BLOGS LINKS about PERCEPTION

Post 652 -by Gautam Shah

.

These are my select few 91+ blogs (out of nearly 850 placed on my 4 blog sites) written over last 4 years, now compiled under a common theme ‘Space Perception’ with following sub sections.

      0  New series of Lectures (Four) on Perception

  1. SPACE PERCEPTION
  2. ILLUMINATION
  3. MOVEMENT, BALANCE
  4. OPENINGS SYSTEMS
  5. GLASS
  6. GRILLS, TRELLIS, CURTAINS
  7. SOUND and NON VISUAL
  8. OBJECTS, SURFACES, COLOURS, PATTERNS
  9. REALITY, MAKE-BELIEVE

 

4699879751_a6efd82383_z(1)

0  New series of Lectures (Four) on Perception

0.1 SOME SOUND BITES -Space Perception -I

https://designacademics.wordpress.com/2018/02/12/some-sound-bites-space-perception-i/

0.2 STRATIFICATION of VISION

https://designacademics.wordpress.com/2018/03/02/stratification-of-vision0.2 /

0.3 PERCEPTION of SPATIAL FIELDS -ILLUMINATION

https://designacademics.wordpress.com/2018/03/11/perception-of-spatial-fields-illumination/

0.4 MULTI NODAL PERCEPTIONS of OBJECTS in SPACE

https://designacademics.wordpress.com/2018/05/14/multi-nodal-perceptions-of-objects-in-space/

 

 

