Post 703 –by Gautam Shah


8 BMW Welt, Munich, Germany Wikipedia Image by Maximilian Dörrbecker (Chumwa)

In art and design, we deal with forms, as holistic or composed entities. The holistic entities also turn compositions, when these are expressed through contexts like media (frame or the extent), setting (site, environment, landscape, illumination), or referenced (orientation, location, sensorial exposition). The pursuit of creativity is at several stages, in realizing the holistic form or graduating to a state of holism after the composition. The assimilation of several elements into a ‘formal’ composition creates a ‘striking’ arrangement, ‘balanced’ placements and an ‘organization’ with synergy and potency of new possibilities.

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For holistic forms, the creator, if the scale permits, can roll the entity to have an all-around experience, but the moment it is rested or delivered it gains a setting. For holistic forms that are too large, the roll around occurs over a ground, and that becomes its defacto rest. Holistic forms like sculptures or art installations have no functional livability, but as a static structure must rest and get set. Dynamic entities like balloons, space capsules or stations are rotated axially and sometimes three dimensionally to create a ‘dynamic equilibrium’.

9 Experience Music Project, Seattle,WA,USA Gehry Wikipedia Image by EMP-SFM

For composed entities it is necessary to have a bearing. Primarily it is the ‘ground’ where these sit, tie up or rest. And where such provisions do not exist, the bottom of the composition (closer to the omnipresent gravity) becomes one. Elements of the composition at the lower half of the field are closer to the ground and so perceived to be more static. The stability is also enhanced by elements of composition with mass wider in the lower parts. Inclusion of lighter elements such as air, water, sky, flowers, develops a sense of ethereal floatation. Surreal art has not escaped the gravity.

13A Michelangelo ART Ethereal floatation The Creation of Adam

13 Jeremy geddes defying the Gravity

Holistic or composed entities of art and design can remain personal, if are fleeting expressions. But most other expressions, to reach a wider community, must persist. Grounding is the first step towards the persistence. Grounding is related to the force de majeure, the gravity. Grounding creates a balance. Its lack unnerves our sense of regularity, but its oddity excites us. The balance is about distribution of mass around the vertical and across the perceptible zone. Vertical is the post struggle phase of gaining the equilibrium.

11 When Horses Gallop by Andres Barrioquinto

The height of the vertical is always referenced to the horizontal of the ground. The depth of perception stretches the ground in perspective, and proportionately reduces the vertical.


Some form of equipoise is sought for compositions. The balance with equipoise forms symmetry. For equipoised balance the elements around vertical must remain with it, bearing the same effect of gravity, but their repositioning can cause un-equipoise. The symmetry around the vertical, however, is affected by the position of the vertical in the field of perception.

Delhi, Lotus Temple

7 Holistic form Matrimandir Temple of The Mother Auroville Pondichery India

Symmetry is more apparent in visual fields as two eyes can focus to a single object. Two ears need some attenuation to perceive the balance. For the sensation of touch balanced localization is difficult to achieve. Smell and taste buds have singular identity, but spatially too close for distinctive perception of balance.

15 Paul Klee

The zone of perception varies in extent and over time, mainly due to changes in contextual conditions and environment.

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The holistic entities are of many types, copycats, metaphoric or abstract. Copycats duplicate the original in altered scale, sensory (colour, texture) effects and purposes. The metaphoric expressions could be literal models or images of human or other beings (in natural or grotesque form). The abstract presentations remain obscure for their imagery or meaning.

5 Escultura de Frank Gehry El Peix, fish sculpture located in front of the Port Olímpic, in Barcelona, Catalonia, Spain 1992

The composed creations, unlike the holistic ones have many elements, some are mutually related, due to the purpose, proximity, similarity, counter balancing, scale, massing, etc. These constituents individually or in combinations evoke the past experiences. The past experiences are subjective and fluid. A composition remains a frame in a time slot of a happening.


14 VR offers a way out of the inhibitions for Surrealist Art Movement relativity-escher




Post 156   by Gautam Shah ➔

Natural and manufactured raw materials are invariably compounds, made of many materials. These raw materials are formed into products by a method of assimilation -the COMPOSITE or the raw materials are organized into a geometric form -the COMPOSITION.


