CASEMENT WINDOWS

Post 688 –by Gautam Shah

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Bay Casement Boothbay Maine Ocean Harbor Window

Casement windows were the most common house-windows, before the sash windows were devised. The shutters of casement windows are hinged on the side, and open either inward and outward. Casement windows provide a full open aperture compared to double hung or sliding windows. The casement shutters could be solid, opaque panelled or glaze panelled. Glazing panes are fixed to the shutter by beading or putty compounds.

Window Wood Rustic

Casement shutters opening inward cause obstruction if there is insufficient parking space for the opened shutter. Inward opening shutters also interfere with window treatments such as curtains, blinds, etc.

The shutters, if of small width open with a handle cum locking device, and if of large width require a crank or lever to open. A wind stay, or a friction hinge is necessary to keep the shutter open in windy conditions, and an espagnolette is used for locking. A casement window is easy to operate with its long armed handle mechanism and so ideal for difficult to reach situations, such as places above cabinets or counter tops. Casement windows open out on nominal hinges or offset hinges that open the shutter little away from the side to allow cleaning, glazing fixing and painting of the exterior face. These are critical issues for casement windows that have protection bars, or are located on upper floors.

Curtain Mountains Window Architecture Outlook

Single casement windows are used on side lites as besides a door or fixed window. Average width of wooden casement windows is 400 to 500. Larger widths up to 600 are possible with friction hinges. Very tall casement windows require patent bolts at both the top and bottom ends to shut a window or keep it open in heavy winds.

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Double casement windows are of two types: one where two shutters meet over a mid member, and the other, where the two shutters meet over each other. The later is called a French window, it opens unobstructed in the centre.

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The casement shutter could be single, opening on left or right side. Casement windows with double shutters, open on left and right sides, or in the middle like the pages of a book. Multiple casement windows have even numbers of shutters divided into sets of two each, all shutters open on one side, or symmetry is created by opening half numbers of shutters on either side.

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Casement windows typically are hinged at the sides, but if top hinged are called awning windows, and if bottom hinged are called hopper windows.

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Hopper Windows: A hopper window is a bottom hung a casement window that opens similarly to a draw bridge or a coal-pit receptor or hopper, typically opening to the outside. Hopper windows are used as cellar or subterranean opening.

Hopper Light: Hopper Ventilator: These have inward-opening shutter hinged at the bottom, usually forming the upper section of a door or window.

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Awning Window: An awning window is a casement window that is hung horizontally, hinged on top, so that it swings outward like an awning or a weather shed. Awnings are transom lites, used in upper sections of doors and windows as a ventilator.

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French Window: A French window is really a type of door with a small threshold. It is also called a French door. Two casement sashes hinged on the sides to open in the middle. The shutters nearly extend to the floor and also serve as a door to a porch, garden, verandah, gallery or terrace. It is double shuttered, and both of which for the full height of the shutters, have single or multiple panes of glass. It may have a secondary set of solid or louvered shutters opening to the interior or exterior side.

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Folding Casement: Casement windows hinged together so they may fold into a confined space, such as within the wall thickness. Small width shutters also makes it easier to close without stretching out too much. Folding casements are often auxiliary shutters, such as storm shutters or Venetian shutters on the outer face or fly-mesh shutters on the inner face.

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All types of eaves and window casement shutters, projecting out, were banned to prevent spread of fire along the wall, after the great fire in London in 1707. And these forced adoption of Sash windows (opening upward or downward).

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SHADING DEVICES for BUILDINGS

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Post 670 by Gautam Shah

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Openings need additional shading systems primarily because these are thin and more translucent in comparison to any other structural barrier systems, like walls, floors or roofs. Additional shading systems are preferred because the needs are for small period of time, part of a season, occasion or location. The needs for a shading device are people, culture or locality specific. The openings are used for outward and inward view, illumination, breeze and air change. And shading devices achieve needs by blockage, filtration, reflection, redirection or delays.