1 SPACE PERCEPTION

1.1 PROCESS of PERCEPTION

1.2 PROCESS of PERCEPTION part-I

1.3 SPACE PERCEPTION -through seeing, hearing and touching

1.4 SPACE PERCEPTION – Issues for Design -4

1.5 SPACE PERCEPTION

1.6 SPATIAL DEFINITIONS

1.7 SENSING OBJECTS BEYOND THEIR SIZE MEASURES

1.8 SPATIAL DEFINITIONS

1.9 SPATIAL DISTANCING and BEHAVIOUR

1.10 DISTANCING in SPACE

1.11 SPACES SIZES and SHAPES

1.12 SMALL SPACES and LARGE SPACES

1.13 REACH in SPACE

Scaffold Building Manhattan New York City Taxi

2 ILLUMINATION

2.1 CONTRAST EFFECT – PERCEPTION

2.2 PERCEPTION of SPATIAL FIELDS -ILLUMINATION

2.3 DAYLIGHTING

2.4 DAY-LIGHTING – in Interior Spaces

2.5 DESIGN CONSIDERATIONS for DAYLIGHTING

2.6 SPACE PERCEPTION and ILLUMINATION

2.7 DAYTIME INTERIOR ILLUMINATION -REALITY and PERCEPTION

2.8 INTERIOR ILLUMINATION through DOORS

2.9 WINDOW LOCATION and NATURAL LIGHTING

2.10 LE CORBUSIER and ILLUMINATION

2.11 COMPARING WINDOWS of FLW, LC and Mies

ac263ca3-836c-4a10-8cea-78b8cf487224

3 MOVEMENT, BALANCE

3.1 MOVEMENT and BALANCE – Issues for Design -5

3.2 PERCEPTION of BALANCE and MOVEMENT

3.3 BALANCE in DESIGN – Part 1

3.4 BALANCE in DESIGN – Part 2

3.5 VISUAL PERCEPTION of MOVEMENTS

3.6 PERCEPTION through SCALES and CONVERSIONS -Issues or Design -3 

Landscape

4 OPENINGS SYSTEMS

4.1 LEVELS of OPENINGS

4.2 DESIGNING OPENINGS

4.3 CLASSICAL WINDOW FORMS

4.4 ARCHITECTURAL WINDOWS and VISION in-out

4.5 ARCHITECTURAL WINDOWS and the MEANING

4.6 ARCHITECTURAL WINDOWS and MECHANICS of VISION

4.7 MEANING of a WINDOW SILL

4.8 THIRD DIMENSION of OPENINGS

4.9 LANTERNS in ARCHITECTURE

4.10 CLERESTORY OPENINGS

4.11 SKY LIGHTS

4.12 ROOF LIGHTS

4.13 SHOP WINDOWS

4.14 SHOP WINDOWS – SHOP FRONTS – DISPLAY WINDOWS

4.15 FRAMING of OPENINGS

4.16 MASKING of OPENINGS Part -III -Framing

4.17 MASKING of OPENINGS Part -II

4.18 MASKING of OPENINGS Part -I

Eating_Alone

5 GLASS

5.1 GLASS in ARCHITECTURE -1

5.2 GLASS and PERCEPTION

5.3 GLASS in WINDOWS – Part • I

5.4 GLASS in WINDOWS – Part • II

5.5 COLOURED GLASS

Fixing Metallic Transparency Glass Front Metal6 GRILLS, TRELLIS, CURTAINS

6.1 CONTEXT -Issues for Design -12

6.2 ROOFS 3 -Skyline and Silhouette

6.3 HOLISM and DESIGN

6.4 TRELLIS

6.5 GRILLS

6.6 CURTAINS

6.7 TRANSLUCENCY for CURTAINS

6.8 SHEER FABRICS and CURTAINS

6.9 SHEER FABRICS and CURTAINS-2

6.10 NON SILK SHEER FABRICS and CURTAINS

6.11 WEIGHT and TRANSLUCENCY of fabrics for curtains

6.12 SHEER FABRICS

Religious Kneeling Worship Pray Prayer Church

7 SOUND and NON VISUAL

7.1 SOUND

7.2 SOUND, SPACE and PERCEPTION

7.3 PERCEPTION of SOUND and SPACES

7.4 SPACE and SOUND REVERBERATION

7.5 SOUND and NOISE MANAGEMENT

7.6 HEARING and interior spaces

7.7 ACOUSTICS in SMALL SPACES

7.8 SOUND and SMALL SPACES

7.9 SPACE PLANNING and NON VISUAL CUES

7.10 NON VISUAL LANGUAGE -Issues for Design -6

7.11 LANGUAGE EXPRESSION and SOUND PERCEPTION

wuzhen-1643267_6408 OBJECTS, SURFACES, COLOURS, PATTERNS

8.1 OBJECTS in SPATIAL FIELDS -Issues for Design -14

8.2 COLOURS -Perception and Expression

8.3 COLOURS and BUILDINGS

8.4 FLOORINGS

8.5 FLOORING COLOUR

8.6 FLOORINGS IN INTERIOR SPACES

8.7 PERCEPTION of SURFACE FINISHES

8.8 GLOSS

8.9 TEXTURES and MATERIALS

8.10 JOINTS in SURFACE FINISHES

8.11 MOSAICS

pexels-photo-327496

9 REALITY, MAKE-BELIEVE

9.1 SOLIDS and VOIDS -issues for Design -13

9.2 AUGMENTED REALITY

9.3 SPACES and REALITY

9.4 MAKE-BELIEVE in INTERIOR DESIGN

 

640px-Ave_Maria_Weihnachtskrippe

.

Advertisements

BALANCE in DESIGN – Part 2

Post 631 –by Gautam Shah

.

Tartini_Square_from_above,_Piran

Balance is an equalizing phenomenon. It manifests in many different forms. It is a state of stability, but ignored as a habit, or nominal happening. Imbalance, however, represents the direction and scale of change. A dynamic balance is cyclical occurrence and may be perceived, if the change of the frame is within perceptive capacities. Static balance is an intermediate or temporary frame of an event or experience.

640px-edouard_manet_026

Strong inclined line of coast and presence of water body in the centre, add to dynamic balance > Puerto de Burdeos Edouard Manet (1832-1883)

Balance is an experience that is a ‘non-changing’ reference in a situation of consistent momentum. It can also be felt while moving along known tracks, such as of perceiver’s sensorial capacities, mental conditioning and collection of past experiences. Prime experience of balance can be subjective, but with repeat experiences become delineative.

640px-rosa_bonheur_horse_fair_1835_55

The horse Fair > Rosa Bonheur (1822-1899)

640px-peter_paul_rubens_-_the_fall_of_phaeton_28national_gallery_of_art29

The fall of Phaeton > Peter Paul Rubens (1577-1640)

The balancing mechanisms, in natural system, are obvious in direction perpendicular to the gravity or other strong forces. In contrived compositions like art, craft, architecture, etc. the change is effected by desire to defy the nature. For these sensorial aberrations are used.

640px-064_pintures_de_la_cova_dels_moros2c_exposicic3b3_al_museu_de_gavc3a0

Multiple axis and shifting balance > Cave Painting at Roca dels Moros, Catalonia Spain, Wikipedia image by Enric

640px-sigurdsristningen

Detail of the Ramsund Sigurd stone C. 1030 Swedish art > Wikipedia image by Ann-Sofi Culled

Anything that is lastingly balanced is related to the horizontal, whereas the imbalance is analogous to the vertical. Horizontal can have several stacks of mass and energy along its body, each of which may be dynamic due to the changing environment. These stacks cumulatively represent the supine motion and seem interrelated. Vertical, if it has, differentiated stacks of mass along its body, reflects the direction of likely disturbance or unbalance.

617px-claude_monet2c_impression2c_soleil_levant

Dissolving Horizontal and Vertical for ephemeral feel > Sunrise impression by Claude Monet (1840-1926)

Contrived (man-made?) compositions depend on distribution of mass and energy in real, ephemeral and metaphysical realms. In real sense, the horizontal and vertical are extremes, but do not challenge human body system. Inclined is more persistent and effective, because it has longer length. For an ephemeral feel, the differences between horizontal and vertical are dissolved. Metaphysical flavours are implied by inconsistencies of presentation, typically through thematic narrations. Framing has been used in compositions, to include or exclude such elements thematic narrations.

