Post 474 –by Gautam Shah


Poetry of the past

For creative writing it is important to communicate the concept and purpose of the expression. Stating it explicitly as an introduction, or recapitulating as the summary at the end, serve only a limited purpose. An introduction or the summary, are dulled by the elaborate body, with the passage of time and by other interesting details. Both remain muted if the print style, manners of speech or the media support do not reinforce it. In digital access systems the introduction or summary, are generated automatically, without the author being involved in its creation. The media presentation of this is without any typographical or graphical enrichments.

Jewish Torah scroll

The contents of writing are yet focussed in several ways. In this article the remaining SEVEN methods are discussed, THREE were presented in the earlier article.


4 – EMPHASIS BY CONDENSATION AND ELABORATION: The emphasis in presentations occurs by condensation and occasionally by elaboration of the subject matter. Primarily Condensation eliminates all unnecessary and less necessary contents, and thereby increase the clarity, reduce the expression size, delivery time, perception effort, etc. Condensation is also done by use of abbreviations and symbols that replace large units of contents. These include idioms, proverbs, metaphors, and signs. Condensation is often used to restrict the access to a specific class of audience, like magicians’ instructions.

Archived documents

Elaboration is achieved by augmenting the context of difficult to understand concepts, events, situations, or objects. It is also done by using the same word in different context, and using similar words (synonyms and antonyms from a thesaurus) to redefine the meaning. Multiple explanations help amplify content. Elaboration is also achieved by inclusion of anecdotes, couplets, quotations, footnotes, end notes, and other sensorial effects.

Emphasis is often created by intentional de-emphasis. Obvious details, concepts, ideas, conclusions are not put forward at the nominal time and space, but are placed at the end, or the audience is allowed to draw its own inferences.

The condensation and elaboration are employed to colour a document as a personal style statement.

Processed information often becomes so comprehensive that it becomes a very abstract expression. Abstracted expressions are exploited to achieve new insights.

Writing Declaration of Independence 1776.

5 – BRIDGING AND LINKING: The contents are bridged to create a seamless or a larger concept. The most common bridging is through time and space organization of the contents. The links to other documents (e.g. hyperlinks, bibliographies, index) are such reference bridges. Recorded contents are classified according to the nature of content, names of the author, date of publication, size and form of the document. Such classification identifiers also provide associations. A well bridged or cited content vouches its authenticity through circumstantial referencing.


Search engines list topics in terms of number of users referencing it. Wikipedia -the internet encyclopaedia relies on citations. Preface and such write-ups broach the subject by positioning it in a wider perspective.

Contents are also bridged using conjunctions. Words like and, if, or, when, then, whereas, therefore, etc. connect clauses or sentences. Bullets, numbered lists, also bridge sub topics.

archive store (History Centre) at Herbert

7 – SEPARATING AND ISOLATING: The contents are separated or isolated, by spacing and by tabulation (paragraphs, bullet marking, numbering, hyphenating, bracketing), to highlight or categorize the sub-topics. Separation in writing is achieved by commas, semicolons, brackets, or other interludes (gutter spaces in newspaper columns). In recordings a null space is provided for the machine to recognize the end of one section and the beginning of next one. By isolating the contents it becomes easier to link each such section distinctly.

Language encrypting machine

8 – ABSTRACTION: The contents are abstracted by removing all less important information, time slots and space gaps. The expression language in Internet chat rooms shows the nature of abstraction spreading across the world. Common words are written eliminating vowels and are denoted by their phonemes. Symbols and metaphors are also used to squeeze the contents. Vedic mantras represent knowledge in a very condensed form to easily remember it (‘Shrut Gyan’ -knowledge that is heard). However, such condensation is vulnerable to different interpretation of the contents.

9 – MARKING: Contents are marked to enhance (bold facing, underlining, Italics, large size type faces) their presence. The contents are delivered louder, faster or slower, brighter, repeatedly, and in metres (musical, couplets with rhymes) for the same effect.

