DESIGN PROCESSES -Design Handling –Issues of Design 32

Post 714 by Gautam Shah

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Designs occur as a concept, idea or theme, expressed in the form explanation, process of creation, or representations like drawings, models, surrogates, samples, digital images. All Designs are documented briefs for realization. Design also carries a meaning of forming a pattern. Creations by artists or craftsperson may occur as experiment or improvisation, and are not truly designs. Designs need not be realized as a physical reality. A design can be a strategy for operational management or conducting services.

Structure at Kabah 4707705100_82facac70a

For a designer, knowing means to achieve a specific end are very important. Proper record keeping of all design processes helps here. It is very difficult to register dreams, intuitions or inspirations. One needs to recall them in a different time and space context. All intuitions or inspirations, however, absurd, have some physical context of origin. Designers unlike a lay craftsperson or artist, are trained and disciplined, to record their design related thought processes. The thought processes thin out or obliterate completely with passage of time, so must be recorded as early as possible.

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Design Processes for a Lay person and a Designer are very different. A creative lay person simply goes on creating (assembling, modifying) things without being aware why certain things manifest in a certain manner. For a creative person the end is important and means irrelevant. A Designer, on the other hand, tries to discover the logic behind it. Selection of an element may be initially intuitive, but there is always a later effort to justify the actions intellectually. A designer justifies all actions like selection, rejection, inclusion or composition of various elements. In doing so the designer refines the intellectual prowess by equipping with an experience that is:

  • definable
  • repeatable or recreate-able as a whole or in selective parts
  • recordable -its perceptive aspects
  • transferable to another person
  • increase or decrease its intensity (time scale) and diffuse or intensify its concentration (space scale).

Scaffold structure-construction-pattern-line-electricity-531489-pxhere

For these (above) purposes Designers rely on documents. The expertise of documenting all aspect of design helps a designer to handle extensive or more complex intuitions or inspirations. Personal and impulsively formed systems tend to be Holistic, with few or no recognizable sub systems and being very unique require more extensive definitions and so complex documentation. On the other hand, planned systems, whether personal or evolved through multilateral effort, and over a longer period of maturation, consist of many sub sets. Planned systems have subsets that are already formed by vendors and well prescribed.

Easton_Lodge_19th-century_architectural_drawing_by_William_Young

Documents are personal method of transmitting a design to stage of realization. In large projects designs are transmitted to professional executors and in different locations. Design transmission and interpretation, require ‘culture’ of protocols. Many such protocols are not defined but accepted as the traditions. Such traditions make a Design transmission and interpretation fast, but are prone to errors.

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Designers create both, Closed and open-ended systems. Closed Ended Systems are intentionally made holistic. Closed-ended systems are planned to protect the intellectual rights of the innovators. Closed systems are improvise-able only by the author or inventor, whose capacity to update it continuously is finite. Proprietary computer software may be used by a licensee, but its code remains restricted. The closed systems cannot be dissected for inspection or repair, the form is compact and rigid. Closed ended system need nodes of connectivity or gateways to be useful. Such gateways may or may not allow access to others. Such systems become irrelevant as soon as an open-ended option is available. In the world of mutual dependency, closed systems cannot survive much longer.

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Open-ended Systems evolve from multilateral effort or multi trial endeavours. Where large number of people are involved in design and execution, and where these processes are likely to take place at different time and locations, the system automatically becomes Open ended. The subsystems usually offered by venders, to be replaceable, are conceived as substantially independent systems, by their vendors. Open-ended systems have a ‘design-architecture’, formed through common measurements, materials and procedures. To allow these, open-ended systems have a skeleton type frame structure (infrastructure) and fit-in modules. Open-ended systems have built-in reserves or additional safe capacities, often wasteful, but such reserves make systems more persistent. Open-ended systems allow replacements, improvisations and up-gradations of their subsystems and components.

