LIST of BLOGS on DESIGN PRACTICE

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Post 637 –by Gautam Shah

This is a random selection of BLOGS on Design Practice (Professional Practice) from several of my blogs on the subject.

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Flickr Image by Denis Jacquerye

  • INTERIOR DESIGN and CLIENTS>>

https://interiordesignassist.wordpress.com/2015/05/05/interior-design-and-clients/

  • CLIENT and DESIGN PROFESSIONAL -Relationship >>

https://interiordesignassist.wordpress.com/2015/01/14/client-and-design-professional-relationship/

  • FEES NEGOTIATIONS WITH A CLIENT >>

https://interiordesignassist.wordpress.com/2015/01/02/fees-negotiations-with-a-client/

  • PROFILING CLIENTS >>

https://interiordesignassist.wordpress.com/2014/12/02/profiling-clients/

  • DETERMINATION of PROFESSIONAL FEES >>

https://interiordesignassist.wordpress.com/2015/03/10/determination-of-professional-fees/

  • CONTRACT and ENFORCEMENT >>

https://interiordesignassist.wordpress.com/2014/11/02/contract-and-enforcement/

  • A PROFESSIONAL and PROFESSIONAL BEHAVIOUR >>

https://interiordesignassist.wordpress.com/2014/09/27/a-professional-and-professional-behaviour/

  • Differentiating COST from VALUE -Interior Design Practice >>

https://interiordesignassist.wordpress.com/2014/06/14/differentiating-cost-from-value-interior-design-practice/

  • DESIGNERS DILEMMA – RIGHT FEES >>

https://interiordesignassist.wordpress.com/2014/06/13/designers-dilemma-right-fees/

  • DATA for PROFESSIONALS >>

https://interiordesignassist.wordpress.com/2014/05/25/data-for-professionals/

  • PROJECT REPORT OR PROJECT PROFILE REPORT >>

https://interiordesignassist.wordpress.com/2014/04/01/project-report-or-project-profile-report/

  • INTERIOR DESIGNER – the role

https://interiordesignassist.wordpress.com/2015/02/16/interior-designer-the-role/

  • QUALITY CONSCIENCE and COMPLIANCE in DESIGN PRACTICE

https://interiordesignassist.wordpress.com/2016/04/12/quality-conscience-and-compliance-in-design-practice/

  • INTERIOR DESIGN PRACTICE > FEES

https://interiordesignassist.wordpress.com/2015/12/15/interior-design-practice-fees/

  • MANAGING FEES -for Building Design practices PART – III

https://interiordesignassist.wordpress.com/2015/08/21/managing-fees-for-building-design-practices-part-iii/

  • MANAGING FEES -for Building Design practices PART – IV

https://interiordesignassist.wordpress.com/2015/09/05/managing-fees-for-building-design-practices-part-iv/

  • MANAGING FEES -for Building Design practices PART – II

https://interiordesignassist.wordpress.com/2015/08/15/managing-fees-for-building-design-practices-part-ii/

  • MANAGING FEES -for Building Design practices PART – I

https://interiordesignassist.wordpress.com/2015/07/20/managing-fees-for-building-design-practices-part-i/

  • PROFESSIONAL FEES

https://interiordesignassist.wordpress.com/2015/07/16/professional-fees/

  • SPECIFICATIONS CONTENTS (Design Practice)

https://interiordesignassist.wordpress.com/2015/03/31/specifications-contents-design-practice/

  • DESIGN PRACTICES

https://interiordesignassist.wordpress.com/2014/11/15/design-practices/

  • DESIGN PRACTICE and CONSCIENCE

https://interiordesignassist.wordpress.com/2014/11/11/design-practice-and-conscience/

  • WRITING SPECIFICATIONS in DESIGN PRACTICE

https://interiordesignassist.wordpress.com/2014/09/17/writing-specifications-in-design-practice/

