MEASURES on DESIGN DRAWINGS

Post 602 by Gautam Shah 

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These are rules per ISO, and also better methods of writing measurements on DESIGN RELATED DRAWINGS. These apply to manual drawings and also CAD representations.

All decimal numbers must be preceded by a zero if no other digit exists. e.g. 0.121 (and not as .121 )

No thousand or hundred markers are to be used, e.g. 1000 (and not 1,000), but where large number of digits are involved a blank or space (equal to 1 digit or not less than ½ digit in width) may be used as a separator, in place of a marker. However, where only four digits are used no space as a separator need be provided. e.g. 100 000, 10 000 or 1000 (but not 1 00 000 or 1 000).

▪ For Length units recognized measures are km / m / mm which may if at all required must be in small letters. For example architectural plans have nearly all measures in mm, so the mention of mm should be avoided. However, in the same drawing if weight or volume or such other measures are to be indicated, then identifiers for such units may be indicated.

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Architectural drawings nominally have dimensions of maximum 5 digits (for mm ) unless a detail requires indicating a fraction of a millimeter, signifying measures up to 99999 mm or 99.999 mts (-but unit identifiers are not to be used). Plans larger then 99mts sizes are considered of Map Category.

▪ Full names of units even when these are named after a person, are written in small letters: ampere, volt etc., with the exception W for watt and J for Joule.

▪ For liquid measure (Litre) however lt may be written as Lt (to differentiate between 1 and l ).

▪ Plurals of measures need not be used. (kms, mts, kgs).

Point or Full stop for abbreviation may not be used, for example as in m.g. or ml.

▪ Where cubic or square measures are to be shown: 3m3 = will mean three cubic metres and not 33 i.e. 3 x 3 x 3 = 27cmt.

▪ Following common units are acceptable

Length  mm m  km (all 1000 factored=103)

Weight  gm  kg  mt or t (all 1000 factored=103)

Liquid  mlt  Lt  klt (all 1000 factored=103).

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Where traditionally only one unit is accepted, and if there are no chances of ambiguity, the measure nomenclature (mm, km, gm etc.) may not be mentioned. (E.g. cloth width = 1.200). If in one sheet of drawing (or a document) only one scale and one mode of measure are used, the nomenclature may be mentioned as a general instruction for the drawing.

Where drawings or details are likely to be graphically reduced or enlarged in processing / copying, a graphical scale preferably showing 100 mm bar may be shown. If 100 mm size is not suitable due to micro reduction or macro enlargement, suitable multiples of 100 mm for upwards scaling and 10x fractions of 100 mm for downwards scaling maybe used.

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MEASUREMENTS ON DESIGN DRAWINGS

When both mt & mm are used on drawings, it will be less confusing if the dimensions are always written to three places of decimals, i.e. 3.450. No unit symbol need be shown unless a lesser number of decimal places are used; i.e. 3.450 or 3.45 m and under some circumstances 3.5 m, are all correct. Of the options, 3450 and 3.450 both are preferred. Where no ambiguity can arise, symbols may be discarded, according to following rules:

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▪ Whole numbers indicate mm

▪ Decimated fractions to three palaces of decimals indicate m (and also by implication, mm)

All other dimensions or measures must be followed by the unit symbol.

▪ Where dimensions refer to different types of measures (lengths, weights, temperature etc.), preferably all units should be indicated or all units other than the major one should be indicated.

▪ Main dimensions and the tolerance (fitments, limits, margins etc.) etc. should be in the same unit system.

▪ Where main dimensions are accompanied by + or – range, both should be in the same unit.

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All architectural drawings follow ISO modular preferences and these are as follows:

ISO’s Four Preferences for Modular Coordination:

       First Preference            30 cm or 300 mm = 12″

      Second Preference      10 cm or 100 mm = 4″

      Third Preference           5 cm or 50 mm = 2″

      Fourth Preference        2.5 cm or 25 mm = 1″

First Preference is favoured by the building materials’ industry. Plywoods and other wood products are available in modules of 300 such as 600, 900, 1200, 1800, 2400 etc. Large buildings are designed with 300 as the modular measure. But, for smaller spaces such as Bedrooms, toilets, second preference of 100 is used as a module.