Author Ernest Hemingway Writing at Campsite in Kenya

Author Ernest Hemingway Writing at Campsite in Kenya

10 – BY TITLING (NAMING): One of the best way of focussing (by declaration) the contents are to provide a title to it. A title as created by the author is more truthful but is not accepted by the reader or audience, as their intentions of accessing need not match the author’s perceptions. Storage systems create own titles to facilitate access by their users’ needs. Titles often have limitations of size. This is overcome by including long titles or list of keywords or summary or precis.

Screenshot_2020-06-05 Black Perl - Wikipedia

Presentations styles and techniques used for direct or inter personal communication like elocution, orations, sermons, lectures, cannot be used for, or are useless for reports, etc. Writhing as an assignment from superiors, teachers, retainers, employers have a defined motive, and structure. Method of presentation is essentially tailor-made to satisfy the assignee.


This article in continuation of earlier >>

Creative writing

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Creative Writing – 2

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Post 473 –by Gautam Shah


Expression is the chief purpose of creative composition. Expression comes through when the writing is well structured. A structured composition expresses one theme. And since the theme relates to some happening, it must be scaled in time and space. Spoken word is an expression in time due to its sequenced output. Similarly a written composition is spatially set.

Surya (Sun) God on Chariot -illustrations in a Hindi book India

This natural temporal and spatial qualities are lost out when the expressions are recorded and randomly accessed. The random access is centered on a sub topic or sub-part, so as to may be a quick draw due to its immediate relevance to the drawee. Such instantaneous referencing may not reflect the central concept of the whole document.

Sage Valmiki composing epic Ramayana India

These types of random referencing can still be flavoured, through processes of creative writing. For writing the contents are focussed in several ways. In this article THREE such methods are discussed, other Four to SEVEN will be presented in the next article. 

This article in continuation of earlier >> Creative writing ( )

1 – TIME AND SPACE ORDERING: The contents are sequenced, with time as the operative element. The time is apparent in sequencing of events, time-related measurable changes, accelerations and deceleration and for cause-effect presentations. In speeches, the pause is an important time section for concepts to sink in, allow the audience to respond (clapping, thumping or noise to die down), or enhance the delivery of next expression. Audio-video presentations are synchronized to beats, or tempo-pitch of the delivery. Background noise and music are scaled to the nature of contents.

The contents are Space formatted, i.e. graded linearly or branched like a tree to establish an order of relationship among the topics. Such spatial ordering is used to highlight or amplify certain sections as well as to demarcate sections. Other spatial formations are based on some value judgement system. Data base management presentations use such value-based derivations. Spatial formations such as tables, matrices, etc. are used for data management in spreadsheets.

Parchment scroll 13th C

New topics are started on a fresh page or under a fresh heading. Spacing between paragraphs, serves the same purpose. The speaker takes a pause to initiate a new topic. Audio-video presentations have insertion of dummy frames of graphics or pictures to relieve the tedium. Categorization, tabulation, sorting, are common to present concepts in their logical relevance.

Jean Miélot (1472) author compiling the famous Miracles de Nostre Dame

The time manipulation hastens or delays the delivery to allow the audience (and mechanical means) to perceive, record and digest the contents. The space management spreads or squeezes the mass of contents, thereby its clarity.

The street side letter writer

2 – ORDER OF CONTENTS: An expression can begin as an inquiry in to seemingly an unordered arena and conclude a definitive proposition. Other way round, the expression can state a hypothesis or belief, and proceed to present the evidence in support or against it. The third method is hybrid, as it starts by analyzing a happening with all the cause-effect contexts.

Ming Dynasty China wood carving books

3 – SUPPORT FROM OTHER MEDIA: Emphasis by support from other media is exploited to not only enhance the contents but also the presentation style. In writing and print media some of the typographical tools used are: underlining, bold printing, fonts’ sizes, font styles (plain, italics, small caps, with serif, sans serif, etc.) Other graphical tools include insertion of graphs, charts, illustrations, etc. within the document matter. Multi media presentations have more than one media (like static pictures, movies, 3D effects, animations, sound clips, body vibratory systems, olfactory and taste fortification systems).

