INTERIOR SPACES and CLIMATIC COMFORT

Post 433 — by Gautam Shah

.

Comfort of users in an interior environment depends on:

1. Temperature of Environment and our Body

2. Level of Humidity,

3. Air velocity,

4. Quality of Air.

Siesta

TEMPERATURE OF ENVIRONMENT AND OUR BODY need to reach some equilibrium. In an Interior space, environmental temperature is modulated by the built form and its amenities. Direct solar radiation heats up various objects, depending on their thermal capacity, conductivity, colour, texture, etc. Heated objects radiate this heat, as long wave radiation, back into space after the main source has ceased its input. Delayed heat releases create very complex patterns of heat gain. A temperature profile in any space is rarely even and this causes different gradients and convective air movements. Such air movements affect the rate of evaporation and the level of humidity in a space, rate of ventilation, and quality of air.

Lit_à_baldaquin_de_Léonard_de_Vinci_à_Clos-Lucé

All sides covered Winter beds

Temperature is the major determinant for comfort level. Air temperature determines the rate at which our body will exchange heat with the environment. Rate of heat exchange affects the metabolic activity of the body and as a result its work capacity, fatigue and recovery schedules. In a temperature range that is acutely different from the acclimatized one, our body has to work harder to adopt to the situation.

Street Sanaa Yemen

LEVEL OF HUMIDITY is the amount of vapour held by air at a particular temperature. With a rise in temperature, the expanded air accommodates more humidity, whereas a drop in temperature condenses the humidity. Proportion of humidity at any given temperature affects the rate of evaporation and the heat exchange of the body through perspiration. Excessive loss of humidity from body, and high proportion of humidity in air, both affect our sense of well being and comfort.

Hot-Humid climate Forest Rest House Theppakadu S India

In hot and humid climate high level of humidity does not allow adequate heat dissipation through evaporation of the perspiration. As a result body temperature increases and it has to resort to other methods of heat dissipation. In hot arid climates the low level of humidity causes rapid evaporation. Body cannot cope up with such rapid loss of moisture, as it has limited amounts of water available within it. In cold arid climates the body has no excessive amounts of heat requiring dissipation through high perspiration, however, the low level of humidity removes even the moisture that helps the skin to remain soft and supple. In cold humid climates even minute perspiration does not evaporate readily, and in excessively cold climates it may cause a frost bite.

Cracks and crevices offer passive ventilation

Air with high percentage of humidity is comparatively deficient in oxygen and may cause problems to people with TB or asthma. Low level of humidity removes the moisture from the nostril, reducing its filtering capacity to keep out the airborne pollutants.

AIR VELOCITY is caused by temperatures and pressures differences across locations, within connected spaces. Air can also become mobile due to fans or such air circulating devices. Air velocities go below 0.15 m/s, and most people complain of stuffiness, in spite of all other parameters of comfort being satisfactory. Air velocities above 1.5 m/s, are annoying, such as papers being blown out or dust stirred up. People may tolerate such extreme (high and low) air velocities under very hot-humid and cold-dry conditions or for the sake of body thermal management.

Children and aged persons have poor body Temperature control mechanism and so need to be protected

Draughts are low velocity air movements, which occur due to temperature and air pressure thresholds near cracks and such leakage points in enclosed spaces. In enclosed spaces, draughts are not always perceptible, as they do not cause any sensation of pressure on skin. Draughts, however, help in convective heat exchange, evaporation and dilution of pollutants in air. Draughts cause localized cooling or heating of sensitive organs of our body. Such sensation on feet is a common experience in trains, buses, sofas, undersides of office tables, etc. Children and aged people with deficient blood circulation and body temperature regulatory mechanisms, are readily affected by such currents.

Princess_Beatrice_wheelchair

Breeze is a low to medium velocity air movement, which affect only local areas. The breeze does not let air borne particulate matter to settle down. Breeze causes effective pressure on skin, with immediate and very perceptible skin sensation, which can be avoided by appropriate screening and deflection.

Thar Desert House with twigs -gaps crevices offer passive ventilation

Winds are very high velocity movements of air. Winds affect large regions, and few interior spaces. Winds raise particulate matter in the air, cause rapid change in level of humidity and cause discomfort due to high pressure sensation on the skin. In hot and cold both types of climates people often close all the openings to reduce the air movements and thereby control the convective heat gain or loss.