Second Preference is considered to be the most appropriate one for Building components and Planning. Glazed Tiles are available in multiples of 100 mm, with sizes like 100 x 200, 200 x 200, 200 x 300 etc., and also in sizes such as 150 x 150, 150 x 200 etc. as a carry over from the old system. Fabrics have widths of 600, 900, 1000, 1200, 1800 etc. When we order Windows or Doors the width x height are measured in 100 mm increments.

Third and Fourth Preferences are more preferred for objects smaller then 300 sizes. These preferences are not to be used for basic object sizes of more than 300, unless there are strong economic or functional reasons for doing differently.

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DESIGN DOCUMENTS and Liabilities – Part II

Post 494  –by Gautam Shah

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Design Documents generated by a design organization are of many different types and created for many levels of exposures. Exposure to employees of the organization, consultants, clients, contractors-vendors and public is well-measured, because the documents mean different things to different stack-holders. As a result, design documents can create liabilities of wrong promises. In spite of aspirations to make design process transparent for all stack-holders, some degree of design maturation is necessary before the design is made public. Design maturation process means only one final version becomes part of public to protect intellectual rights such as copyright or patents.

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In an earlier article (DESIGN DOCUMENTS and Liabilities – Part -I) several types of design documents and resultant liabilities were discussed. These were: 1 Personal Documents, 2 In-house documents, 3 Documents for Clients.

Consultant interactions

4 DOCUMENTS FOR CONSULTANTS’ ASSIGNMENT are of two levels: 1 Advice, option seeking or exploratory, an informal level of consultation, and 2 Formal or Action level, for the actual finalization of the scheme, and to decide the modalities of execution. In the FIRST case, the interim design documents that are schematically complete, but lacking in finer details may serve the purpose. However, if any alternatives are sought then these must be self-evident and marked with an order of preferences. For the SECOND case the documents must be very definitive and complete. It must also unambiguously state the consultant’s responsibilities and liabilities.

Wright brothers patent plans 1908

5 DOCUMENTS FOR PERMISSIONS / APPROVALS are very much a condensed version of the scheme, as the authorities wish to check compliance with existing rules and regulations. Such drawings have prescribed format of presentation, including content, scale and manner of expression. A practical rule is to show information that is asked for or absolutely required for the purpose.

Presentation of scheme

6 DOCUMENTS FOR PRESENTATION / PUBLICATIONS are created for the design office, client and other public agencies to market, publicize, generate a debate and solicit funds for the project. Preparation of such documents is often handed over to professionals. Provisions (sizes, proportions, scale), facilities and amenities, indicated on such presentations are frequently considered promise. This happens when presentations are created before, or in the early part of the project.

Component Details from Wikipedia, Author: Thorsten Hartmann

7 DOCUMENTS FOR JOB AWARD OR EXECUTION are of many different types, but mainly of 1. Set of working or execution drawings, specifications and quantity schedules, and 2. Site communications and Reports. Even where a job is simple, known or traditional, these must be formally defined. Contract documents have one major problem and that is consistency across the documents. A write-up on drawing sheets may be interpreted differently from the drawing, unless it is properly linked. A detail and component drawings are sometimes at a variance. The trades or the jobs are not distinctly recognizable, generating many quarries from the main contractor or vendor.

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1 Set of Working or Execution drawings consist of following:

Layout Drawings, as the name indicates, are used for laying out the work on a site and specifying the whole work. This is the main or starter drawing, and so it establishes links to other drawings and details. It is used for conveying methods of interpretation for this and other linked drawings. Measures (dimensions, tolerances, fitments, margins, and measures like weights /mass /speed /time), which cannot be graphically indicated or linked to any particular graphical view are presented as a common write-up or explanation. Being the basic drawing, it provides a common ground to indicate, when and how a part or parts of drawing become execution worthy. Limitations and responsibilities of various agencies’ work, time schedules and inter linkups for start and completion of various items, parts, etc., are all specified in the layout drawing.

Architectural Details : Library of Congress, Prints & Photographs Division, WIS,28-WATO,1-

Detail Drawings are large scale (and so detailed) presentations of (vertical, horizontal or inclined) sections. Sections are recognized for the complete presentation of the building form, space entity, orientation and sequencing. Detailed sections often overlap at the edges, and care should be taken not to duplicate the details and dimension. These drawings are accessed by several trades’ persons or vendors, so delineate the work responsibilities for siting or laying their systems. The drawing also establishes the relationships (such as sequence of assembly) for various systems and component. The detail drawings include legends showing graphical vocabulary used for identifying various materials in sections and on their faces (elevations). It also includes graphical symbols to represent very small parts or standard components.

