘black’ like effect such as ultramarine blue and burnt umber can do it. The impressionists remained away from black, and preferred to devise the ‘black effect’.

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BLACK – Part – I

Post 211 ⇒   by Gautam Shah 

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Black is ‘no colour’, as it represents the absence of light. Black is the lack of all colours of light, or an exhaustive combination of multiple colours of pigments. It is opposite of white and often represents darkness in contrast with light. Blacks has its origin with fire or its residual product charcoal, ash and deposit as ‘Lamp black’.

Charcoal

Charcoal

Old English blæc =dark, is from Proto-Germanic > blakaz =burned. Etymologically Surprisingly other cognates of ‘blac’ include: Blæc, Bleak, Blake, Bleach, Blanch. Black can be traced back to ancient Greek phlegein =to burn, scorch and its proto Indo-European origins through ‘bhleg’ =to burn with black smoke or to burn black with smoke. ‘Bhleg’ was incorporated into Old High German as ‘blah’, Dutch blaken =to burn.

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Black colours are not all equal Black, some are slightly bluish, reddish, and so on. True tinge can be seen on diluting it with white

If BLACK (Blæc) > burning bright, or burning, burnt, blackened by burning, pale, wan, colourless, or albino. The associated word (to Blæc) was BLEACH > burning bright, bright and shining, make shining white. So Black is associated with shining white. In Middle English the word was spelt as “blaec (Blæc)” same thing as the modern word ‘black’, only at that time, around 1051 AD, it still meant a fair skin, or so-called white person.

Lascaux painting with Black

Lascaux painting with Black

The Ancient Greeks sometimes used the same word to name different colours, if they had the same intensity. Kuanos’ could mean both dark blue and black. The Ancient Romans had two words for black: ater was a flat, dull black, while niger was a brilliant, saturated black. Ater has vanished from the vocabulary, but niger has come to country name Nigeria, for Nigger or Negro in English and for black in most modern Romance languages (French: noir; Spanish: negro; Italian: nero). Old High German had two words for black: swartz for dull black and blach for a luminous black. This distinctive usage also occurs in Middle English, swart for dull black and blaek for luminous black.

Ceramic Black

Ceramic Black

 It was in 16th C the semantic broadening of Black occurred, both figurative connotations as well as literal. From ‘blacken’ and its literal meaning ‘to stain black’ came the figurative meaning ‘to stain some ones’ reputation, or defame’. This incorporation of black was beginning of negative intensifier, and meant malignant, deadly purpose and involving death.

Lascaux cave painting in Black

Black has many cognates in modern usage such as for suit of spades or clubs as black, Coffee without milk is black, economic loss as being in black, truth was dilemmatic black or white. Black colour is physically associated with fire, and metaphorically with the night sky. Black is associated with the negative, such as Black market, Black mail, Black list, Black (Fri) day, Black deed, Black flag, Black hole, Black mood, Black fever, etc.

Portrait of Jessica Chambers, charcoal John Murdoch

Portrait of Jessica Chambers, charcoal John Murdoch

 Even though black is associated with fire, it was used even before the fire was used or domesticated. Black was available as charcoal of charred woods of natural fires, ashes, minerals including coal deposits and Magnesium Oxide. Black was one of the first few colours used by artists in neolithic cave paintings. It was used for outlining and for highlighting the image. In neolithic paintings, and later day wall-art Black was used as the contrasting colour to Red, and not the White. What black could cover or hide that weak white could not do, perhaps white, at that point of time was not that intense or opaque. Blacks colours are Carbon, and absorb light, so appear dark in infra-red reflecto-graph scanning, to reveal the starting outlines under the painting.

Spirit_Rover-Mars_Night_SkyCarbon black is very ancient Black colour pigment. It is produced by heating wood, or other plant material, in a closed chamber with very restricted supply of air. Carbon black was used, mixed with oil or water. Lamp black is a form of carbon black, but obtained from the soot of burned fat, oil, tar, or resin. Lamp black has varied tinge, soft brownish, bluish, or pitch-black. It is one of the most stable pigments unaffected by light, acids and alkalis. Bone black has bluish tinge, but is intense than lamp black. It is made from charring of bones or ivory. Vine black was produced by charring desiccated grape vines and stems.

CGA NTSC Colours

CGA NTSC Colours

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