UNDERSTANDING DESIGN FEES

Post 713 -by Gautam Shah

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Designers often help their clients to acquire or dispose off entities in their completely prepared form. When the transaction originates at producers’ end, it is little above the cost, at a price. Price, reflects the value a producer attaches to an entity. Later transactions may not in any manner relate to an entity’s cost.

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For a thing to have a value, it must be transferable. A latent value becomes potent when it is perceived that someone needs the entity in some time and space, for a utilitarian or hypothetical purpose. A demand for a perishable commodity, if it, does not occur within the life span, is irrelevant. Similarly demand for something in a far off place cannot be satisfied, due to transportation hazards and handling problems. Air has a lot of utility but is not scarce. Rotten eggs may be scarce, but hardly have any utility. Friendship is very useful and scarce, but is not transferable or marketable.

Historic cost of creating a painting may be few drops of colour, a canvas and artists’ few moments. But once the fact is accomplished, the painting gains a very high value due to its extra ordinarily high relevance to the society. Relevance of a product in terms of its utility is (more) likely to degenerate over a period of time, but its value may appreciate or depreciate depending on its relevance to the owner or the society.

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Prices are effected in money. Prices go up or down depending on the fall or rise in the (universal) value of the money. Any change in money (monetary value) affects the prices of all things across the board. Value of a thing, however, is specific. There cannot be a general fall or rise in value of all things. Value of a thing goes up, when we can acquire or aspire for more or superior things in exchange. Value of a thing goes down, when we can acquire or hope for less or inferior things in exchange. Value is relative, referred in terms of something else.

Value of a thing, cannot be always measured in money. Value has many different connotations, typically, it has relevance in terms of, emotions, remembrances, associations, ageing, maturity, heritage, rarity, ecological, environmental, social, etc.

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Valuation, in functional sense, is done to determine what one would gain by acquiring, or forgo by disposing the item, but not necessarily doing so. Value of a product means an addition or deduction to wealth, Cost at the moment of transfer may or may not reflect the value of an item, but it helps in a better judgement of the value.

A rare painting or an antique may have an indeterminable cost, but will have a probable value. Value could be several times more or less than the actual cost of the item. Value is considered to be the true worth of an item, more lasting, but not necessarily reliable. Cost and price are very realistic and reliable, but not always representative of the true worth of the item. Both, perhaps, are required to gain a full insight of the situation.

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Monetary versus Non-Monetary Valuations

Valuations are of two types: Monetary and Non-Monetary. Monetary valuations are not very different from costing exercises. Value of a thing, cannot be always measured in money. Though here utility, desirability, scarcity, availability and marketability etc. of an item are assessed in monetary terms rather than market equivalent costs of such items.

Valuations of non-monetary type are made to check adherence to values, customs, traditions, ethos, rules regulations, laws, etc. Greater adherence to these issues results into higher value realization for the product. Often negative or repulsive aspects of an entity, such as Hitler’s memorabilia, black magic tools, due to their rarity, invite a connoisseur’s favour. Non-monetary valuations have a relevance only to people who are concerned with it in some way. Non-monetary valuations based on one aspect or few concerns are not very useful, desirable, or even reliable. Non-monetary valuations based on too many aspects are not comparable, so must be scaled into some economic or monetary component. These makes, a valuation, very complicated process.

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Costing versus Valuation

Costing is a logical (mathematical) process, and any technically proficient person can carry it out. Costing process must always remain justifiable, and requires many exact inputs, including latest market costs etc. Valuations, however, involve many hypothetical judgments, are very subjective, and so may not seem rational. It is the experience of the valuer that imparts some degree of objectivity and also reliability to the valuation. Valuation on the other hand is a subjective judgment, and no explanations may be asked for.

Costing helps a designer in planning, budgeting and auditing the expenditures. Valuation is used to confirm or justify expenditures, indicate non monetary savings, and to convince a client for quandary options.