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Opening systems like Gates, Doors and Windows have three distinct zones: The exterior zone deals with environmental aspects that are spatial extensive, directional, temporal and seasonal, The interim section constitutes the body of the opening, and so its depth is the operative element. The interior segment is in the personal domain of the owner-user, which makes Interior shading devices easy to install, manouevre, change, with variable yet very precise control over the functions. Interiors shading devices are also visible from outside and so some conflicts of approach to design are inevitable. In most likely scenarios the architect is a different person than the Interior designer, who may or may not confirm to the theme of architecture.

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Shading Devices with openings are of many different types. Different types of shading devices improve each other’s functions, often duplicating it. There is a strong demand to rationalize the system with fewer elements, by way of integration, removal of duplication and redundancy. Shading devices offer micro tuning of the environment, catering to local requirements, provide occasional variations and satisfy the urge for personalization.

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● External shading devices are architectural provisions, with varying levels of integration. There is an overwhelming regimen of the building style, location, orientation and shape-form. The provisions are so confirmatory that user is not allowed to make any changes. The provisions, though occur as fixed devices and as manipulable systems, no spatial relocation is allowed.

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External shading devices are of longer lasting materials as these have to bear the elements of environment like Sun, rain, heavy storms, snow, atmospheric pollution. These are termed architectonic element due to the match with architectural language.

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External shading devices are very effective, as they intervene before the radiation, rain, wind etc. enter into a building shell. Such devices de-rigueur have universal design for all faces and floors, but are affective differently at different times of the day or season.

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● Interim shading devices have thickness as the key factor, and are usually thin. Interim systems could have partial spread or have options of folding, collapsing or demounting. These are frugal and likely to be a single purpose entity. Interim shading systems are often spatial provisions of vacuum or gas filled cavities.

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● Internal shading Devices occur in a user domain and so are preferred for the ease of choice, installation, change and manipulation. These provide variable yet very exact control over privacy. The internal shading devices are housed in a protected environment so can be delicate, lighter in weight and occupy a very small thickness.

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Internal shading devices are multi layered to serve diverse purposes, and offer several choices of spread or placement. The space between different layers is intentional, to work as a metaphysical barrier. Internal systems also serve purposes beyond the shading, like sound and thermal insulation of the interior space. These also provide a tactile (soft) surface, colour and textural effect in the interior space. Interim shading devices filter and diffuse the light in inward and outward directions.

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Internal shading devices are predominantly of soft materials such as fabrics, films, sheets, flexible materials like mats, nets, tapestries, or stiffer materials such as reeds, wood slats, etc. Thin and pliable materials allow the assembly to collapse, gather or roll up. Glazing materials offer largest variety of surface treatments, by way of manufactured constitution, integrated and applique surface treatments. Glass surface treatments now include application of films, texturizing, metalizing, micro (nano or molecular level) engraving, enamelling and colouring.

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Shading devices such as Venetian blinds or vertical louvers are not very effective on the internal face of the opening, as the solar gain has already been admitted into the interior space. But interior shading devices offer glare control, and visual comfort. An internal shading device reflects back part of the radiation, but latent heat remains within the interior space.

Shading Devices are single or multi layer systems, acting as a composite or assembly of individual skins. The layers have prearranged sequence, so access to an inner layer becomes difficult. Some can be collapsed or removed. Layers form a planer element with some materials plus cavities as the substantive body.

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Additive or mounting systems are used as optional or occasional facility like storm shutters. Collapsible or folding systems require a volumetric space for parking or resting, which reduces the net area of opening. Pseudo or pretentious shading devices are in the form of furniture elements, furnishings, panelling, partitions and other architectural devices.

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Thermal management by shading devices: These are designed to take optimum advantage of seasonal angles of a solar incidence. The solar gain occurs primarily in reference to the plane of the window, so an alternate method could be to have a variable plane of the window, but that may not be an appropriate architectural style. However, external shading devices keep the glazing surface in shade to cut off the direct solar radiation.

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Vision management through shading devices: Shading devices as subsystems divide the view out or inwards by framing, masking, modelling. The visual scape is altered through the sill and lintel level and shape, pattern configurations, quality of glazing etc.

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Safety security with shading devices: External shading elements maintain or reduce the size of opening, and so become integrated latticed barriers for safety and security against height related hazards.