  • COMMITTING a CLIENT for JOB

https://interiordesignassist.wordpress.com/2015/08/03/committing-a-client-for-job/

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Pexels Image by Kaboompics // Karolina > http://www.kaboompics.com/

A set of articles on DESIGN IMPLEMENTATION PROCESSES that were offered as PG Level course are also available at >

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01 Organizations
https://designacademics.wordpress.com/2016/08/08/organizations-1/

02 Essentials of Design Organizations
https://designacademics.wordpress.com/2016/08/11/essentials-of-organizations-02/

03 Design Organizations
https://designacademics.wordpress.com/2016/08/14/design-organizations-03/

04 Projects of Design
https://designacademics.wordpress.com/2016/08/22/projects-of-design-04/

05 Job or Assignment Handling in Design Organizations
https://designacademics.wordpress.com/2016/08/30/jobs-or-assignment-handling-in-design-organizations-05/

06 Deliverables from Design Organizations
https://designacademics.wordpress.com/2016/08/23/deliverables-from-design-organizations-06/

07 Dealing with a Client in a Design Organization
https://designacademics.wordpress.com/2016/09/06/dealing-with-a-client-in-a-design-organization-7/

08 Specifications
https://designacademics.wordpress.com/2016/07/31/specifications-08/

09 History of Specifications
https://designacademics.wordpress.com/2016/08/01/history-of-specifications-09/

10 Standards
https://designacademics.wordpress.com/2016/08/06/standards-10/

11 Liabilities
https://designacademics.wordpress.com/2016/11/28/liabilities-11-design-implementation-processes/

12 Bureau of Indian Standards BIS
https://designacademics.wordpress.com/2016/10/03/bureau-of-indian-standards-bis-12/

13 International Standards Organization ISO
https://designacademics.wordpress.com/2016/10/11/international-standards-organization-iso-13/

14 ISO 9000 and other Management Standards
https://designacademics.wordpress.com/2016/10/09/iso-9000-and-other-management-standards-14/

15 Quality for Designers
https://designacademics.wordpress.com/2016/09/13/quality-for-designers-15/

16 Quality Conscience
https://designacademics.wordpress.com/2016/09/16/quality-conscience-16/

17 Consumerism
https://designacademics.wordpress.com/2016/08/16/consumerism-for-designers-17/

18 Human Resources
https://designacademics.wordpress.com/2016/10/21/human-resources-18-design-implementation-processes/

19 Leadership in Design Organizations
https://designacademics.wordpress.com/2016/09/19/leadership-in-design-organizations-19/

20 Data, Information and Knowledge
https://designacademics.wordpress.com/2016/10/29/data-information-and-knowledge-20-design-implementation-processes/

21 Design Processes 21-1 to 21-4
https://designacademics.wordpress.com/2016/09/24/design-processes-21-1-design-handling/

22 Decision Making and Problem Solving
https://designacademics.wordpress.com/2016/10/16/decision-making-and-problem-solving-22-design-implementation-processes/

23 Systems Thinking
https://designacademics.wordpress.com/2016/10/22/systems-thinking-23-design-implementation-processes/

24 Risk Management
https://designacademics.wordpress.com/2016/10/23/risk-management-24-design-implementation-processes/

25 Guarantees and Warranties
https://designacademics.wordpress.com/2016/11/30/guarantees-and-warranties-25-design-implementation-processes/

26 Finance
https://designacademics.wordpress.com/2016/11/14/finance-26-design-implementation-processes/

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BLOG LINKS for articles on DESIGN IMPLEMENTATION PROCESSES

Post 632 –by Gautam Shah

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These Blogs formed the course for Masters level Design students at Faculty of Design, CEPT University, Ahmedabad, India. The course was initially planned for Entrepreneurship for Designers. Design graduates were expected to professionally operate in the role of Designers, Producers or Services providers. For this purpose, it was decided to include Design creation, Management of design organizations, Design processes, Standards and specifications, ISO management systems, Risk management, Human resources, Basics of finance, etc. The course was offered as two lectures per week over a semester of 16 weeks. It could perhaps include many other modules, but it was not possible in the time schedule of a semester. — Gautam Shah (contact@gautamshah.in)

