LINKS to my BLOGS on CLIMATE

POST 730 -by Gautam Shah

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old-farmhouse

1 QUALITY OF INDOOR AIR (26March2014) https://interiordesignassist.wordpress.com/2014/03/26/quality-of-indoor-air/
2 INDOOR AIR ( 20May2014) https://interiordesignassist.wordpress.com/2014/05/20/indoor-air/
3 INDOOR AIR QUALITY (9Oct2015) https://interiordesignassist.wordpress.com/2015/10/09/indoor-air-quality/
4 COMFORT CONDITIONS in INTERIOR SPACES (8June2015) https://interiordesignassist.wordpress.com/2015/06/08/comfort-conditions-in-interior-spaces/

5 BUILDING CLIMATE (1Nov2015) https://interiordesignassist.wordpress.com/2015/11/01/building-climate/
6 CLIMATE and DESIGNING a BUILDING (6July2014) https://interiordesignassist.wordpress.com/2014/07/06/climate-and-designing-a-building/
7 BUILDING DESIGN and CLIMATE (16Aug2014) https://interiordesignassist.wordpress.com/2014/08/16/building-design-and-climate/
8 CLIMATE and BUILT-FORM (5July2015) https://interiordesignassist.wordpress.com/2015/07/05/climate-and-built-form/
9 CONDITIONING INTERIOR CLIMATE (3Oct 2014) https://interiordesignassist.wordpress.com/2014/10/03/conditioning-interior-climate/
10 INTERIOR CLIMATE of a BUILDING (24Sept2014) https://interiordesignassist.wordpress.com/2014/09/24/interior-climate-of-a-building/
11 HUMIDITY MANAGEMENT in BUILDINGS (9Dec2015) https://interiordesignassist.wordpress.com/2015/12/09/humidity-management-in-buildings/
12 173 INDOOR HUMIDITY (18May2018) https://designsynopsis.wordpress.com/2018/05/18/173-indoor-humidity/
13 VENTILATION in TROPICAL BUILDINGS (20March2015) https://interiordesignassist.wordpress.com/2015/03/20/ventilation-in-tropical-buildings/
14 Temperature related Comfort parameters for Interior Design (20Apr2014) https://interiordesignassist.wordpress.com/2014/04/20/temperature-related-comfort-parameters-for-interior-design/

15 PASSIVE VENTILATION in Buildings (3July2014 ) https://interiordesignassist.wordpress.com/2017/07/03/passive-ventilation-in-buildings/
16 MICRO VENTILATION in Buildings (8March2016) https://interiordesignassist.wordpress.com/2016/03/08/micro-ventilation-in-buildings/
17 INTERIOR SPACES and CLIMATIC COMFORT (26May2015) https://interiordesignassist.wordpress.com/2015/05/26/interior-spaces-and-climatic-comfort/
18 414 LOW VELOCITY AIR MOVEMENTS or DRAUGHT (22Mar2019) https://designsynopsis.wordpress.com/2019/03/22/414-low-velocity-air-movements-or-draught/
19 158 DRAUGHT (draft) AIR MOVEMENTS (28Apr2018) ttps://designsynopsis.wordpress.com/2018/04/28/158-draught-draft-air-movements/
20 620 AIR MOVEMENTS in BUILT SPACES (2Dec2019) https://designsynopsis.wordpress.com/2019/12/02/620-air-movements-in-built-spaces/
21 49 Indoor Air Pollution (3Dec2017) https://designsynopsis.wordpress.com/2017/12/03/49-indoor-air-pollution/

22 TEMPERATURE MANAGEMENT by HUMAN BODY (2 April2015) https://interiordesignassist.wordpress.com/2015/04/02/temperature-management-by-human-body/
23 HUMAN BODY TEMPERATURE MECHANISMS (23Apr2014) https://interiordesignassist.wordpress.com/2014/04/23/human-body-temperature-mechanisms/
24 BMR and BODY TEMPERATURE (5Oct2018) https://interiordesignassist.wordpress.com/2018/10/05/bmr-and-body-temperature/
25 CLIMATE and our BODY (26Jul2016) https://interiordesignassist.wordpress.com/2016/07/26/climate-and-our-body/

26 CLIMATE and CHANGE (10Aug2014) https://interiordesignassist.wordpress.com/2014/08/10/climate-and-change/
27 UNDERSTANDING SOLAR ENERGY for BUILDING DESIGN – Part-1 (25Oct2015) https://interiordesignassist.wordpress.com/2015/10/25/understanding-solar-energy-for-building-design-part-1/
28 AWNINGS or SHADING DEVICES (18April2015) https://interiordesignassist.wordpress.com/2015/04/18/awnings-or-shading-devices/
29 HEAT CAPACITY of BUILDINGS (14Feb2015) https://interiordesignassist.wordpress.com/2015/02/14/heat-capacity-of-buildings/
30 DEALING with ENVIRONMENT (10Jan2015) https://interiordesignassist.wordpress.com/2015/01/10/dealing-with-environment/
31 WINDOWS and VENTILATION (20Dec2014) https://interiordesignassist.wordpress.com/2014/12/20/windows-and-ventilation/
32 THERMAL MANAGEMENT – WINDOWS and INTERIOR SPACES (14De2014) https://interiordesignassist.wordpress.com/2014/12/14/thermal-management-windows-and-interior-spaces/
33 INTERNAL SHADING DEVICES (7Apr2014) https://interiordesignassist.wordpress.com/2014/04/07/internal-shading-devices/
34 SHADING DEVICES for BUILDINGS (9Apr2018) https://interiordesignassist.wordpress.com/2018/04/09/shading-devices-for-buildings/

HEAT CAPACITY of BUILDINGS

HEAT CAPACITY of BUILDINGS

Post 336 ⇒   by Gautam Shah 

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Heat capacity is very important property of building materials. It is a dynamic property that is proportional to the size of the system, its mass, and how and when it flows in and out the material body. The building is affected how the materials constitute the shell, and what is the time relevance of the space in it. In other words, the shell and its space use both together determine Where and When the activities take place. The shell, the space and its environment also define How the activities flourish.