 

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Design Practice and Cost Determination Methods

Designers choose entities, increase or decrease their usage by predicting the costs. Designers develop their own cost determination methods, appropriate for the jobs they handle, and for types of items specified in their projects. Input data like market rates for materials, parts, components, labour etc. are continuously updated or sought as and when estimates are to be prepared. Updating feedback is also available through the historic estimates conducted on completion of a project.

In design offices predictive cost analysis is made through Rate analysis. Average prices of all commonly used materials, operations, etc., are collected routinely, reformatted and stored. These are presumed as standard rates, and form the basis for the cost analysis. To simplify the process of cost analysis, number of items and their individual rates or prices are reduced by approximation (through definition of a factor for variation) in quantity and quality.

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Routine jobs and jobs with substantial intellectual effort

Routine jobs have a determinable cost (and by adding a customary margin of profit, etc. one can derive the price). However, jobs with substantial intellectual effort accomplish more than the cost of implementation. So, dilemmas occur, should one charge a professional fee on the total cost of the job, or value accruing out of the job? Authors of creative efforts must know how to value their accomplishments, and thereby demand a fair compensation for it. Designers need to know both the cost and value of their professional services.

Cost versus Value for Designers

The understanding of Cost versus Value of an entity helps a designer at TWO distinct levels:

1 Determination of Fees: Cost-based and Value-based

2 Helping a client for the value-assessment of their possessions.

Screenshot_2020-02-29 Mares and foals with an unfigured background (England,1762) - George Stubbs (1724 - 1806)

Cost-based Fees

Design practice follows age-old traditions of Architectural practice. Jobs are generally executed by appointed contractors or selected vendors. These third party (away from the Architect and the Client) business entities present an invoice, which reflects the nearly true cost of the job. Architects base their fees on this foundation after adding certain percentage amount to account for miscellaneous expenses, (such as on power, water, etc.). Substantial part of Designer’s work follows a similar path.

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Value-based Fees

Value-based Fees are charged for jobs like renovation, extension, addition, conservation, etc. that make substantial change to the existing environment, upgrading the commercial value, or advantages deriving out of it. A unique concept that costs very little to implement, provides a substantial benefit to the client. Should one charge a fee on the cost of a job or on the value of the completed job? Here determining an appropriate cost base for fees is very difficult.

Value Assessment of Possessions

On some sites there are pre-existing structures which are to be only reformed or reused. The design cost of continuing or protecting such structures is difficult to compute, and so must be value-based. Cost of works or supplies by third party vendors and contractors are accountable, but items supplied by the Clients from the existing stock are difficult to document. Cost of Retained Structures, Antiques, Curios, used in a project are often indeterminable, instead their values, if available need to be used. On sites where several Professionals operate simultaneously, exclusive authorship to a creation is disputable, so cost of a patent idea is disputable.

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Cost Plus Fees

Fees for very complex jobs, or jobs that are unique, and without any precedents are very difficult to predefine. A Client wishes to see the job properly done, and the Professional wants a guaranteed, but a fair amount of income. Such jobs are executed on Cost Plus Basis.

The office work of the professional and the site work of the project, both are executed in a very transparent setup. All the expenses at the Processional’s Office (salaries, stationary, conveyance, rents, service charges for equipments, etc.) and at the Project Site (on raw materials (stationary), wages, and salaries, rents for equipments, conveyance, postal and telecommunication charges, taxes, etc.) are well monitored, documented and audited. The Professional is then allowed a percentage over the Audited Costs.

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LIST of BLOGS on DESIGN PRACTICE

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Post 637 –by Gautam Shah

This is a random selection of BLOGS on Design Practice (Professional Practice) from several of my blogs on the subject.