Blog Site: https://designacademics.wordpress.com/

INTERNET LINKS to BLOG articles

1 Organizations

https://designacademics.wordpress.com/2016/08/08/organizations-1/

2 Essentials of Design Organizations

https://designacademics.wordpress.com/2016/08/11/essentials-of-organizations-02/

3 Design Organizations

https://designacademics.wordpress.com/2016/08/14/design-organizations-03/

4 Projects of Design

https://designacademics.wordpress.com/2016/08/22/projects-of-design-04/

5 Job or Assignment Handling in Design Organizations

https://designacademics.wordpress.com/2016/08/30/jobs-or-assignment-handling-in-design-organizations-05/

6 Deliverables from Design Organizations

https://designacademics.wordpress.com/2016/08/23/deliverables-from-design-organizations-06/

7 Dealing with a Client in a Design Organization

https://designacademics.wordpress.com/2016/09/06/dealing-with-a-client-in-a-design-organization-7/

8 Specifications

https://designacademics.wordpress.com/2016/07/31/specifications-08/

9 History of Specifications

https://designacademics.wordpress.com/2016/08/01/history-of-specifications-09/

10 Standards

https://designacademics.wordpress.com/2016/08/06/standards-10/

11 Liabilities

https://designacademics.wordpress.com/2016/11/28/liabilities-11-design-implementation-processes/

12 Bureau of Indian Standards BIS

https://designacademics.wordpress.com/2016/10/03/bureau-of-indian-standards-bis-12/

13 International Standards Organization ISO

https://designacademics.wordpress.com/2016/10/11/international-standards-organization-iso-13/

14 ISO 9000 and other Management Standards

https://designacademics.wordpress.com/2016/10/09/iso-9000-and-other-management-standards-14/

15 Quality for Designers

https://designacademics.wordpress.com/2016/09/13/quality-for-designers-15/

16 Quality Conscience

https://designacademics.wordpress.com/2016/09/16/quality-conscience-16/

17 Consumerism

https://designacademics.wordpress.com/2016/08/16/consumerism-for-designers-17/

18 Human Resources

https://designacademics.wordpress.com/2016/10/21/human-resources-18-design-implementation-processes/

 

19 Leadership in Design Organizations

https://designacademics.wordpress.com/2016/09/19/leadership-in-design-organizations-19/

20 Data, Information and Knowledge

https://designacademics.wordpress.com/2016/10/29/data-information-and-knowledge-20-design-implementation-processes/

21 Design Processes 21-1 to 21-4

https://designacademics.wordpress.com/2016/09/24/design-processes-21-1-design-handling/

22 Decision Making and Problem Solving

https://designacademics.wordpress.com/2016/10/16/decision-making-and-problem-solving-22-design-implementation-processes/

23 Systems Thinking

https://designacademics.wordpress.com/2016/10/22/systems-thinking-23-design-implementation-processes/

24 Risk Management

https://designacademics.wordpress.com/2016/10/23/risk-management-24-design-implementation-processes/

25 Guarantees and Warranties

https://designacademics.wordpress.com/2016/11/30/guarantees-and-warranties-25-design-implementation-processes/

26 Finance

https://designacademics.wordpress.com/2016/11/14/finance-26-design-implementation-processes/

. a combined *.pdf file may be available to few genuine users.

 

DESIGN ORGANIZATIONS and ENTITIES

Post 521  by Gautam Shah

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Flickr image by PEDS

Design organizations are conceived to serve external clients. Such organizations are distinctly detached from their clients, and so are internally fairly cohesive or homogeneous. The detachment helps in enforcing professionalism in the services being offered. It also reflects on fees being charged which are neatly defined and in direct proportion to the jobs being handled. Design entities that serve internal clients like ‘sister concerns’ or para departments, are indistinct in constitution, offering of services and enumeration of fees. The heterogeneity is often so diverse that relationship between the services provider and the internal client are too incoherent, to be distinguished into neat role models. The principal objective of such design entities is to serve the routine solutions for its member-clients. Such solutions are efficient in terms of time and resources but less daring or critical.

