Post 462 -by Gautam Shah



32764090862_e45eac0600_zThe relationship between the employer and employee continues to evolve. The primary conditions of employing a person such technological relevance, equipments, nature of projects, economics of resources deployments, personal efficiencies, work culture, all change with passage of time. Over the years, the employer and the employee begin to see each other very differently. The employment -the process of being employed is continuously questioned. It has two facets: an employee wishes to cease working with the employer, or the employer wants to terminate the employee. However, both the employer and employee are handicapped by other factors.


When an employee wishes to cease working with the employer, the reasons are: insufficient motivation, unsatisfactory compensation, lack of promotion, any other personal (psychological or physical) reasons, or better prospects elsewhere. The options are: Change of employer or Renegotiation of terms of employment.



When the employer wants to terminate the employee, the reasons are: inability to reset with the changed circumstances, lethargy of advancing age, technological irrelevance of the skill, lack of experience, unviable pay-structure, lack of scope for promotion, unacceptable social behaviour, or resistance to relocate at a new location. The options are: demote the employee, or discharge the person through pre-contracted terms or legal processes.


1 Employed Persons under the age of 30 have Positive operants in their favour, like: highest mobility -capacity to settle at any geographical location, works under most difficult conditions, and highest learning abilities. These qualities are very appreciated by all employers, and so desire to hire people either as a complete fresher or at less than 30 years of age (i.e. with 5/6 years of experience).



2 Employed people before the age of 35 must gain the varied experiences and find the best long term employment, or plan own professional practice (self employment). Design professionals, by the age of 35 years begin to mature with sufficient work experience, personal contacts, and specialized knowledge, but also begin to have Negative operants like: reduced learning capability, lesser reorientation faculties, less motivation, less migration and reestablishment willingness.


3 For employed persons, the ideal period, or the last opportunity for designers seeking to refresh the employment, is before the age of 45 years, because now all the accumulated abstract gains of the past (experience, expertise, know-how) can now be converted into promotion or other materialistic matters.



4 Beyond the age of 45 years the chances of re-employment taper of drastically. Only way a designer can hope to shift the position is by joining another organization as partner, senior associate or a free-lancer. Such opportunities are very few, and would demand persons with outstanding competence and capacity to contribute.


When an employee quits, the organization loses an asset, accumulated mass of knowledge and experience, personalized contacts, a proven mode of communication, secrets, patents procedures, formulas, etc.


Organizations are nominally unwilling to let a reasonably seasoned employee quit. Organizations set right the causes of dissatisfaction, and match their terms of employment to the enticing offer for shift-out.

When an employer wants to terminate an employee, there are many legal hurdles, though some of this can be met through monetary offers. However, instead of wasting efforts to surmount such hurdles, Employers try to assign a different role, retrain, relocate, assign different tasks, provide punishments, and curtail other advantages, to their employees, and coerce them quit.



Post 286 – by Gautam Shah



In an organization people worthy to be employed, come through many processes of elimination. The selection is substantially a discriminatory procedure. The eliminations occur on many grounds like sex, race, region of origin, age, language, social status, etc. Some selection methods though scientific, are not tenable under normal laws. Constitutions of many democratic nations, however overtly or discreetly override, provide, dictate or recognize ‘the reservations in employment’. This is due to certain historical effects and time delayed efforts to eliminate and correct them.


Elimination processes have TWO basic functions: FIRST, reduce the lot from which to choose, TWO select the most appropriate person out of the remaining manageable lot. The first function is so subtly carried out that often the applicants for jobs are never aware of it. As for example, an advertisement that appears in a language newspaper or media being accessed in particular town or region, would generate replies from that set of people, eliminating all others.

elimination processes

Screenshot_2021-01-28 Carpenters and construction workers waiting outside Florida State employment office trying to get job[...]

Selection of an employee based on following aspects:

  1. Objective requirements (intellectual): Skill, experience, training, work related abilities.
  2. Subjective requirements: Personality traits, initiative, speed of reaction, temperament, memory, power of reasoning.
  3. Physical requirements: Age, height, muscle power, health history, abnormality of body limbs and sense-abilities
  4. Other requirements: Past record, references, readiness to accept the terms of employment.

Tompkins square riot of unemployed 1874 NY

An Employer sees performance as a tool for future efficiency to be gained at a specific cost, whereas an Employee perceives performance as immediate compensation, personal fulfillment, future promotion and skill gain. Organizations relate the performance of an employee with the profitability. Management of the organization continuously monitor the performance of the employed person. This is more so in Design organization where human resources are very important assets, unlike in manufacturing units where productivity of machines and raw material costs have greater significance.

Performance of an employee is a product of many factors such as individual ability, personality traits, input effort, sincerity, perception of the role, motivating factors, etc. Yet, performance can be conditioned as the enhanced capacity to deal with more complex or new problems, share of responsibility, greater authority, etc. An employee can be motivated for gain, comfort, increased learning, or even enhanced motivation.

Job Discharge

The relationship between the employer and employee continues to evolve. The original conditions of employing a person such as the technological relevance, nature of projects, economics of resources deployment, personal efficiencies, work-culture, all change with passage of time. The employer and the employee begin to see each other very differently after a period of time. The employment -the process of being employed is reassessed by both. This has TWO facets: an employee wishes to cease working with the employer, or the employer wants to terminate the employee.




Post 279 – by Gautam Shah



Organizations exploit both, the individual talents and traits of their employees. FIRST, persons with only required qualities are sought. SECOND, better compensations are offered for hiring specific qualities. THIRD, incentives are offered to individuals who show readiness to reformat their talents and traits. FOURTH, employees unable to convert are punished, or shifted out of the organization. Employees of the organization are motivated in different ways to modify or upgrade their expertise.