Overhelming spaces piqsels.com-id-ovdvv

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DESIGN STAKEHOLDERS

Post 660 -by Gautam Shah

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A Design is generated for many types of ‘people’. Some are ‘clients’, because they appoint and pay to the designer, and/or finance+manage the project. A user of the designed entity (building, interior design, products etc.) may be a real consumer or a hypothetical profile framed by the planning-marketing consultant or team. It is possible that Design can have many levels of consumers like occupiers, regular and casual visitors and lay-people (uninvolved in design but ‘onlookers’, ‘pride feelers’ or citizens). All these, designers, financiers, project conveners, managers, consumers, occupiers, visitors and onlookers, are stakeholders.

Stakeholders meet

A stakeholder is a person, group or organization, having interest, concerns or grievances for the objectives, policies, plans of actions or effort. These persons are inside or outside the organization, but show a characteristic proximity, intimacy, knowledgeability, and have degree of physical affectations and urgency.

Women at farmers rally Bhopal India

Stakeholders Interests : Stakeholders’ interests are positive or negative but may show contradicting interests. Secondary stakeholders are sometimes indirectly affected, more distanced and may not acutely represent the urgency. Internal stakeholders, at organizational level are like staff, suppliers, consultants, financiers, investors, etc. The stakeholders’ interests could be economics, social, work conditions, safety and security, environmental concerns, public resources and enforcement of Government and other obligatory regulations. At other level the stakeholders could have political interest, propagation of ideology, support or negation of specific materials, processes or technologies.

Gujarat High Court Building Ahmedabad India

Managing Stakeholders : Stakeholders represent bridges of social connections, which if properly cultivated help public acceptance of designers’ works. The acceptances include new clients, approvals, grants, loans. The social bridges can act as buffers, to tide over the shortfall, on quality expectations, delivery schedules, budget overruns and professional competition. Stakeholders increase the business credibility of the organization, and personal social reliability.

Women_at_a_SHG_Meeting

How to deal with Stakeholders : It is easier to deal with stakeholders as a group than in isolation. Recognize stakeholders for their geographic and class of affectation. The real affectations could be economic, social, safety, encroachment or compromise of rights and opportunities for participation in the process. A stakeholder or the group may want public exposure, a media story or political gratification. Stakeholders are societal inluencers and demand certain respect, and this can be offered through participation or engagements. Both of these can be achieved by keeping them informed in design conception, planning, decision making, implementation, and evaluation processes.

Reagan sitting withstakeholders of Afghanistan-Pakistan

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BLOG LINKS for articles on DESIGN IMPLEMENTATION PROCESSES

Post 632 –by Gautam Shah

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These Blogs formed the course for Masters level Design students at Faculty of Design, CEPT University, Ahmedabad, India. The course was initially planned for Entrepreneurship for Designers. Design graduates were expected to professionally operate in the role of Designers, Producers or Services providers. For this purpose, it was decided to include Design creation, Management of design organizations, Design processes, Standards and specifications, ISO management systems, Risk management, Human resources, Basics of finance, etc. The course was offered as two lectures per week over a semester of 16 weeks. It could perhaps include many other modules, but it was not possible in the time schedule of a semester. — Gautam Shah (contact@gautamshah.in)

Blog Site: https://designacademics.wordpress.com/

INTERNET LINKS to BLOG articles

1 Organizations

https://designacademics.wordpress.com/2016/08/08/organizations-1/

2 Essentials of Design Organizations

https://designacademics.wordpress.com/2016/08/11/essentials-of-organizations-02/

3 Design Organizations

https://designacademics.wordpress.com/2016/08/14/design-organizations-03/

4 Projects of Design

https://designacademics.wordpress.com/2016/08/22/projects-of-design-04/

5 Job or Assignment Handling in Design Organizations

https://designacademics.wordpress.com/2016/08/30/jobs-or-assignment-handling-in-design-organizations-05/

6 Deliverables from Design Organizations

https://designacademics.wordpress.com/2016/08/23/deliverables-from-design-organizations-06/

7 Dealing with a Client in a Design Organization

https://designacademics.wordpress.com/2016/09/06/dealing-with-a-client-in-a-design-organization-7/