Design organizations those serve external clients tend to be individual-specific. The hierarchical structure is distinct when 8 or more persons are involved. The single-person leadership remains the final authority. The Design entities that serve internal clients such as like ‘sister concerns’ or para departments may be lead by non-designers. It could also be multi-lateral arrangement. The decision making process is long winded and formal as several persons are involved. For outside observers or auditors the Design organizations, due to their dense homogeneity are difficult to penetrate and study. The effort lies in studying their efficiency not of delivering the results, but ‘projects in pipe line’. Design entities need a continuous assessment, or could be dissolved. The design solutions are valued in comparison to any offering available from out-sourcing. An internal or departmental design entity is valued for the continuous improvisations it can offer due to its immediacy.

Wikipedia – Flickr image > Source Author Mitch Altman https://www.flickr.com/photos/maltman23/15372193433/

Multi lateral organizations that conduct activities like design, manufacturing, on-site installations, servicing, etc. have modules that are subservient to the central management. Design is not an organization but a departmental entity. Not just design, but all other entities are well delineated. Their activities are not just mutually dependent, but in many instances concurrent and so overlapping. Their distinction is in the assignments and not in the activities they conduct, or things they deliver.

Wikipedia image

Design organizations led by professionals, who are under the registration formalities of their professional bodies such as Architects, various branches of Engineering. Such organizations do not opt for multi-lateral format. Many other design businesses such as product design, graphics, etc., at certain stage of expansive growth become multi lateral entities.

Wikipedia image Attribution (required by the license) © Jorge Royan / http://www.royan.com.ar/ CC-BY-SA-3.0

DESIGN DOCUMENTS and Liabilities – Part – I

Post 491  by Gautam Shah

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Design Documents consists of Views such as Plans, sections, elevations, Write-ups in the form of sheets, files or books, for explanations about things that cannot be adequately represented through views and for people who are not trained to interpret drawings (such government officials and law agencies), Structured Documents such as estimate sheets, reports, etc., and Enhanced Views such as isometrics, perspectives, walk-throughs to reinforce the perception of elements or their compositions which are generally not used as valid means of execution.

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Peter Behrens Tower building

Design Documents created in a design office have a well-defined purpose, specific exposure and so vulnerable to various levels of liabilities.

Design Documents are of Following types:

  • Personal
  • In-house
  • For clients’
  • For consultants’
  • For permissions – approvals by authorities
  • For presentations – publications
  • For job award or execution
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Manchester Town Hall Drawings

1 PERSONAL DOCUMENTS are created by the designer or scheme formulator. These are concept sketches drawn impressionistically and often like doodles or bubble diagrams. These are for designer’s personal references or reminders. Sketch or preliminary drawings are too small in size, not to exact scale, lacking in details, and do not carry all the graphical views to convey the intentions. These documents are not meant for anyone else, and are thin in content, or just indicative and abstract in nature. Similarly materials, components, procedures and design parameters which have not been fully conceived, or not crystallized into a formal structure, are all placed as notings. The sketches may not have any apparent order, and contain any trade, technique or material specific details. The orientation, scale, format, language, signs, metaphors, symbols, etc., are very much subjective and so illegible to others. This are very personal, un-interpretable or mis-interpretable documents. Yet these are ‘intellectual properties’ documents (copyright, patent, exclusivity).