Oration – Recitation

In oration and recitations, some speakers boost the delivery with body gestures, repetition of words or sentences, pitch variation of voice, use of rhymes, rhythmic, metre oration, poetical recitation, etc. The information gets registered easily when supported by visuals such as tables, charts and graphs, picture slides, movie or video clips, animation. Learning frames or interludes are subtly included to lodge the contents easily into the minds.




Post 268 – by Gautam Shah


Presentations style and techniques used for direct or inter personal communications like elocution, orations, sermons, lectures, cannot be used for reports, etc. Writing an assignment for superiors, teachers, retainers, employers have a defined motive, and structure. Method of presentation is essentially tailor-made to satisfy the assignee. Reports, however, become public documents after a while, and could be accessed by anyone. Reports are extremely intentional, but the authors have no control how these may be interpreted.

Letter Writer

Reports inform others about events, experiences, observations, conclusions or a deductions, and are created with a lot of deliberation. A report document is a formal presentation, and is structured for communication -to a set of receivers (audience). Reports for regular participants can be a very abstract expression, as the creator and the receiver both have matured to a modality of understanding. All communicable presentations must be simple, clear, intentional (specific to a subject) and comprehensive, bereft of all unnecessary information. Reports for a public domain have to be rational, to save the media Space and access Time.

We deal with many different types of reports in our day to day life, like: Medical, Weather, Radio, TV, newspaper, School, Site, Departmental, Confidential, Legal, Business etc… Reports present results, prescriptions, directions, listings, proofs, deductions, explanations, confirmations, contradictions, facts, readings, observations, experiences, specifications, formulations, procedures, predictions, etc… Reports have many different forms, letters, memos, notes, essays, descriptions, theses, submissions, dissertations paper, minutes, memoranda, etc.

Technical Report for limited exposure

Report with jargoned language or complex slang, confuses the reader, and one with very lucid expressions may not be taken seriously. A complex language or technical writing saves the author from an onslaught of reactions, but denies the feedback. It creates a limited class of audience. Word processors like MS-Word consider writing accessible by 9-10 standard student to of very superior quality.

Specific Report

Most reports or writings are accessed and used from archives in some other time and space. Format of a report must be very relevant to the user or reader of the report. A specific report would provoke only a specific class of users, whereas a general report may stimulate different people differently. Some reports merely inform the user, and are not required to cause any acute stimulation. But a report that is required to provoke or instigate may also prescribe the course of action or mode of operation. Such reports may or may not indicate benefits and hazards of the prescribed actions.

Reports at simplest level present matter in Time-sequence of occurrence, manifestation, acquisition or realization or attention. This method alone fails with experienced readers, who jump from one part to another to anchor to things of relevance. It is often better to start linking the events to places and provide bridges to traverse on.

Verbal Reporting

It is very necessary to define the purpose of writing or the level of provocation one wishes to cause, at the start. Reports have some effect: ‘Reports stimulate a person very mildly, or provoke to take corollary action. Reports also affect values, beliefs, feelings, prestige, honours of individuals, cultures, societies, nations, races etc.

Broker reporting for tenants

Reports affect individuals and organizations by providing gains and losses. Reports also affect its author, composer or originator, when intended results or feedbacks are not of desired type, do not come in at all, are inadequate, or late. Authors are also affected by premature release or unauthorized use of the reports.

Authors of document or report must not only present an appropriate material, but also take steps, so that others can readily access it. For this purpose title of the report must be unique, and if necessary longer. A good title stands out among many other reports of similar nature. One of the best way to find a legitimate title, is to search other publications in an internet search engine.

Title search Menu

Frequently occurring matters generate regular reports which have an established structure. Special reports have varied data and are published at an unpredictable frequency. Reports have many styles or formats. Contents of reports vary according to the purpose. Some reports state the purpose, truth or an assumption first and follow it up with information to justify or reject it. Some study a context or situation to uncover the purpose or truth, behind it. Some take a middle course, on various presumptions and situations and build up a hypothesis, formula, or a theory.