8 Specifications

https://designacademics.wordpress.com/2016/07/31/specifications-08/

9 History of Specifications

https://designacademics.wordpress.com/2016/08/01/history-of-specifications-09/

10 Standards

https://designacademics.wordpress.com/2016/08/06/standards-10/

11 Liabilities

https://designacademics.wordpress.com/2016/11/28/liabilities-11-design-implementation-processes/

12 Bureau of Indian Standards BIS

https://designacademics.wordpress.com/2016/10/03/bureau-of-indian-standards-bis-12/

13 International Standards Organization ISO

https://designacademics.wordpress.com/2016/10/11/international-standards-organization-iso-13/

14 ISO 9000 and other Management Standards

https://designacademics.wordpress.com/2016/10/09/iso-9000-and-other-management-standards-14/

15 Quality for Designers

https://designacademics.wordpress.com/2016/09/13/quality-for-designers-15/

16 Quality Conscience

https://designacademics.wordpress.com/2016/09/16/quality-conscience-16/

17 Consumerism

https://designacademics.wordpress.com/2016/08/16/consumerism-for-designers-17/

18 Human Resources

https://designacademics.wordpress.com/2016/10/21/human-resources-18-design-implementation-processes/

 

19 Leadership in Design Organizations

https://designacademics.wordpress.com/2016/09/19/leadership-in-design-organizations-19/

20 Data, Information and Knowledge

https://designacademics.wordpress.com/2016/10/29/data-information-and-knowledge-20-design-implementation-processes/

21 Design Processes 21-1 to 21-4

https://designacademics.wordpress.com/2016/09/24/design-processes-21-1-design-handling/

22 Decision Making and Problem Solving

https://designacademics.wordpress.com/2016/10/16/decision-making-and-problem-solving-22-design-implementation-processes/

23 Systems Thinking

https://designacademics.wordpress.com/2016/10/22/systems-thinking-23-design-implementation-processes/

24 Risk Management

https://designacademics.wordpress.com/2016/10/23/risk-management-24-design-implementation-processes/

25 Guarantees and Warranties

https://designacademics.wordpress.com/2016/11/30/guarantees-and-warranties-25-design-implementation-processes/

26 Finance

https://designacademics.wordpress.com/2016/11/14/finance-26-design-implementation-processes/

. a combined *.pdf file may be available to few genuine users.

 

REDESIGN or RE-ENGINEERING

Post 436 – by Gautam Shah

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A product is born through improvisations, and rarely through sudden ‘eureka discovery. During the last few centuries, a series of products has been ‘improvised’ upon the existing ones. Many of these products were very successful ones in the market, and to remain steps ahead of competitors had to be continuously upgraded. One needs to be aware of how others are innovating with radical technologies, styles, additional functional provisions, compactness, energy efficiencies, superior handling, ease of repair and servicing. And one had to absorb these and deliver it fast.

Nintendo accessory with four buttons connected to the bottom of an opened gaming handheld.

One of the Technics of Design or the Design Process is Redesign or Re-engineering. Most products, however claimed to be original, are only improved versions of some existing thing or a Redesign. This is a well accepted design process for products’ development. It has perhaps, a little less relevance in design processes of unique or first ever systems, such as Civil structures and Architectural entities.

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6057016377_923f46a962_zManufacturers need to design new products and launch them before their competitors do. Redesign or Re-engineering is used for product development for Automobiles, `white goods’, office equipments, etc. For this markets are continuously surveyed to find out the features that make certain products leaders in the market. An attempt is made to absorb and improvise such features. As one is working with a successful subsystem, the chances of its failure are less. Redesign generates a product in its new Avatar.

Volkswagen Beetle

Redesign addresses to deficiencies of aging technologies, fast changing tastes and varying operative conditions of products. It gives very specific clues which new features are accepted, and which are the emergent styles and technologies. It also allows faster incorporation of new technologies, as offered by inventors. New products are launched with minimum changes to existing tools and plant. Workers only need to upgrade their skills, and new employees or new training schedules are not required. The improvised product has slight familiarity with the existing range, and as a result comfort of acceptance is high.

White goods fast changing market

Redesign practitioners operate with notions that:

● A whole system is divisible into subsystems, each of which can be improvised.