2 IN-HOUSE DOCUMENTS are created to explore various aspects of the project. These documents always remain within the office and accessible to only authorized staff members. The composition is very casual as the contents are private and not binding to anyone. The contents can be altered at any time without any liability. Here options regarding materials, finishes, parts / subsystems, techniques, are explored. The methods of indication follow the traditions prevalent in the office, and as a result its format and language are very abbreviated. However, some sort of standard format is required, to create documents that are comparable and interpolating with other such documents within the organization. Such documents are never exposed to consultants, clients or anyone else. As whatever is shown or implied in the drawings may be construed to be a promise to deliver.

Grenfell_Tower,_London_in_2009

3 DOCUMENTS FOR CLIENTS are in the form of presentations. Clients’ are shown (and given) drawings and other documents at several stages of the project such as First for the approval of concept, then with intermediate improvisations, and finally for the execution worthy scheme. Besides these clients require presentation for marketing the spaces, which are being, created or altered. Few clients, however, understand all the technical drawings, but in case of a dispute every sketch, drawing or document will be reinterpreted by someone else (lawyer, arbitrator, judge, etc.) and that can create liabilities. The clients consider the design documents as Bench-Mark during the post project evaluation. Presentations should be simple and in non-mechanical form, as the essential purpose is to impress the client and solicit a required response. These documents may additionally convey broad policy of operational modalities and related structure for guarantees and warranties. The presentation format is open, allowing several options and possible interpretations. A client needs two basic things through the initial presentations: 1. A layout scheme that shows how the project relates to the site and 2. A sketch / view showing the form of the building, with reference to the surroundings. On later date presentations other details (materials, colour, textures, etc.) may be included. Clients’ presentations are for information and for initiating a debate. Whereas, a set of all drawings, submitted just before the invitation of bids, is a formal ‘transfer of records’.

FL Wright Heurtley House Lower Floor

Trump_Tower_2012-04-29_(cropped)

Next part of the article will cover remaining Design Documents such as >> 4 Documents for Consultants’ Assignment, 5 Documents for Permissions or Approvals, 6 Documents for Presentation and Publications, 7 Documents for Job Award or Execution.

And also Layout drawing, Working drawings, Detail drawings, Component drawings, Written details, Written details within the drawings, As a separate document but attached or referenced through the drawings, Memos and Short Messages to and from the site, Certificates for completion of a trade specific item, component, stages, payment of bills, etc.Santelia03.

PROBLEM SOLVING

Post 439 – by Gautam Shah

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Archimedes bath

Decision making involves some degree of problem solving. Alternatively it can be said that problem solving itself is a decision making process. In decision making some intuitive and alogical processes are operative, but problem solving occurs in a more realistic situation. Problem solving can be defined as an exercise of observing situations, vis a vis change causing elements.

A Bonobo at the San Diego Zoo fishing for termites

To solve a problem, it is necessary to separate it, as a unique entity or event. The issue is seen by severing its connections and dependencies with other entities and happenings. To make such a dissection, one has to define the level and intensity of various connections. This can be done by raising questions.

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Garden Maze at the St. Louis botanical gardens Wikipedia Image by Bachrach44

  • What is the problem?
  • Is the problem due to (external) multiple opinions or ideas?
  • Is the problem due to possible subjective assumptions?
  • Is the problem due to doubtful evidence?
  • Is the problem related implications and consequences of its outcome (decision)?

Perry Mason fictional detective Hopper Hale 1958 Paul Drake (William Hopper) and Della Street (Barbara Hale), with cop Frank Sully

We have read Sherlock Homes, Agatha Christie, Perry Mason and other characters raising-solving problems. Some problems are stated at the start, the book discovers ‘How the issue occurred’, and only in the last chapter or page one finds ‘Who caused the problem and How?’ In another scenario, one is first told ‘How and, Who causes the problem’, but one find later, ‘Why the happening was circumstantially caused?’ In still another setup, one is shown the event and the circumstances Which caused it. Here one is led to believe some false truth, or several conflicting possibilities. The author wants you to get involved in the process of investigations. The truth (at least in fiction) always is a surprise.