Heavy walls – lighter roof Nepal

Heat capacity or Thermal capacity, is a measure that reflects the ratio of the heat added or subtracted from an object, to the resulting temperature change. The heat capacity is divided by the amount of substance, mass, or volume, so that the quantity is independent of the size or extent of the entity. Specific heat is the heat capacity per unit mass of a material. In very simple terms heat capacity gets doubled, when the amount of substance of a body is doubled.

Stone walls and Thatched roof Machu Picchu

Specific heat capacity shows how much heat a body can store. So a building shell made up of materials with high specific heat capacity, high density, and thermal conductivity will function well, if it is occupied with a suitable space occupation and appropriate time scheduling of activities.

Thin body construction

Heat is conducted through various building elements, each having different capacity to store heat. Concrete and masonry have large capacity to heat. Wood is too slow in absorbing heat, but steel is very fast in warming up. Once the material object reaches certain level of heat storage, it begins to radiate the heat to the interior or exterior (or other adjoining entities) depending on the temperature conditions. On the exterior surface, if solar radiation and air temperatures are low, the heat will radiate to the outside. Alternatively, when interior conditions are comparatively cooler, the object will radiate heat on that face.

Thatched and terracotta tile roofs Heavy walls South India

Typically in a hot climate area a building with substantially heavy masonry and concrete begins to warm up after sunrise and continues to absorb heat till 1100 to 1500 hours (depending on the solar temperature, wall density, etc.). Thereafter it begins to radiate the heat to the interior side (as exterior side may remain warm till 1800 hours). One can stay indoors by allowing breeze to evacuate the heat through openings, or shift to indoor cooler sections, or outdoor shaded areas. One may not be able to use the interiors till about 2100 hours, or later till the roof and walls have cooled down. (The cooling of the shell occurs with release of heat on interior as well on exterior face).

Tin sheet Roofing (Cultybraggan_Camp)

This cycle could change in a thin body sheet roof or wall building. The structure gets warm very fast, often within 1 hour of sunrise, making it nearly impossible to stay indoors. The thin body structure, however, cools down within 1 hour of sunset time, allowing quicker reoccupation of the interior space.

Mix of enclosed and open spaces for activity scheduling

Very heavy body structures are economically not very viable. Heavy roof buildings (like stone, concrete, slate slabs, rammed earth terraces, etc.) are hazardous in earth quake prone zones. Thin body structures are faster to erect and economical. Light roof buildings (like of a tin or cement sheet, ceramic tiles, etc.) unless well framed get blown off in hurricanes.

Clay walls -Insulation Santa Fe

The heat exchange process in the interior side of a building primarily depends on the form (layout) and materials of the building and the external environment. It secondarily depends on the colour and texture of the external surfaces, size, location nature (glazed, solid, etc.), shading devices and placement of openings. It also depends on evaporation of water, heat generating elements like cooking hearth, lights, workshop equipments, and density of human occupation.

Courtyard house of South India

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QUALITY OF INDOOR AIR

Post –by Gautam Shah

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OLYMPUS DIGITAL CAMERA

Defilement of internal air occurs mainly due to the occupation of space by people, plants and pets (exhalation, body odours, excretion products odours, food preparation), gadgets, equipments, and building and furnishing materials. The quality of air is usually determined by people’s sensation to various odours present in the air. But certain harmful pollutants like carbon dioxide and radon cannot be perceived by people at even high concentrations.

Mix-keeps-warm

Scooters_in_Taipei_street_06Quality of air is determined in two ways. There are Absolute standards that provide for ideal conditions for comfort and bio-survival. Relative standards provide ways for determining the qualitative difference between out door air and indoor air. Quality of outside air is generally superior because an infinite space and high speed winds are available for dilution to occur. Quality of internal air can be improved by diluting the proportion of pollutants in air, by replacing part of the fouled air with comparatively cleaner air; or by various mechanical and chemical scrubbers.

Old Farmhouse

Particulate matter is a major source of air pollution, which mainly but not necessarily, originates outside and penetrates inside through various cracks and openings. Particulate can be dust, fumes, mist or biogenic matter. Particles of diameters greater than about 75 microns settle down rapidly and are termed Grit. Particles of smaller than 50 microns may remain suspended and constitute Aerosols. An aerosol is a liquid or solid particle which is in a quasi stable suspension in air. Very fine aerosols may remain suspended for weeks, whereas larger aerosols may get deposited in minutes. The deposition (and movement) of very small particles (2 microns) is influenced by temperature gradient (through convective currents). The effect on health due to airborne particulate matter of biogenic origin such as fungi, moulds, bacteria, viruses, pollens are well known.

barrels-boards-buffalo-trace-distillery-cellar

In modern artificially controlled environment buildings are well designed and sealed to eliminate waste leakages. Such spaces function well so far as the environmental systems operate. However, pollutants arising from building materials, aerosols settling down, degradation of biotic materials, evaporation of condensed moisture from air handling plants, etc. continue to be added to the internal environment. The process of addition becomes severe when the environmental systems are switched off, such as at night time, on off days and when there are power breakdowns. This situation also occurs when there is no casual ventilation of the space due to shutting of nominal openings like doors and windows.

1 corridor-405254

Transmilenio_vehicle_interior

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