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Flickr Image by Denis Jacquerye

  • INTERIOR DESIGN and CLIENTS>>

https://interiordesignassist.wordpress.com/2015/05/05/interior-design-and-clients/

  • CLIENT and DESIGN PROFESSIONAL -Relationship >>

https://interiordesignassist.wordpress.com/2015/01/14/client-and-design-professional-relationship/

  • FEES NEGOTIATIONS WITH A CLIENT >>

https://interiordesignassist.wordpress.com/2015/01/02/fees-negotiations-with-a-client/

  • PROFILING CLIENTS >>

https://interiordesignassist.wordpress.com/2014/12/02/profiling-clients/

  • DETERMINATION of PROFESSIONAL FEES >>

https://interiordesignassist.wordpress.com/2015/03/10/determination-of-professional-fees/

  • CONTRACT and ENFORCEMENT >>

https://interiordesignassist.wordpress.com/2014/11/02/contract-and-enforcement/

  • A PROFESSIONAL and PROFESSIONAL BEHAVIOUR >>

https://interiordesignassist.wordpress.com/2014/09/27/a-professional-and-professional-behaviour/

  • Differentiating COST from VALUE -Interior Design Practice >>

https://interiordesignassist.wordpress.com/2014/06/14/differentiating-cost-from-value-interior-design-practice/

  • DESIGNERS DILEMMA – RIGHT FEES >>

https://interiordesignassist.wordpress.com/2014/06/13/designers-dilemma-right-fees/

  • DATA for PROFESSIONALS >>

https://interiordesignassist.wordpress.com/2014/05/25/data-for-professionals/

  • PROJECT REPORT OR PROJECT PROFILE REPORT >>

https://interiordesignassist.wordpress.com/2014/04/01/project-report-or-project-profile-report/

  • INTERIOR DESIGNER – the role

https://interiordesignassist.wordpress.com/2015/02/16/interior-designer-the-role/

  • QUALITY CONSCIENCE and COMPLIANCE in DESIGN PRACTICE

https://interiordesignassist.wordpress.com/2016/04/12/quality-conscience-and-compliance-in-design-practice/

  • INTERIOR DESIGN PRACTICE > FEES

https://interiordesignassist.wordpress.com/2015/12/15/interior-design-practice-fees/

  • MANAGING FEES -for Building Design practices PART – III

https://interiordesignassist.wordpress.com/2015/08/21/managing-fees-for-building-design-practices-part-iii/

  • MANAGING FEES -for Building Design practices PART – IV

https://interiordesignassist.wordpress.com/2015/09/05/managing-fees-for-building-design-practices-part-iv/

  • MANAGING FEES -for Building Design practices PART – II

https://interiordesignassist.wordpress.com/2015/08/15/managing-fees-for-building-design-practices-part-ii/

  • MANAGING FEES -for Building Design practices PART – I

https://interiordesignassist.wordpress.com/2015/07/20/managing-fees-for-building-design-practices-part-i/

  • PROFESSIONAL FEES

https://interiordesignassist.wordpress.com/2015/07/16/professional-fees/

  • SPECIFICATIONS CONTENTS (Design Practice)

https://interiordesignassist.wordpress.com/2015/03/31/specifications-contents-design-practice/

  • DESIGN PRACTICES

https://interiordesignassist.wordpress.com/2014/11/15/design-practices/

  • DESIGN PRACTICE and CONSCIENCE

https://interiordesignassist.wordpress.com/2014/11/11/design-practice-and-conscience/

  • WRITING SPECIFICATIONS in DESIGN PRACTICE

https://interiordesignassist.wordpress.com/2014/09/17/writing-specifications-in-design-practice/

  • COMMITTING a CLIENT for JOB

https://interiordesignassist.wordpress.com/2015/08/03/committing-a-client-for-job/

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Pexels Image by Kaboompics // Karolina > http://www.kaboompics.com/

A set of articles on DESIGN IMPLEMENTATION PROCESSES that were offered as PG Level course are also available at >

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01 Organizations
https://designacademics.wordpress.com/2016/08/08/organizations-1/

02 Essentials of Design Organizations
https://designacademics.wordpress.com/2016/08/11/essentials-of-organizations-02/

03 Design Organizations
https://designacademics.wordpress.com/2016/08/14/design-organizations-03/

04 Projects of Design
https://designacademics.wordpress.com/2016/08/22/projects-of-design-04/

05 Job or Assignment Handling in Design Organizations
https://designacademics.wordpress.com/2016/08/30/jobs-or-assignment-handling-in-design-organizations-05/