Honda Robot learning Step climbing

Assignments are simplest of problems as these are enforced exercises. There is a party which assigns the work and there is another, who undertakes the task. It is like a contract, where in goals or tasks are neatly defined, resources allocated, and delivery standards specified. Assignments deal with known things, but involve application of skill and management techniques. Students, employees (clerical) and jobbers (workers) are assigned such problems. It may lack a creative effort but productivity and sincerity are important factors.

Random Learning FD image

Difficulties occur for two reasons, either, we do not know, How to manage a situation, or feel that we lack the resources. Difficulties are subjective or objective. In the first case, the problem lies within the person. The person has the capacity, but is unable to accomplish a task. In the second case, the problem lies outside the person. A person may not have the talent, know how, motivation, resources etc. Difficulties, if subjective in nature, require training, exposure, motivation, etc. whereas objective ones need other physical inputs.

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Mystery is an unexplained deviation from what is expected. Our efforts are in finding out what has caused the deviation. But for a mystery to happen it is necessary to understand as to what is a deviation (size, scale, measure, range etc.) and what forms a standard. A deviation is not necessarily a bad or foul thing, it may be an advantage or even a gain. Mysterious problems get tackled as soon as deviation causing elements are identified.

And Then There Were None is a 1945 film adaptation of Agatha Christie_s best-selling mystery novel

Opportunities self presumed or situational offerings. A person or group defines a condition as the problem or a larger environment (social, political, academic) poses a specific situation worthy of a rethink. The specific situation is looked upon as consisting of opportunities. Evaluation of opportunities in terms of the potential benefit or loss leads to solution of a problem. Opportunities are time related, and so need to be perceived early.

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Giant Star Burr Puzzle

Puzzle is a situation where one knows a correct solution exists, but sufficient efforts are necessary to discover it. Puzzles are of Three types: Soluble, currently insoluble and ever insoluble. Soluble puzzles can be tackled with current knowledge. Currently insoluble puzzles will be hopefully solved, when resources and information are adequately available. Puzzles, however, remain insoluble, when certain important sections are irretrievably lost. Puzzles have such inbuilt solutions that in real sense, there are no need to solve any thing, but locate the solution and identify the way to reach it. Puzzles are solved as soon as the end itself, or the means to the end are in sight.

Texas Hold em Hole Cards

Dilemmas offer multiple choices, each of which seems equally fitting. Dilemmas remain in-force only for a particular time span, situation or value judgment. Dilemmas, if handled by a different person, attended at another time, or dealt in another situation, may not be a problem at all. Dilemmas pose as twin offering, of which only one need be appropriate. So if the problem is probed further and deeper and separated from its dependencies one of the solutions is likely to be just slightly more superior or less inferior.

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The problems in life relate to what one may want to gain or possess, and forget or dispose something. Situations are known, but need some support to make it better managed. The support may be different attitude, and additional knowledge, resources or time. Situations seem to strange because one needs to realize that a problem does exist.

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DESIGN PROJECT MANAGEMENT

DESIGN PROJECT MANAGEMENT

Post 414 ⇒   by Gautam Shah 

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A design project is carefully planned set of activities to achieve a comprehensive objective. Design projects handling aims to achieve the objectives within the defined scope, time, and costs. The fourth parameter of the project handling is the quality of the delivery. This requires advance management of the effort and required resources.

Every design project is a unique endeavour. Design projects are of many different types such as form a concept, create a product or render a service. A design project could be an idea or concept taking shape in mind, being readied for an outward expression, a strategy to actualize an idea, to recollect a happening, reckon the scale of an event, reproduce an experience or a search for a match or fit.

Managing a design project is distinctive activity from other more traditional, routine and administrative efforts. Design projects emerge out of circumstances –aided by all kinds of debate and analysis, by managerial or political policy decisions. It embodies not just strategy and solution to solve a problem in its physicality but is also a unique way of addressing social, business and organizational issues, within increasingly complex environments.