● These subsystems can be improved in-house, but technologically better solutions can be developed by others, so identify them and collaborate to resource such emergent solutions.

● It is more efficient to redesign or re-engineer a known system, then go into basic research to discover a new entity.

● A product of redesign process has fewer chances of failure, because one is improvising upon a working system.

● Transfer or absorption of new Technologies is very fast.

MS Arc Mouse

Redesign processes have few negative features. Redesign processes require many field surveys for identification of a market leader product. The field data is often so enormous and with minor or rare variants that it may require complex statistical processing. Very often feedback from consumers is subjective in nature. There is a distinct danger for the design leader/ team to get entangled in the data collection and interpretation work at the cost of essential design clarity and creativity. Redesigned products have to be very careful about infringing intellectual property rights of others. It is also extremely difficult to secure patents, copyrights, etc. for such fast developing line of products.

Organizations, that deal in very competitive markets, prefer redesign processes as it allows them to continuously update their product with minimum of risks.

Philips Tape Deck

Japan perfected the process and achieved distinctive product design solutions in early 1960s. Sony music system Walkman has evolved from such efforts. At that point of time taped music systems were very bulky and weighed very heavy. To enjoy the hi-fi sound quality outdoors it had large sized twin speakers (these were often called Ghetto or Beachfront blasters). A new Walkman delivered the sound directly to the ears, through earplugs as speakers. The tape decks had open spool type tapes, but the Walkman had smaller cassette type tape system. The compact unit now worked on micro motors operated by smaller batteries (lasting eight instead of two hours). It was a redesigned entity that became a very innovative product.

Rero-robots

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DECISION MAKING

Post 369 –by Gautam Shah

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Design processes involve Decision Making. Decisions are taken on factors that are essentially part of the project itself, and also on various presumptions, which may or may not become part of the project. In the first case the decisions are made on factors that are internal, through a process of selection, confirmation, elimination, etc. While in the later case, the decisions are made from external factors, where not only the relevance, but the entire range of their effects needs to be forecast.

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Decisions are primarily taken when an action is required, or when further decisions are due. Decisions are taken at: conscious level (intellectual) and subconscious level (intuitive). Actual time and exact place of a decision cannot be identified. However, the context within which certain decisions are made can be known.

Decisions are taken through:

Analysis: Dissecting a whole into parts so to understand it better.

Synthesis: Combining several things to form a whole to see if it is pertinent.

Holism: Conceptualizing the whole thing.

Expedition_36_flight_engineer_Chris_Cassidy

The quality of decision is governed by the decision makers’ (design professionals’) state such as: physiological fitness, mental alertness, personality traits (daring, fear), information, training, experiences, opportunities, time, resources (human, equipment, finance, circumstances), etc.

The gut-feeling (Forbes)

Decision making helps a designer with an analytical base to affirm a belief (intuitive or ‘gut-feeling’) and select a course of action from several nearly equal alternative possibilities. Decisions do not have mathematical sharpness or uniqueness. There is never a perfect decision. There usually are many different ways of achieving the same goal. A decision is a subjective process that offers the best course for a given situation. The situation here could be the mental condition, exigency or compulsion. Actualization of a decision may include course corrections. Because the original decision making moment and its conditions change by the time actualization occurs. Efficiency of a decision is judged, on how much it accomplishes and in what time. A reasonable decision always takes one closer to the goal, however, slightly.

PBL_group_at_Gadjah_Mada_University

Decision makers ask questions like:

Is the objective defined ?

Is sufficient information available ?

How many options are available ?

Have these options been evaluated ?

Are all risks identified and provided for ?

Does this decision feel right, now that actions are being taken on it ?

Simons_3_stages_in_Decision_Making

Decision making and consequences thereof (actions or further decisions) are often so interlaced that it is not possible to view them separately.

Decision making comprises of:

1   forecasting the most opportunity moment and the most obvious context, for the consequences to occur or even not to occur.

  determination of probabilities of occurrence or follow up actions.

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Another article (detailed) on same subject >> https://designacademics.wordpress.com/2016/10/16/decision-making-and-problem-solving-22-design-implementation-processes/

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