06 Deliverables from Design Organizations
https://designacademics.wordpress.com/2016/08/23/deliverables-from-design-organizations-06/

07 Dealing with a Client in a Design Organization
https://designacademics.wordpress.com/2016/09/06/dealing-with-a-client-in-a-design-organization-7/

08 Specifications
https://designacademics.wordpress.com/2016/07/31/specifications-08/

09 History of Specifications
https://designacademics.wordpress.com/2016/08/01/history-of-specifications-09/

10 Standards
https://designacademics.wordpress.com/2016/08/06/standards-10/

11 Liabilities
https://designacademics.wordpress.com/2016/11/28/liabilities-11-design-implementation-processes/

12 Bureau of Indian Standards BIS
https://designacademics.wordpress.com/2016/10/03/bureau-of-indian-standards-bis-12/

13 International Standards Organization ISO
https://designacademics.wordpress.com/2016/10/11/international-standards-organization-iso-13/

14 ISO 9000 and other Management Standards
https://designacademics.wordpress.com/2016/10/09/iso-9000-and-other-management-standards-14/

15 Quality for Designers
https://designacademics.wordpress.com/2016/09/13/quality-for-designers-15/

16 Quality Conscience
https://designacademics.wordpress.com/2016/09/16/quality-conscience-16/

17 Consumerism
https://designacademics.wordpress.com/2016/08/16/consumerism-for-designers-17/

18 Human Resources
https://designacademics.wordpress.com/2016/10/21/human-resources-18-design-implementation-processes/

19 Leadership in Design Organizations
https://designacademics.wordpress.com/2016/09/19/leadership-in-design-organizations-19/

20 Data, Information and Knowledge
https://designacademics.wordpress.com/2016/10/29/data-information-and-knowledge-20-design-implementation-processes/

21 Design Processes 21-1 to 21-4
https://designacademics.wordpress.com/2016/09/24/design-processes-21-1-design-handling/

22 Decision Making and Problem Solving
https://designacademics.wordpress.com/2016/10/16/decision-making-and-problem-solving-22-design-implementation-processes/

23 Systems Thinking
https://designacademics.wordpress.com/2016/10/22/systems-thinking-23-design-implementation-processes/

24 Risk Management
https://designacademics.wordpress.com/2016/10/23/risk-management-24-design-implementation-processes/

25 Guarantees and Warranties
https://designacademics.wordpress.com/2016/11/30/guarantees-and-warranties-25-design-implementation-processes/

26 Finance
https://designacademics.wordpress.com/2016/11/14/finance-26-design-implementation-processes/

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BLOG LINKS for articles on DESIGN IMPLEMENTATION PROCESSES

Post 632 –by Gautam Shah

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These Blogs formed the course for Masters level Design students at Faculty of Design, CEPT University, Ahmedabad, India. The course was initially planned for Entrepreneurship for Designers. Design graduates were expected to professionally operate in the role of Designers, Producers or Services providers. For this purpose, it was decided to include Design creation, Management of design organizations, Design processes, Standards and specifications, ISO management systems, Risk management, Human resources, Basics of finance, etc. The course was offered as two lectures per week over a semester of 16 weeks. It could perhaps include many other modules, but it was not possible in the time schedule of a semester. — Gautam Shah (contact@gautamshah.in)

Blog Site: https://designacademics.wordpress.com/

INTERNET LINKS to BLOG articles

1 Organizations

https://designacademics.wordpress.com/2016/08/08/organizations-1/

2 Essentials of Design Organizations

https://designacademics.wordpress.com/2016/08/11/essentials-of-organizations-02/

3 Design Organizations

https://designacademics.wordpress.com/2016/08/14/design-organizations-03/

4 Projects of Design

https://designacademics.wordpress.com/2016/08/22/projects-of-design-04/

5 Job or Assignment Handling in Design Organizations

https://designacademics.wordpress.com/2016/08/30/jobs-or-assignment-handling-in-design-organizations-05/

6 Deliverables from Design Organizations

https://designacademics.wordpress.com/2016/08/23/deliverables-from-design-organizations-06/