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MATERIALS HANDLING PROCESSES

Post 664  –by Gautam Shah

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Hand GrindingMany of the Materials handling processes in use today are essentially the same as those employed in ancient times. These processes evolved from day to day activities like farming, irrigation, cooking, hunting, storage, shelter-making and rituals. For a very long time, the process were not purpose-specific, but tools or means oriented. And as a result refinement has come from tools and rationalization of procedures. Many such processes are now highly mechanized saving time and energy, and some even are fully automatized, using programmed automats and robotics that allows faster, accurate and safer production.

American boys' handybook of camp lore and woodcraft (1920)Sommer,_Giorgio_(1834-1914)_-_n._11141_-_Museo_di_Napoli_-_Strumenti_di_chirurgiaSome of the traditional Materials Handling Processes

  • Removal of Materials for surface texturizing, levelling, form-making, polishing, finishing etc.
  • Addition of Material for levelling, filling-in, daubing, coating, plastering, rendering etc.
  • Joining of Materials by mechanical (screwing, tying), adhesion, proximate placement, knitting, knotting etc.
  • Downsizing of Material by breaking, cutting, splitting, chopping etc.
  • Extraction of Material by mining, excavation, selection, separation, sieving, winnowing, floating, fishing, cultivation, hunting etc.
  • Plastic Moulding of flours, clays, minerals etc.

640px-Right_Ground Roller Compactor Wikipedia Image byTechniques of Materials handling include: Shaping of the form is the prime technique for treatment of materials, by plastic moulding, casting, extruding, pressing, shaping, embossing, reforming, deforming, removal of material, stretching, compressing and forging. Materials like Clay with important quality of plasticity allowed the shaping at ambient temperature. Materials like Wood and Stone were shaped by removal of the mass. Metals were workable by heating, beating (forging) and addition or removal of the mass.Wattle_and_daub_constructionMaterials’ Depositions are used to add upon mass or surface, and create mixes with use of the same or foreign materials for alloying, embellishing, cladding, layering, fixing, daubing, coating etc. Materials’ Compositions are used in assembling, entwining, joining, tying, bracing, weaving, knitting, embroidery, stitching, etc. Forming Composites of materials is used through Matrix and Filler mixes, such as layering, particle composites, etc.Weaving_espartoCutting and crushing are the oldest of all material processes. Farming, irrigation, land levelling, minerals mining, cleaning the hunt and the hides, collecting and preparing fuel woods, skinning and shaving of hides, debarking timers, all require some form of cutting. Bare hands or sharp stones and sticks used as the cutting tools were aided by percussive tools like pounding sticks or stones and leveraged by long arms. Hammering was used for grinding foods, breaking and crushing nuts and compressing leather. Tools and arms served different purposes and required materials, creating processes of tying, wrapping, holding, fixing etc.

Peasant_in_the_vegetable_gardenShaving is done to remove material’s components such as outward hair or fibres, layers, etc. Leather surfaces are shaved to remove the surface hair and also for thinning. Leathers are also surface split to separate leather suitable for uppers and soles. The palm leaves are shaved to remove the stems and make them smoother for writing. Tree-barks are removed by axes and choppers to retard insect attack and increase moisture removal. Timbers are re-cut or planned with finer tools to achieve a smoother surface. Timbers are split very finely to create veneers. Wood planning is also a shaving technique. Carpets and rugs require close shearing by scissors to shave of protruding fibres.

Wet kneading shapingKneading soft or plastic materials to shape them, extract juices, forming homogeneous mixes were important material phase change processes. These were multi variant processes and gave magical capacity of material transformation. These were easiest and territorial universal processes. Using water for kneading, grinding, rubbing, levelling, polishing, coating, drilling, cutting, liquidizing, separation by flotation, emulsion-making, are processes used in food preparation, ceramics and metallurgical works.

Fireplace Cook Fire Wood Flame Heat Boil WaterFire processing of materials created a whole new set of chemistry. It began by cooking, but most important innovations included clay baking into ceramics and reshaping metal nodules by hot forging. Later it included refining metals, and processes of oxidation, carbonation, etc. Controlled burning allowed development of many processes and products, by selection of fuel material, distancing, exposure timing, environmental conditions, shielding, etc.