Regular Reports -standard format

Reports are assets with a cost of rarity (unique, patent, invention, realization, miracles); cost of acquisition (investigation, surveys, experimentation, prototyping); cost of dissemination (printing, publication, presentations, copy rights, patents). These costs are recovered as salaries, royalties, commissions, fees, awards, grants, favours, charges, prestige, goodwill etc.

Provocative Reports

Reports that are provocative prescribe the course and consequences for the provocation. Authors who create reports for a fee have to guarantee for the veracity of information, and quantum of gain or loss. In case of a thesis or dissertation the author has to guarantee authenticity of facts and truthfulness of comments and observations.



Post 222 – by Gautam Shah 



We, express about things, ideas, dreams, experiences and concepts to communicate or record. There are many different modes of expressions: gestures, natural sounds, articulated sounds like utterances, music, written and drawn presentations, modelling, etc. The expression could be very personal with no one else being aware of it, or open for a select few or wide audience. We also state, list enumerate facts by sequencing their occurrence, consequences, importance. rationale and relevance. At third level we form Narratives. Such writings extensively use time to delineate the spaces and also use the changes in spaces to mark the time. Narratives need not be sequential, but must complete the iteration, that is start or end must relate to the end or start. A good narrative emerges, when the vocabulary and language construction remain under the bar 12th Standard. At further level, we use writing for personal communication. These are expressions where ‘all things are not said but the relationship bridges the gaps’.


Expression is a creative activity, where the present, past or future, all transcend from one to the other. An expression could be a re-enactment of the happening for recollection here and now (Past to present); for recording onto a media, to be accessed in another time, space, context, and by different persons (Present to future); or imagining and establishing bridges to experiences (Future to past).


Most expressions, other than personal recollections are designed for the audience and their capacity to perceive. Expression originators have some innate knowledge about the audience. An expression originator, along with the expression content also provide clues and reinforcements to reach out to the audience.

The expression is meant to secure believers or sympathizers and occasionally even antagonists. On the other side audiences comprehend the information to empathize, seek knowledge, form opinions and gain something from the experiences of the author. Some expressions are perceived and assessed for the presentation modalities, style or format. As an effective communicator the expression must offer some provocative information, to satisfy, inspire or instigate the audience.Edinburgh_fringe_royal_mile_street_performanceThis is done in several ways. Where subject matter is self-evident, the tendency is to present the components in the order of the sequence of occurrence. This method of presentation, however, sometimes fails to establish a root with the late comers. A reverse strategy is applied where the end or result is presented first, and then the beginning is traced. For written expressions, a person can scan a document, to see if there is any thing of relevance. Presentations start at simpler and universal level, establish a bridge with the audience, and proceed to complex matter, always succeed.


The expression styles are:

  • Narration: telling a story in time sequence,
  • Description: relating to what you see, hear, taste, feel, and smell,
  • Rhythmic: Using beats, rhymes, repeats, and associations,
  • Process or Recipe: describing a sequence of steps necessary for a process,
  • Definition: illustrating the meaning of certain words, ideas or constructing a concept, ideology or theory,
  • Division and Classification: grouping ideas, objects, or events into categories,
  • Compare, Contrast and Evaluations: finding similarities and/or differences between topics,
  • Analogy and simulation: making a comparison between two topics that initially seem unrelated, Simulation involves using various sensorial effects for reinforcement,
  • Cause and Effect: explaining why something happened, or the influence of one event upon another.


The expression style (like detective or crime novels) could be where: 1. Events are constructed leading to revelation of the end, 2. Ends are exposed, followed with the explanation of the process, 3. Process and Leads to the end, are presented alternatively.

Shadow play story telling

All expressions, whether for record or communication, to be effective are focussed to a theme, and everything beyond that is excluded.

All presentations must be simple and clear, with minimum of additional information. For a communication to be successful it must be designed for the audience. A very technical ‘writing’ limits the class of audience, whereas trivial contents though provide a wider audience, are prone to unintended interpretations (de-constructionist).