7 Dealing with a Client in a Design Organization

https://designacademics.wordpress.com/2016/09/06/dealing-with-a-client-in-a-design-organization-7/

8 Specifications

https://designacademics.wordpress.com/2016/07/31/specifications-08/

9 History of Specifications

https://designacademics.wordpress.com/2016/08/01/history-of-specifications-09/

10 Standards

https://designacademics.wordpress.com/2016/08/06/standards-10/

11 Liabilities

https://designacademics.wordpress.com/2016/11/28/liabilities-11-design-implementation-processes/

12 Bureau of Indian Standards BIS

https://designacademics.wordpress.com/2016/10/03/bureau-of-indian-standards-bis-12/

13 International Standards Organization ISO

https://designacademics.wordpress.com/2016/10/11/international-standards-organization-iso-13/

14 ISO 9000 and other Management Standards

https://designacademics.wordpress.com/2016/10/09/iso-9000-and-other-management-standards-14/

15 Quality for Designers

https://designacademics.wordpress.com/2016/09/13/quality-for-designers-15/

16 Quality Conscience

https://designacademics.wordpress.com/2016/09/16/quality-conscience-16/

17 Consumerism

https://designacademics.wordpress.com/2016/08/16/consumerism-for-designers-17/

18 Human Resources

https://designacademics.wordpress.com/2016/10/21/human-resources-18-design-implementation-processes/

 

19 Leadership in Design Organizations

https://designacademics.wordpress.com/2016/09/19/leadership-in-design-organizations-19/

20 Data, Information and Knowledge

https://designacademics.wordpress.com/2016/10/29/data-information-and-knowledge-20-design-implementation-processes/

21 Design Processes 21-1 to 21-4

https://designacademics.wordpress.com/2016/09/24/design-processes-21-1-design-handling/

22 Decision Making and Problem Solving

https://designacademics.wordpress.com/2016/10/16/decision-making-and-problem-solving-22-design-implementation-processes/

23 Systems Thinking

https://designacademics.wordpress.com/2016/10/22/systems-thinking-23-design-implementation-processes/

24 Risk Management

https://designacademics.wordpress.com/2016/10/23/risk-management-24-design-implementation-processes/

25 Guarantees and Warranties

https://designacademics.wordpress.com/2016/11/30/guarantees-and-warranties-25-design-implementation-processes/

26 Finance

https://designacademics.wordpress.com/2016/11/14/finance-26-design-implementation-processes/

. a combined *.pdf file may be available to few genuine users.

 

DESIGN SPECIFICATIONS

Post 615 –by Gautam Shah

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Primary instinct for a human effort is to create a Recipe or Process. We tend to perceive an item by hypothetically enacting its process. First step is compilation of a list of physical inputs (ingredients). Second step is forming lists of things to do, how to do and not to do (human interventions). Third step is planning the sequences in time. Fourth step is readying tools required for various processes. A fair mix of all FOUR steps can offer an object, but not a desired entity. The end result is conjectural. In real design work intentions are additionally transmitted through drawing documents and other forms of surrogates.

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Oven Cooking > ART by Jean-Francois Miller (1814-1875)

Item or design specifications have been used for execution, manufacturing, fabricating, erecting, for procuring ready-made objects, and also for effecting various services. The term Design here means any scheme, as such orally conveyed, written, drawn, or otherwise implied.

A Design or Scheme specifies aspects like : constituents, processes of combining, synthesizing a coherent entity or system, method of care and handling the men, materials, tools, equipments and the entity itself as it is being created.

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Elevator Design by German Engineer Konrad Kyeser (1405) Wikipedia image

When a design (recipe) is specified for a product, and once readied (with reasonable sincerity), a client has to pay even if it fails on acceptability count. As a result, writing Item or Design Requirements is not an assuring process, unless the specifiers have had recent experience, at designing nearly Identical Items, and fully comprehends all aspects of the design problem.