Controlled Burning Gasbbq

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BLOG LINKS on OPENINGS SYSTEMS

Post 633 –by Gautam Shah

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ANTI-LIGATURE https://interiordesignassist.wordpress.com/2014/04/04/anti-ligature/

LOCKS https://interiordesignassist.wordpress.com/2014/08/15/locks/

ANTI LIGATURE > https://interiordesignassist.wordpress.com/2016/06/28/anti-ligature-issues-for-design-8/

SAFETY ASPECTS of DESIGN > https://interiordesignassist.wordpress.com/2016/04/15/safety-aspects-of-design/

ALMIRAH-1 > https://interiordesignassist.wordpress.com/2015/09/11/almirah-1/

STORAGE CABINETS > https://interiordesignassist.wordpress.com/2015/08/11/storage-cabinets/

DOORS-SECONDARY HARDWARE > http://talking-interior-design.blogspot.in/2016/02/doors-secondary-hardware-latches-stays.html

DOORS – BASIC HARDWARE > http://talking-interior-design.blogspot.in/2016/01/door-basic-hardware.html

ANCIENT DOORS > http://talking-interior-design.blogspot.in/2014/05/ancient-doors.html

DOOR HINGES > https://interiordesignassist.wordpress.com/2015/03/03/door-hinges/

SLIDING DOORS > https://interiordesignassist.wordpress.com/2015/02/02/sliding-doors/

 WIDE DOORS and MULTIPLE DOORS > https://interiordesignassist.wordpress.com/2014/09/06/wide-doors-and-multiple-doors/

REACH in SPACE > https://interiordesignassist.wordpress.com/2015/10/18/reach-in-space/

MEANING of a WINDOW SILL > https://interiordesignassist.wordpress.com/2015/12/24/meaning-of-a-window-sill/

SHOP WINDOWS > https://interiordesignassist.wordpress.com/2015/12/12/shop-windows/

EVOLVING ARCHITECTURAL WINDOWS > https://interiordesignassist.wordpress.com/2015/02/04/evolving-architectural-windows/

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CLASSICAL WINDOW FORMS > https://interiordesignassist.wordpress.com/2015/01/27/classical-window-forms/

WITCH WINDOW > https://interiordesignassist.wordpress.com/2014/09/16/witch-window/

WINDOW TAX > https://interiordesignassist.wordpress.com/2014/08/08/window-tax/

MASKING of OPENINGS Part -III -Framing https://interiordesignassist.wordpress.com/2016/01/25/masking-of-opening-part-iii-framing/

MASKING of OPENINGS Part -II https://interiordesignassist.wordpress.com/2015/09/23/masking-of-openings-part-ii/

 MASKING of OPENINGS Part -I https://interiordesignassist.wordpress.com/2015/08/30/masking-of-openings-part-I/

 

FRAMING of OPENINGS https://interiordesignassist.wordpress.com/2015/08/04/framing-of-openings/

 

ARCHITECTURAL WINDOWS and VISION in-out

https://interiordesignassist.wordpress.com/2014/11/17/architectural-windows-and-vision-in-out/

 

ARCHITECTURAL WINDOWS and the MEANING

https://interiordesignassist.wordpress.com/2014/11/16/architectural-windows-and-the-meaning/

 

FRAMING of OPENINGS > https://interiordesignassist.wordpress.com/2015/08/04/framing-of-openings/

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DAYTIME INTERIOR ILLUMINATION -REALITY and PERCEPTION > https://interiordesignassist.wordpress.com/2015/07/30/daytime-interior-illumination-reality-and-perception/

 

LANTERNS in ARCHITECTURE > https://interiordesignassist.wordpress.com/2015/06/10/lanterns-in-architecture/

 

LEGENDS of OPENINGS-1 > https://interiordesignassist.wordpress.com/2015/06/04/legends-of-openings-1/

 

NATURE of OPENINGS > https://interiordesignassist.wordpress.com/2015/04/12/nature-of-openings/

 