Design project handling is circumspect with time, money, people, other resources, and conditioned by the available technology, and by legal, social and such obligations. Design project take time for physical realization and during the period any change in its scope, time schedules, costs and quality requirements requires tactical reformation.

Design projects are so Scope or Extent dependent that an increase or decrease affects the scaling of the project, changes the cost profile or compromise the quality. A Time dependent design project, when gets delayed impacts the benefits or losses out of it. With early or accelerated execution, extensive benefits could be derived. Cost generally determines the extent of a project in the early stage, but costs are extremely variable and can change the perception of extent. On the other hand when conditions are abnormal and survival of an individual or the society is threatened, such as during war, natural calamities, catastrophes etc. the quality parameters are worst affected. Though best or most challenging projects planning methods have emerged in such acute conditions.

Traditional Korean home

Projects sometimes have a dual personality, technical, and procedural. Some projects are predominantly either technical or procedural, but not exclusively one or the other. Interior Design is an example of the former, whereas marketing or the training of personnel would be an example of the later. In design project management what is unfamiliar and non routine, invariably necessitates all kinds of learning, adaptation as well as problem solving, and technical projects need more of it.

A design project must always be treated as a first-ever effort. A sub-task or phase of such an endeavour may involve some degree of repetition, but one sets exclusive conditions for all such repeats. This is very different from processes or operations that are looped (to do the same thing) for productivity. A designer trying to repeat details at sub-task level for efficiency can never be creative.

.Viollet-le-Duc Concert Hall

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DISCHARGE of a CONTRACT

Post 322 – by Gautam Shah 

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‘Discharge of a contract is termination of contractual obligations, so that they become inoperative’.

At a very elementary level a contract could be matter of intensely felt mutual faith, which is not necessarily expressed orally or spelt in writing. A contract is, yet a very formal document, that must be credible and legal. It is often mandatory to be registered with an appropriate authority, in terms of its date of signing, and in few instances even the contents. All contracts once signed, and registered or not, cannot be cancelled.

Joséphine, first wife of Napoleon, obtained the civil dissolution of her marriage under the Napoleonic Code of 1804.

Advantages of legal contracts are many. A legal contract makes it easier for the parties to register the document, enforce the terms and conditions as specified within the contract document, add, delete or modify the terms of contract, continue the contract beyond the lifespan or terms of the signatories (after death of a party), solve the disputes and discharge the relationship.

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Contracts are promises that the law will enforce. The law provides remedies if a promise is breached or recognizes the performance of a promise as a duty.

Contracts arise when a duty is due, because of a promise was made by one of the parties. To be legally binding as a contract, a promise must be exchanged for adequate consideration. Adequate consideration is a benefit or detriment that a party receives. For example, promises that are purely gifts are not considered enforceable because for the personal satisfaction the grantor of the promise, ‘may receive’ is normally not a consideration.

Contracts are very formal and binding documents, which if once signed cannot be easily dissolved. Some contracts become void, after particular time set, others become useless once required actions are carried out, or considerations are given. Some contracts like marriage, and understandings like partnership, require execution of another contract or understanding to dissolve the original.

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A contract may be discharged (done away, dissolved) in any of the following ways:

  • Performance: Contracting parties fully discharge their obligations.
  • Agreement: Contracting parties with mutual consent, and as per the terms laid down in a contract, agree to cancel, reduce, or alter, the effects of a contract. Such agreements take into consideration consequences of such actions.
  • Law: On judgement over a dispute, or bankruptcy (insolvency) of either of the parties.
  • Circumstances: Due to change in legislation (of higher order), and declared war like conditions.
  • Lapse of time: Most contracts have arrangement for automatic time closure specifications.
  • Breach of a contract: Intentionally or unintentionally either of the party fail to fulfill the obligations as per the contract and takes recourse to law for enforcement of a contract or redress.

Samuel_D._Ehrhart_-_An_International_High_Noon_Divorce_(1906).