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Design confusions > Image attribution: Wiki4des at English Wikipedia

Specifications for a Designed Object

A Designer prepares design specifications, (materials + procedures + conditions of origin), so that the contractor or vendor can provide the stated item. The contractor or vendor gets very exact data, but little freedom to use alternative materials or execute it differently. If there is an uncommon item, the contractor will invariably charge more for the extraordinary effort or customization. This process does not assure that in spite of a sincere execution and diligent supervision a functional product will be delivered. The Item specifications specify ‘physical adequacy of the item while seeking a hypothetical performance’.

A contractor or vendor is better aware of latest materials, processes, technologies and their costing as available in the market, In comparison to any specification formulator like a designer. A contractor or vendor, if allowed to provide, can offer an item that surpasses the one conceived in the ‘item or design specifications’. This cause was identified by US Air-force and made it mandatory to procure entities by PERFORMANCE SPECIFICATIONS, through the ITEM or DESIGN SPECIFICATIONS. A performance specification states the exact requirements of performance of an entity, and no materials + procedures + conditions of origin are given. This is an appreciable method but very difficult to implement. Performance of some of entities cannot be checked-validated over a longer time span (e.g. Operative suitability of a submarine beyond 20 years).

Performance specifications are partially used in many works with item specifications. For example, 6/7 decades back many builders were asked to refer to Standards for Cement, Sand, Aggregates, Water, Mixing procedures and testing methods for quality to be achieved. This is now replaced by pre-mix cement concretes of assured quality. This a way of relying on the performance, than Materials+Processes methods.

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Ready-mix Concrete > Wikipedia image by High Contrast

Specifications for acquiring some ready-made objects can be Performance specifications but tend to be even more restrictive. A specifier (buyer-acquirer) of a ready-made item of the market shelves has no way of verifying a product, so relies on average standards followed by the Industry, or match with some ‘super’ supplier’s (top product in the market) specifications. Failing either of the conditions, one, has to pay the extra cost of customizing a regular or standard item. In the later case the assurance nominally available for the regular or standard item are unlikely to be offered for the altered form.

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CORE COMPETENCE and SPECIALIZATION

Post 595 by Gautam Shah

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Design organizations are initiated, by an individual who has some expertise or keen interest in a specific field, or by group of people who share similar or parallel interests. This founding expertise or keen interest must form the formal goal of the design organization. The formality must occur as a declared policy. Design Organizations must work intensively in areas that are analogous to their goals.

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Wikipedia image by Injeongwon

Design organizations have a noble desire to cultivate an acute or very exclusive knowledge system over years of professional practice. This is often not attended to adequately in design organizations, but when the need arises, they hire specific expertise through new employees or by retaining consultants. Organization, however, cannot have core competence just by intent, facilities or expertise. Core competence results from expertise with hands-on experience on real projects.

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Acute Specialization > Wikipedia image by tainted blue

Organizations need opportunities to build up the core competence. Such opportunities arrive by selection. An organization with well-defined goals would procure projects by approaching appropriate clients, being in contact with relevant consultants, by offering additional services for making the fees attractive, by participating in such competitions. An executed project generates better competence in a field, then handling of several diverse projects.

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Wikipedia image by Grant Crabtree

Core competence leads the design organization into specific jobs, by way of excelling in results, efficiency of work procedure or job handling, efficiencies of input-benefit ratio, and client satisfaction. The repetition of opportunities leads to learning, experimentation and satisfaction. Core competence is perceived as an innovative pursuit that can cause enough synergies, to make the organization behave like self correcting, or continuously adjusting biological entities.

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Wikipedia image > Attrbn: Bundesarchiv , Bild 183-23805-1665/ CC-BY-SA 3.0

Core competence is also seen as a debate for Generalization versus Specialization. Some organizers believe that generalization, as a capacity to handle all types of projects and under whatever circumstances, is very essential for continuance (survival or professional relevance). And, (they believe) “if the need arises, experts can be hired to meet the exigency”. The generalization allows to handle projects of routine nature, in an efficient, economic and time bound manner. Such ‘generalist’ organizations handle projects that are very large in scale, requiring little innovation, and of repetitive nature. Their service or fee’s are highly competitive.