Beyond paying out incentives, organizations use Job assignment as the key method, to exploit the human resources. Organizations divide their projects, assignments etc. into manageable lots or jobs of various skill and resources-based specialities. These are then assigned to individuals or teams as distinct roles. Jobs are presented as an opportunity, challenge, and incentive to a person or a team.


Design creation processes have many stages such as project formulation, concept evolution, planning, detailing, job award processes, execution, client and consultant relationships. In very small offices few individuals take on many of these roles. In very large offices there could be several individuals or departments to handle these functions.

design process

A leader of the organization or project manager diverts a job from one to another person, to achieve diverse results. Jobs are assigned to remove the tedium of repetitions, or to provide new training or exposures. Jobs are also given out, to infuse new thoughts, work methods, and utilize different resources (plant, equipments, tools, talents). An organization becomes innovative and creative through such shifting of the personnel.

In design organizations personnel are identified in terms of their talent, and experience. In medium to large organizations common pools of human and other resources are formed. Project managers draw from such pools their requirements of human and other resources.

An organization is formed of employees of different talents and personality traits. These manifest in their attitude and conduct. A person may reflect multiple characteristics within a situation, or show a different personality if adequately motivated and conditioned.


Dream-weavers are prolific generators of ideas and new concepts, but lack the skill to detail them. The dream-weavers are mercurial and often have a fear of failure. A dream weaver must be an extrovert otherwise never gets acknowledged.

Technocrats have a talent of visualizing structured entities. For them an entity is conceivable, if it is structured and so practicable. Technocrats are fastidious, uncompromising, and hard-headed. A technocrat may get entwined in detailing the parts, and may lose the grasp of the holistic scheme.

Exponents enjoy advocating ideas or schemes, without bothering either its authorship or practicability. They feel that the public attention received through the advocacy is the measure of their skill and success.

20101011-12/¾Æ½Ã¾ÈÇʸ§¸¶ÄÏ2010/¼¼ÀÏÁî ¿ÀÇǽº/¾¾Å¬¶ó¿ìµåÈ£ÅÚ 6-9Ãþ/PHOTOLUDENS

Patrons are not necessarily resourceful people, but are ready to support any new activity that takes them away from their routine chores, provides a novel experience, and keeps them busy. A person may become a sponsor by virtue of the position and powers to allocate resources. Such people are motivated by strategic gains through various sponsorships.

Arrangers are expert manipulators, and keenly look for a chance to jump into any difficult situation to manage it. As a risk taker they collect a lot of benefits, and very fast.

Orthodox are very over careful by personality. Their conservatism is due to a struggle less life or due to old age lethargy. They detest change, but if instrumental of causing even minor innovation, take a great pride.




Organizations get assignments from both, internal and external clients. Large and complex assignments that require distinctive effort are also called Projects. Projects consist of smaller units or jobs that require routine efforts.

Every organization develops its own methods of project handling. A Project is led by a core group of experts or a team leader. In Consultancy Organizations each project requires distinctive human skills. In Manufacturing organizations there is a heavy dependence on tools, equipment and plants, so the jobs are defined for their efficient use. Service organizations are governed by time as the key element, so their jobs are set in time modules.


A Job is a trade, skill or schedule specific work-module. It allows individualised attention and effective use of the available resources. Its efficiency of execution or operation can be examined and upgraded independently of other jobs. Jobs are handled on continuous as well as batch bases.


Organizations that repeatedly handle very large and complex assignments develop specific departments. Such specific job handling capacities are universal across that class of organizations. So spare capacities are offered to others, and excess work is outsourced. Jobs of routine nature are handled productively within the organization, but novel needs are better outsourced.


Other activities of the organizations

Prime activity of any organization is to earn a gain, but simultaneously many Conventional activities also occur within the organization.


● Conventional activities that sustain the organization as a functional entity.

1.1 Determination and Evaluation of aims, policies, goals

1.2 Planning and deployment of financial resources

1.3 Planning and Acquisition of other facilities

1.4 Procurement and Upkeep of assets

1.5 Personnel Management.


● Peripheral activities that add to the advantages for the organization.

2.1 Public relations

2.2 Client relations

2.3 Other relations (contractors, suppliers, co-professionals, associates, consultants, free lancers, etc.)

2.4 Facilitating the execution of assignments (raw material procurement, materials handling, erection, execution, manufacturing processes, testing)

2.5 Tasks’ evaluation (quality controls, testing, certification)

2.6 Marketing (goods, services), billing, money collection

2.7 Servicing (post execution or delivery, servicing, maintenance).


● Efficiency and productivity of the organization.

3.1 Determination and definition of procedures

3.2 Standardization of inputs, outputs and procedures

3.3 Information collection, Inquisitions, investigations and surveys,

3.4 Installation and management of information storage, manipulation and retrieval devices

3.5 Publications and dissemination of organization’s output (data, concepts, ideas) material.


Elements of Jobs or Projects in Organizations


Design organizations operate with assignments, which have Six basic elements:

1 Person/ s who: assign the task, determine roles, perform the tasks, oversee or supervise the task performers.

2 Task body: physical things like: parts, objects, raw materials, etc., and non physical things like: concepts, ideas, themes, etc.

3 Information, data: external inputs: from clients, organization’s own search, and internal inputs: from archived data, evaluations, judgments, from employees’ knowhow, site reports, feedback, by manipulation of various inputs.

4 Tools, plants, equipments Space, location facilities, methodology, formulations, processes, schedules, acquisition, replacement.

5 Services conveyance, communication, storage, data management, welfare, resources management, public relations, goodwill creation, information dissemination.

6 Time Schedules of delivery, servicing, rate of operation, rate of returns.