1 Composite (Cloth+Gypsum) (Wikipedia image by JanSLWC)  2 Composition -geometric arrangement (Wikipedia image by Viapastrengo at En Wikipedia)

Many of the raw materials are naturally compounded materials, in the form of Composites. The composite materials come into being, by putting together natural and manufactured materials in such a special way that the strength and other qualities are different from the constituents, individually and cumulatively. The term different, is considered here as an improved quality, because man-made composites are designed and created towards specific performance requirements only.



Man-made composition -Howrah Bridge Kolkota

Similarly natural and man-made materials have an inherent organization of geometric arrangements which endow unique structural behaviour capacities. Some of the simplest examples are hives of honey bees or birds’ netted nests. At a complex level a truss, bicycle frame, a hull of a boat, are all Structural Compositions or geometric arrangements.

Natural and manufactured materials, and their composites, all are further shaped, re-formed and geometrically integrated to create secondary components as well as Structural Compositions.

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A composite is a natural or designed material entity with potential utility, but has no operational functionality. On the other hand, a component is a configuration of many materials into a utilitarian product. Component manufacturing involves processes that are many times similar to a composite formation. As a matter of fact for component manufacturing, the ‘composite formation’ and the ‘component creation’ both occur simultaneously. Structural compositions (trusses, bridges, buildings) are geometric-configuration of materials, often assisted by components (nuts, rivets, pins, bearings, etc.). Structural compositions use composites to form the constituent elements.

A Layered composite -Plywood

Various Definitions of Composites:

# Consisting of two or more physically distinct and conceptually separable or visually identifiable materials.

# Products that can be made by mixing separate materials, so the dispersion of one material in the other can be done in a controlled way to achieve optimum properties.

# Products with properties that are superior and possibly unique in some specific respects compared to the properties of their individual components.

Particulate composite


Cement Aggregate composite -Mozaic tile

Classes of Composites:

Natural composites               Wood, Bamboo, Bone, Muscle and other tissues

Macro composites                 Galvanized steel,

Engineered products           Reinforced cement concrete (beams, etc.), Helicopter blades Skis, Tennis rackets.

Microscopic composites     Metallic alloys, Toughened plastic (impact polystyrene, ABS), Reinforced plastics.

Nano composites                   Electronics circuits, diodes, transistors

Toys Object Sport Ping Pong Ping-pong Table Tennis

Some natural composites are easy to identify, such as: wood, bamboo, bones, muscles, etc. First man-made composites related to the bronze, as man tried to fix natural stones and ceramic pieces by hammering into the bronze. Layered wood composites have been used by Egyptians. Mud bricks reinforced with hay, hair, and rice husk have been used in prehistoric times. Cow-dung is also reinforced with granular sand particles for wall plaster. Gypsum (Plaster of Paris) has been applied on a lattice of jute, papyrus and such other fibres.

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Macro, Micro and Nano Composites: Composites can be categorized in terms of the size of constituent particulate matter. Ingredients of macro composites can be distinguished by naked eye, whereas one may need an electron microscope to understand the constituents of micro composites and nano composites. Nano composites are created by introducing nano-particulate, which drastically add to the electrical, thermal, and mechanical properties of the original material.

1 -Composite_laminate_specimen

Basic Constituents of a Composite:     MATRIX and FILLERS

The constituents of a composite are ordinarily classified as Matrix and Filler. It is the nature of relationship between the filler and matrix, or the Interface that defines the composite. Fillers serve to resist stresses, mainly tension, and the Matrix serves to resist the shear, and all materials present including any aggregates, serve to resist the compression.

Fibres -used as FILLER in composite

Categorization of Composites on the basis of strengthening mechanisms.

Composite materials can be distinguished into three categories based on the strengthening mechanism.

These categories are:

1. Dispersion strengthened,

2 Particle reinforced

3 Fiber reinforced.

Dispersion Strengthened Composites have a fine distribution of secondary particles (fillers) in the matrix of the material. These particles impede the mechanisms that allow a material to deform. Many Metal-matrix composites would fall into the dispersion strengthened composites’ category.

Particle reinforced composites have a large volume of particles dispersed in the matrix. The load is shared by the particles and the matrix. Most commercial ceramics and many filled polymers are particle-reinforced composites.

Fiber-reinforced composites have fibre as the main load-bearing component. Fiberglass and carbon fibre composites are examples of fiber-reinforced composites.