Component Drawings are accessed mainly by the specific vendor or contractor. The details consist of fitment conditions and operative parameters. Components’ details without siting specifications can mean that standard or the vendor’s conditions apply. Standardized components may also be indicated by referencing the recognized standards’.

Written details are of different types such as: 1. Within the drawings, 2. attached to the drawings, and 3. stand-alone documents that can be used independently, without reference to the drawings.

Written details within the drawings describe quality parameters of the parts or components such as finishes, procedures and schedules of assembly, required work precautions, etc. These are tabulated in terms of trade-job and scheduled in terms of start-end times.

As a separate document but attached or referenced through the Drawings: Where Specifications are not related to any particular drawing or a view, describe common materials and processes etc. relating to the entire work, and when are very lengthy; are supplied on separate sheets of paper accompanying the drawing. If necessary, mention of such sheets is made in the relevant drawing. Such sheets sometimes are bunched together as a catalogue of Specifications of Works.

■ As Memos and Short Messages: Site and Design Office continuously exchange messages of inquiries, clarifications, confirmations, rejections, acceptance, corrections, reporting, etc. Some such communications have an effect equal to a revision of a specification or initiation of a new specification. For this reason all messages, routed through whatever mode of communication must be Dated and Numbered with Author and Receiver’s Identity. It is often more prudent to separate out Communications that could have Consequential Effect, and reconfirm them in the weekly or periodical reports. Communications relating to a specification, must mention the relevant part, component, subsystem or section of the project and exact location (drawing, communication, tender etc.) where it was earlier referred to.

Haines Shoe House in Hallam, Pennsylvania

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DESIGN DOCUMENTS and Liabilities – Part – I

Post 491  by Gautam Shah

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Design Documents consists of Views such as Plans, sections, elevations, Write-ups in the form of sheets, files or books, for explanations about things that cannot be adequately represented through views and for people who are not trained to interpret drawings (such government officials and law agencies), Structured Documents such as estimate sheets, reports, etc., and Enhanced Views such as isometrics, perspectives, walk-throughs to reinforce the perception of elements or their compositions which are generally not used as valid means of execution.

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Peter Behrens Tower building

Design Documents created in a design office have a well-defined purpose, specific exposure and so vulnerable to various levels of liabilities.

Design Documents are of Following types:

  • Personal
  • In-house
  • For clients’
  • For consultants’
  • For permissions – approvals by authorities
  • For presentations – publications
  • For job award or execution
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Manchester Town Hall Drawings

1 PERSONAL DOCUMENTS are created by the designer or scheme formulator. These are concept sketches drawn impressionistically and often like doodles or bubble diagrams. These are for designer’s personal references or reminders. Sketch or preliminary drawings are too small in size, not to exact scale, lacking in details, and do not carry all the graphical views to convey the intentions. These documents are not meant for anyone else, and are thin in content, or just indicative and abstract in nature. Similarly materials, components, procedures and design parameters which have not been fully conceived, or not crystallized into a formal structure, are all placed as notings. The sketches may not have any apparent order, and contain any trade, technique or material specific details. The orientation, scale, format, language, signs, metaphors, symbols, etc., are very much subjective and so illegible to others. This are very personal, un-interpretable or mis-interpretable documents. Yet these are ‘intellectual properties’ documents (copyright, patent, exclusivity).

2 IN-HOUSE DOCUMENTS are created to explore various aspects of the project. These documents always remain within the office and accessible to only authorized staff members. The composition is very casual as the contents are private and not binding to anyone. The contents can be altered at any time without any liability. Here options regarding materials, finishes, parts / subsystems, techniques, are explored. The methods of indication follow the traditions prevalent in the office, and as a result its format and language are very abbreviated. However, some sort of standard format is required, to create documents that are comparable and interpolating with other such documents within the organization. Such documents are never exposed to consultants, clients or anyone else. As whatever is shown or implied in the drawings may be construed to be a promise to deliver.