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Wikipedia image by Marcrocs

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Specialization cannot be achieved by intent alone. One must grab projects that reinforce the skills, even by discounting the fees or profits. And, if opportunities in the desired field are few, one must strive for excellence in the relevant sections of the routine work. Specialization is often equated with a single person in charge of the organization, rather than group based practices. An Autocratic leader stimulates an organization towards an acute specialization, whereas a Bohemian leader dissipates the energy and de-focuses and strives for generalization. A Democratic leader will continuously review and revise, the aims of the organization, and plan the resources, to make the organization creative.

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Temple Singapore > Flickr image by Steve Jurvetson

Creativity is not in specialization (capacity to excel in limited fields) nor in generalization (capacity to handle many different situations) in any field. Design creativity is seen in radical solutions, proficiency in sustaining the technical superiority and learning. Design efficiency is perceived for being productive, cost efficacy and organizational ranking or superordination.

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WORK STYLE of DESIGN ORGANIZATIONS

Post 563 by Gautam Shah

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Design Organizations operate in two sets of conditions. One set is an environment that varies at a faster pace with the times, and the Second set is the work style or culture that evolves as a matured manner of operations. A design organization comes into being over a period of time. Even when its conveners have years of experience before the venture, it needs a maturation period. A design team is a fluid entity continually affected by internal and external circumstances and in perpetual evolution.

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The work environment in a design organization is formed by immediate issues, like combination of resources, humans and situational conditions and public concerns. The work environment is also seen as empathy, created with the staff members, clients, collaborators and stack-holders. It is related to the leadership, and their priorities on the basis of current values, available skills, complexity of the assignments and permissible actions. The work environment can flourish well where there are historical precedents in the form of work-culture or style. An individual, a fresh or short term leader can easily vitiate the work environment but cannot alter the deep-rooted work-style of the organization.

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Lab at National Design Centre Singapore Wikipedia image source  https://www.flickr.com/photos/maltman23/15966053506/ by Mitch Altman

The work style of the organization represents the effectiveness of leadership beyond the duties as owners or conveners. Organizations trying to develop, core competence or acute specialization, needs to be aware of the work-culture. A leader can hope to mould the work-style of the organization by improvisation of the day to day work environment. Work-style is a historical formation, and must develop from formal and informal systems of past. It cannot be a policy diktat and cannot be enforced from outside.

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Manufacture of pleasure carriages Designing room 1879 wikipedia image from Scientific American Feb 8 1879

Each design organization over a time develops its own distinctive response mechanism. Where, the work-style is a synergetic mix of authority and responsibility. The work-style embodies the projectssuccesses and failures, team memberscontributions and prejudices, clientssatisfaction and anger, adhered programmes and failed schedules, Innovations perceived, supported and carried through, and learning from new ventures and shortcomings.

Columbia_GSAPP_Avery_Hall_Studio

For each organization, the style of task handling is always exclusive, because it is formed by the team members, projects and the times. Some team members persist for a longer period, but many others stay for an assignment or shorter duration. The projects are routine or radical, but carried through the organization for the long-term policy goals. The organization deals with many such circumstantial combinations, but the situations never recur in time or space, and for anyone else.

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Wikipedia image by Mike Peel (www.mikepeel.net) (Perm CC-BY-SA-4.0)

The physical spread of the organization in the society makes it a trustworthy professional entity. The societal pride permeates in to the organization, and impacts the behaviour of its members and the nature projects being offered.

Carpet Selling Lord

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INTERIOR DESIGN PRACTICE > FEES

Post 560 by Gautam Shah

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Wikipedia image by Ildar Sagdejev (Spacious)

Design Professionals take on assignments for fees, determined by themselves, and sometimes after further negotiating with the clients. Professional Design Fees are very subjective, and vary from a professional to professional, from one project to project, and also from one client to another. There are no standards. Right Fee is judged on following counts :

  • Is one aiming at a reasonable profit?
  • Is one striving for a high return to manage a high risk situation?
  • Is one striving for a high return for a rare contribution?
  • Is one trying to break-even, -operate at a no or less profit situation?
  • Is one seeking to avoid hiring new staff and procuring new technologies?
  • Is one looking for hypothetical – future benefit?
  • Is one, bartering an advantage?
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Lawyers and Clients

Relationship between a professional and a client develops very gradually. Client and professional usually have some degree of rapport, even before a job is discussed. A professional and client both, however, may wish to delay a discussion about fees, terms and conditions.