Trans Sahara Desert House Minimum openings

Turbulent air velocity is less comfortable than a laminar air velocity. Turbulent air movement achieves a better mix of air, whereas laminar helps in greater displacement of air mass. This is the reason why in hot arid climates small size opening is used to create turbulence or a viscous flow, and in hot humid climates body level openings help a laminar flow to displace the humidity.

QUALITY OF AIR represents the health supporting conditions of interior spaces. Pollution of internal air occurs due to occupation of space by people, plants and pets (exhalation, body odours, excretion product odours, food preparations), gadgets and equipments, building and furnishing materials. The quality of air is usually determined by people’s sensation to various odours present in the air. But certain harmful pollutants like carbon dioxide and radon cannot be perceived by people at high concentrations.

Quality of air is determined in two ways. There are absolute standards that provide for ideal conditions for comfort and bio survival. Relative standards provide ways for determining the qualitative difference between out door air and indoor air. Quality of outside air is generally superior because an infinite space and high speed winds are available for dilution to occur. Quality of internal air can be improved by diluting the proportion of pollutants in air, by replacing part of the fouled air with comparatively cleaner air, or by various mechanical and chemical scrubbers.

Particulate matter is a major source of air pollution, which mainly but not necessarily, originates outside and penetrates inside through various cracks and openings. Particulate can be dust, fumes, mist or biogenic matter. Particles of diameters greater than about 75 microns settle out rapidly and are termed grit. Particles of smaller than 50 microns may remain suspended and constitute aerosols. An aerosol is a liquid or solid particle which is in a quasi stable suspension in air. Very fine aerosols may remain suspended for weeks, whereas larger aerosols may get deposited in minutes. The deposition of very small particles (2 microns) is influenced by temperature gradient (through convective currents). The effect on health due to airborne particulate matter of biogenic origin such as fungi, moulds, bacteria, viruses, pollens are well known.

Kitchen major zone for Air contamination

In modern artificially controlled environment buildings are well designed and sealed to eliminate waste leakages. Such spaces function well so far as environmental systems operate. Pollutants arising from building materials, aerosols settling down, degradation of biotic materials, evaporation of condensed moisture from air handling plants, etc. continue to be added to the internal environment but at night time, on off days and when there are power breakdowns, there is no casual ventilation.

.

 

Advertisements

HUMAN BODY TEMPERATURE MECHANISMS

 

In the human body THREE types of heat generating processes are operative.

 

1            Conversion of food matter into useful energy is a continuous heat generating process.

 

2            Muscular activities like even sedentary work or sleeping, are heat generating processes.

 

3            Lastly, certain infections and dysfunctions within the body, elevate or lower the body temperature by extra ordinary rate of heat generation or weakened heat dissipation mechanism.

 

Of all the energy produced in the body only 20 % is utilized, rest 80 % is surplus heat. The body must not only release all the excess heat that is generated from within the body, but all the excess heat as gained from the environment. Heat is lost from the body by

 

              Radiation (60 %),

           Evaporation (25 %),

           Convection and Conduction (15 %).

1            Heat loss through Radiation: Radiation mainly occurs when there is a difference in temperature of opposing surfaces. As long as temperature of the opposite surface or object (sun, fire, radiator) is below skin temperature, the body can lose heat by radiation. But once it reaches an equilibrium occurs, body will rather gain heat by radiation.

2            Heat loss through Evaporation is controlled by the level of humidity in the air. Level of humidity is in turn affected by temperature of the air and human body, rate of air movement and the existing proportion of humidity . Body dissipates heat through evaporation by perspiration, sweat and exhalation of air. Dryer air encourages faster evaporation. Evaporation can occur if air has velocity and appropriate humidity (low). Even in case of very high humidity conditions a high velocity air can remove the humidity.

3            Heat loss through Convection occurs when the air in the vicinity of skin becomes hot, expands, decreases in density, and elevates to allow cooler air in its place. Rate of heat convection from body depends on the difference in temperatures (skin & surrounding air) and rate of air movement. When the convective process is inoperative and radiation heat gain is positive, the body can maintain the thermal balance by evaporation.

4            Heat loss through Conduction depends on the difference between the body temperature and the contact object.

Normal skin temperature is between 31° and 34°C. As the air temperature approaches the skin temperature heat loss from the body gradually decreases. In the circumstances the vasomotor regulation increases the body temperature to 34°C to maintain the heat loss, However if air temperature is higher (such as under the sun or very warm climates, the convective heat loss may not work.