by Gautam Shah ➔

Library -Alexandria

A document is a self sufficient or a unique collection of specific information or structured data, which can be stored, retrieved or communicated. Any such lot, when referred to, provides the intended information.

Hamurabi Documents

Documents have many different formats depending on what they carry, and how these are to be stored, retrieved or communicated. Traditional documents, in written, pictorial or graphical form, are the most common units of communication.


Paperwork Bureaucracy Work Aktenordner Office

A document serves many different purposes, it describes, defines, specifies, reports or certifies activities, lists the requirements for performing activities or mentions results of activities.


Letters, reports drawings, specifications, procedures, instructions, records, radio-graphs, computer tapes and disks, purchase orders, invoices, process control charts, films, microfilms, photograph etc., are all examples of documents.

Document storage system

When information manifests as data, a document comes into being. A document carries many identifiers such as:

  • time (of origin)
  • size (of storage, transmission time & effort)
  • content
  • place of origin
  • place of a destination
  • affiliations
  • embedded codes
  • signs, symbols
  • language
  • style
  • mode of communication
  • extent of exposure
  • limits and conditions of relevance
  • It is through these type of identities that a document begins to be relevant or worthy of access.


In modern terminology, information lots or documents are called Files, because it helps in identifying the contents. A filed information or data lot has: a title, a list of contents, description of contents and the mass of contents. Additionally it occupies a space, so size and the birth context (date/ time/ location/ other circumstances of origin). Beyond these primary endowments, a file may be given many levels of attachments (references).

Disc Storage

A Simple data file may contain several sub entities, each of which may be allocated a specific physical space. A complex file may have varied or standard size of pre-set space allocations. Alternatively a Start and/or End marker (fixed or floating) may separate file partitions. Filters decide which of the entities are to be allocated a free or variable space. Data entities are invariably accompanied by their titles or identifiers.

Neural Network


Data entities in a file remain static or are changeable. Conditions that cause a data to remain static or be variable could be external or are internal. The internal conditioners, titles and filters are inseparable parts of information files. In Static files, the structure remains unaltered even while data entities are changed. The meaning deriving out of the file, however, may change. In Dynamic files the structure of the file gets altered along with the change in data entities. Static files are easy to process, but cannot provide qualitative information. Static files usually contain data that is mathematical or substantially logical. Dynamic files are difficult to process and provide little quantitative information. Dynamic files contain data that is generally textual or metaphoric.



Post by Gautam Shah


Work of a Professional begins with the mandatory data / prime information provided by a Client. When a professional comes to know of a potential client with job, a specific “schedule of data requirements are presented. Some of the required data items are obvious and easily available, yet it helps to know the sincerity of the client. In the first or first few encounters a professional must check out the capacity of the client to furnish such data. Such demands also make a client aware that a professional has begun the assignment, and the stakes involved in design-making.



In exceptional cases, where the client is invisible and represented by a ‘Statutory Body’, very little data is likely to be available. Here the client is incapable of providing the data, and so it is up to the professional to get the same collected, but with the client’s consent and cost.


A professional may not have the right to use the data collected for, and paid by a client, for any other client or purposes. It always remains property the client. Whenever a client provides a crucial data like sizes, technical requirements, permissions etc. the transfer of information should be formal and well recorded.


In some cases it is only the client that can provide the necessary input, and a professional must make the client aware of the situation. A client should also be made formally aware of data that is being procured by the designer as part of a chargeable service or courtesy. Whenever a chargeable service is provided, a formal pre-approval / consent of the client is necessary. 

A professional cannot challenge a client’s right to procure the data from other professionals or sources. As a matter of fact, it is considered a professional decency to make a client aware of own right.


A professional, however, competent will require the services of other professionals. A professional remains responsible for the delivered data where the main professional pays for such data. And here the main professional must exclusively appoint such agencies and receives the output. Often the main professional has no role, or only an advisory role in such appointments. If an external agency is retained by the client to procure data, all the resultant output becomes the exclusive property of the client. The client has a right to make that available, to a professional, only the relevant parts of such information.

Financial Graph Finance Stats Data Chart

Normally the person who pays, receives the output, and has the first and exclusive right to the data. The party that pays for data, also acquires the inherent risks and liabilities.

When a professional, directly hires another professional, the risks and liabilities increase manifold. However, if a client, retains other agencies, the risks and liabilities of the main professional are diluted. Contributions from independent professionals should be favoured, because these provide greater clarity, a counter check, division of responsibilities and dilution of risks.