A professional must discuss fees as early as possible, because an Informal Relationship can turn very vicious at any stage. When disputes arise either of the parties may refuse to even acknowledge the relationship between them. In such a situation the Professional will lose all that was spent in understanding, preliminary working, planning of the project. This could include not only labour, stationary but patent ideas. On the other hand, the Client will never recover the time wasted in searching, identifying and engaging the professional. So all Discussions for fees, even if agreeable, must be backed by a detailed communication in writing. Negotiating a fee is not always an inevitable issue, as many clients accept a professional’s proposition, without arguments. But Fees Negotiation could become a long drawn, tiring and worrisome process. A client may not be asking for a discount, but just trying to understand the fees completely.

A professional ethically may not Discount a stated Fee for a promise to get further work or favour. Similarly a (registered) professional must not participate in any tender like procedures, or pay any amount as a Guarantee Money for their services.

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Negotiations could be tough Wikipedia image by Dgurteen 

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Links to some of my Blogs relating to   DESIGN FEES

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MANAGING FEES -for Building Design practices PART – IV

https://interiordesignassist.wordpress.com/2015/09/05/managing-fees-for-building-design-practices-part-iv/

MANAGING FEES -for Building Design practices PART – III

https://interiordesignassist.wordpress.com/2015/08/21/managing-fees-for-building-design-practices-part-iii/

MANAGING FEES -for Building Design practices PART – II

https://interiordesignassist.wordpress.com/2015/08/15/managing-fees-for-building-design-practices-part-ii/

MANAGING FEES -for Building Design practices PART – I

https://interiordesignassist.wordpress.com/2015/07/20/managing-fees-for-building-design-practices-part-i/

PROFESSIONAL FEES

https://interiordesignassist.wordpress.com/2015/07/16/professional-fees/

DETERMINATION of PROFESSIONAL FEES

https://interiordesignassist.wordpress.com/2015/03/10/determination-of-professional-fees/

FEES NEGOTIATIONS WITH A CLIENT

https://interiordesignassist.wordpress.com/2015/01/02/fees-negotiations-with-a-client/

DESIGNERS DILEMMA – RIGHT FEES

https://interiordesignassist.wordpress.com/2014/06/13/designers-dilemma-right-fees/

DESIGN FEES

http://talking-interior-design.blogspot.in/2013/08/design-fees.html

INTERIOR DESIGN and CLIENTS

https://interiordesignassist.wordpress.com/2015/05/05/interior-design-and-clients/

CLIENT and DESIGN PROFESSIONAL -Relationship

https://interiordesignassist.wordpress.com/2015/01/14/client-and-design-professional-relationship/

PROFILING CLIENTS

https://interiordesignassist.wordpress.com/2014/12/02/profiling-clients/

A PROFESSIONAL and PROFESSIONAL BEHAVIOUR

https://interiordesignassist.wordpress.com/2014/09/27/a-professional-and-professional-behaviour/

COMMITTING a CLIENT for JOB

https://interiordesignassist.wordpress.com/2015/08/03/committing-a-client-for-job/

DESIGN ORGANIZATIONS and ENTITIES

https://interiordesignassist.wordpress.com/2015/09/24/design-organizations-and-entities/

Differentiating COST from VALUE -Interior Design Practice

https://interiordesignassist.wordpress.com/2014/06/14/differentiating-cost-from-value-interior-design-practice/

DELIVERABLES from ORGANIZATIONS

https://interiordesignassist.wordpress.com/2014/06/05/deliverables-from-organizations/

INTERIOR DESIGNER – the role

https://interiordesignassist.wordpress.com/2015/02/16/interior-designer-the-role/

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