OPENINGS in COLONIAL PERIOD of INDIA > https://interiordesignassist.wordpress.com/2015/03/24/openings-in-colonial-period-of-india/

 

ARCHITECTURAL WINDOWS and MECHANICS of VISION https://interiordesignassist.wordpress.com/2014/11/18/architectural-windows-and-mechanics-of-vision/

 

GLASS and PERCEPTION https://interiordesignassist.wordpress.com/2014/08/31/glass-and-perception/

 

LEVEL of OPENINGS https://interiordesignassist.wordpress.com/2014/06/07/level-of-openings/

 

DESIGNING OPENINGS https://interiordesignassist.wordpress.com/2014/05/17/designing-openings/

 

CLASSICAL WINDOW FORMS https://interiordesignassist.wordpress.com/2015/01/27/classical-window-forms/

 

GLASS IN WINDOWS Part-II

https://interiordesignassist.wordpress.com/2014/10/02/glass-in-windows-part-%e2%80%a2-ii/

 

GLASS IN WINDOWS Part-I

https://interiordesignassist.wordpress.com/2014/09/28/glass-in-windows-part-%e2%80%a2-I/

 

CONTRAST EFFECT PERCEPTION

https://interiordesignassist.wordpress.com/2014/08/25/contrast-effect-perception/

 

THIRD DIMENSION of OPENINGS

https://interiordesignassist.wordpress.com/2014/04/10/third-dimension-of-openings/

 

SKY LIGHTS https://interiordesignassist.wordpress.com/2016/07/15/sky-lights/

 

ARCHITECTURAL OPENINGS in LITERATURE > https://interiordesignassist.wordpress.com/2016/05/29/architectural-openings-in-literature/

 

DESIGN CONSIDERATIONS for DAY-LIGHTING > https://interiordesignassist.wordpress.com/2016/03/24/design-considerations-for-daylighting/

 

CLERESTORY OPENINGS > https://interiordesignassist.wordpress.com/2014/09/01/clerestory-openings/

 

CLASSES of OPENINGS > https://interiordesignassist.wordpress.com/2014/08/18/classes-of-openings/

 

STRUCTURES over DOORS > https://interiordesignassist.wordpress.com/2014/08/07/structures-over-doors/

 

OTHER TYPES of DOORS > https://interiordesignassist.wordpress.com/2014/07/19/other-types-of-doors/

 

SIZE of a DOOR > https://interiordesignassist.wordpress.com/2014/07/14/size-of-a-door/

 

JALOUSIE > https://interiordesignassist.wordpress.com/2014/06/29/jalousie/

LEVEL of OPENINGS > https://interiordesignassist.wordpress.com/2014/06/07/level-of-openings/

 

INTERIOR ILLUMINATION through DOORS > https://interiordesignassist.wordpress.com/2014/05/21/interior-illumination-through-doors/

 

DESIGNING OPENINGS > https://interiordesignassist.wordpress.com/2014/05/17/designing-openings/

 

MULLION > https://interiordesignassist.wordpress.com/2014/04/09/mullion/

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ANTI-LIGATURE

Anti-ligature 

Ligature derives from Latin ligatura, from ligare = ‘to tie‘.

A dictionary defines Ligature as

  1. a thing used for tying something tightly.
  2. a cord used in surgery, especially to tie up a bleeding artery.
  3. Music a slur or tie.
  4. Printing a character consisting of two or more joined letters.

 

Anti-Ligature is rather an unusual term. It is used with reference to furniture, furnishings, utilities, facilities and amenities. Anti ligature products and processes are mainly used to hamper someone from doing a hazardous act by tying, fastening or binding to something. It is a provision that discourages self harm or suicidal tendencies of a person under stress or with mental disorder. Anti-ligature means prevent people from causing self harm by attaching ligature to door handles, locks, grills, light fixtures, etc. Anti-ligature is also increasingly used for ‘anti-vandalism’. Anti-vandalism strategies are required to prevent wilful or malicious destruction caused by removal or destruction of units or components from public or private property such as parks, bus stations, road sides or schools etc. Anti-ligature technology makes such entities no-removable. Continue reading