Grenfell_Tower,_London_in_2009

3 DOCUMENTS FOR CLIENTS are in the form of presentations. Clients’ are shown (and given) drawings and other documents at several stages of the project such as First for the approval of concept, then with intermediate improvisations, and finally for the execution worthy scheme. Besides these clients require presentation for marketing the spaces, which are being, created or altered. Few clients, however, understand all the technical drawings, but in case of a dispute every sketch, drawing or document will be reinterpreted by someone else (lawyer, arbitrator, judge, etc.) and that can create liabilities. The clients consider the design documents as Bench-Mark during the post project evaluation. Presentations should be simple and in non-mechanical form, as the essential purpose is to impress the client and solicit a required response. These documents may additionally convey broad policy of operational modalities and related structure for guarantees and warranties. The presentation format is open, allowing several options and possible interpretations. A client needs two basic things through the initial presentations: 1. A layout scheme that shows how the project relates to the site and 2. A sketch / view showing the form of the building, with reference to the surroundings. On later date presentations other details (materials, colour, textures, etc.) may be included. Clients’ presentations are for information and for initiating a debate. Whereas, a set of all drawings, submitted just before the invitation of bids, is a formal ‘transfer of records’.

FL Wright Heurtley House Lower Floor

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Next part of the article will cover remaining Design Documents such as >> 4 Documents for Consultants’ Assignment, 5 Documents for Permissions or Approvals, 6 Documents for Presentation and Publications, 7 Documents for Job Award or Execution.

And also Layout drawing, Working drawings, Detail drawings, Component drawings, Written details, Written details within the drawings, As a separate document but attached or referenced through the drawings, Memos and Short Messages to and from the site, Certificates for completion of a trade specific item, component, stages, payment of bills, etc.Santelia03.

SPECIFICATIONS CONTENTS (Design Practice)

Post 380 –by Gautam Shah

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A design office deals with, and also generates a variety of Documents that contain some or the other forms of Specifications. Such Specification related documents are of following main categories:

1. Drawings: graphical representations and specifications written with them.

2. Literary explanations: Memos, site notes, interim reports.

3. Linkages: cross references to graphical representations, literary explanations and external specifications, standards, etc.

4. Time schedules:

Categories of Specifications that concern a Design organization are

  1. Documents related,
  2. Design office practices and routines that a vendor must know,
  3. Formats of communication with the design office and its job consultants,
  4. Site and job specific cares and precautions,
  5. Re-use, recycling and ‘safe’ disposal related requirements.
  6. Bill checking, certification procedures.

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These requirements can also be stated as

  • methods for interpretation of documents
  • records keeping of corrections, alterations, revisions, etc.
  • archiving methods for information, data and documents.
  • definitions of laying out a job, location facilities, resources (free, chargeable etc.), hazards, conditions of access and usage.
  • methods and means to achieve the quality standards for inputs and outputs.
  • definitions of risks, hazards, (due to natural causes, ignorance, carelessness, fraud, malicious acts) and ways to predict, manage, eliminate and compensate them. Definition of mandatory obligations and responsibilities.
  • work evaluation modes and methods.
  • responsibilities and extent of liabilities for desired level of functionality, of parts and whole, means to fulfill them.

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In-house specifications that are flourishing within a design organization can be categorized like:

General

  • How to read (drawing sequencing) & co-ordinate other documents
  • Graphical signs and symbols, Abbreviations
  • References -upward, downward, sideways links
  • Dimensions, Units, Quantities, numbers, fitments and tolerances
  • Dates and schedules
  • Assumptions / presumptions of Estimating
  • How to request, revise and record changes in drawings and documents

Materials

  • Quality and Quantity of raw materials,
  • Delivery of goods,
  • Handling (unloading, weights), unpacking, and storage of raw materials
  • Raw material accounting -ordering, approvals, receipts & issue
  • Management of residual raw materials, waste goods, rejected goods, packing materials, debris due to breakage of existing structures, garbage, fumes, smokes, pollutants, etc.

Site and Staff Management

  • Chargeable services and free services on a site
  • Maintenance of site or work areas during multi vendor access.
  • Welfare, safety and security of people and goods on a site
  • Ownership of site, goods, plants, partly completed and fully completed items
  • Making good damages to surrounding environment and buildings

    P120909PS-0022Works Management

  • Process of manufacture – assembly – installation
  • During execution check ups/ precautions
  • Post execution checkups / follow ups
  • Operational parameters for the executed entity
  • Guarantees and warranties and transfer to the owners

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  • Modules of measurement
  • Mode of measurement
  • Incidence of Taxes

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