640px-stift_seitenstetten_marmorsaal_deckenfresko_01

Ceiling fresco, Marble Hall, Seitenstetten Abbey (Lower Austria) by Paul Troger 1735 : Harmony between Religion and Science

 In art works foreground and background differences were primarily achieved through scale, but in later periods, proper perspectives and toning down of details of specific and also far-off objects were used to create an equilibrium in the image. Centric and off-centric vertical axises are used to form triangles, with gravity-base as stable pyramidal composition. Centric and off-centric horizontal stratification helped balance formation between solid objects (ground, terrain, humans) and ethereal elements (skies, clouds and angels). To these were added, the inclines for direction, orientation, scaling, distancing and unnerve the serenity. Imbalance was forced by placing ethereal elements below the frame dividing axis.

640px-a_contemporary_dance_performance2c_rage_box_contemporary_dance_center

Contemporary Dance Center Performance Rage Box > Wikipedia image by Michael Muccioli from Bel Air US

Image elements like flora and fauna were placed in their naturally perceived sense of scale, orientation and visual axis. These were too disturbing in any other manner of presentation, except for grotesque or fiendish forms. But surprisingly, their place was more often, above the frame-dividing axis.

640px-vincent_van_gogh_-_tree_roots_and_trunks_28f81629

Tree Roots > Vincent van Gogh (1853-1890)

Sculptures and artefacts are created as axially balanced or challenged equilibration. These have no permanent framing and are to be experienced from all sides and angles except the bottom (gravity support face). Equilibration through symmetry, imbalance, dynamic and static balance, are caused by distribution of mass, texture, colour, angulation and turnaround of body. These are also achieved by presence (solid) and absence (hollow) of the mass. Mobiles and hangers supported on a pin or hung from thread, are truly equilibrated. These are liberated from the ground side.

3567693551_8ea80a0c52_z

Andre Bloc – Sculpture-habitacle Meudon, France > Flickr image by Florent Darrault

Balanced moving or rotating parts, like axle, wheels, bearings, reduce the friction, vibrations and energy requirements. But imbalanced movements help compactors, vibrators, forging and drilling machines. Non synchronized movements are important for bridges to reduce the cyclical or incremental loading. Helicopters and aircraft are considered balanced when achieve consistent balance. Earth orbiting stations are ‘balanced’ when able to synchronize or equilibrate their position with reference to the earth.

512px-dampfturbine_laeufer01

Balanced steam Turbine rotor > Wikipedia image by Siemens “Pressebild” http://www.siemens.com

 Architectural balancing is real and also very articulated. The real one deals with physical stability and consistency with movements, whereas the articulated one is a perception created for the age, culture and relevance. Architecture forms its acts of balance and movement from other forms of expressions like literature, performance arts, lifestyle, art, artefacts and sculpture.

512px-bridge_in_humble_administrator27s_garden

Bridge in Humble Administrator’s Garden, Suzhou, China > Wikipedia image ###

 

Quadri-Moretti,_Piazza_San_Marco

Next few articles will examine these acts of balance and movements in formal architecture and vernacular built-forms. First Blog on this topic was published here > https://interiordesignassist.wordpress.com/2016/04/05/balance-in-design-part-1/

.

.

MOVEMENT and BALANCE – Issues for Design -5

Post 609 by Gautam Shah

.

Movement is perceived as a shift in visual attention, but often it is due to the aberrations of other sensorial perceptions. We are conditioned in perceiving things in certain position, sequence, and pace in time-space reference. Whenever, a shift is noticed, it signifies a direction of movement, or chaos. A movement or shift is perceived in objects or images. Movements seem balanced, if are directional but of a consistent pace. Movement of objects have intrinsic changes, or reflect a change in reference to other objects that are stationary, moving at another pace or in different directions. Movement in images represent the ‘perceptible’ sequence of change, in reference to the frame or as interlude or gap between the images.

580px-dresden-wallpavillion-gp

Wall Pavilion in Zwinger Dresden Germany > Wikipedia image by Kolossos

Movements in design are used to indicate the static and non static states of components and directions. The movement across objects in space are perceived, due to the scale (size, weight, mass), gradations of sensorial perceptions (hot-cold, bright-dark, rough-smooth), proximity (background-foreground), interest (of purpose or function), confirmation (to natural forces like gravity, magnetism), form, preconception or premonition, etc.

ramot_polin

Building in Ramot Polin Jerusalem Israel > Wikipedia image by Nehemia G

Movements in design are explored to give dynamism to the form and composition of the object. The dynamism makes an element stand out in an otherwise static scene. The indication of movement gives a sense of direction and is useful in ‘de-shaping’ or reshaping the form through a perceptive aberrance. The movement dynamism is also created by going against the perceived notions. The cubism, impressionistic works and Deconstructivism operate on this premise. In art and architecture the movement have been with overwhelming visual reference, but performing arts like dance, drama, mimes etc. do try to break out of the spatial limitations of performance space through non-visual clues.

640px-bradshaw_rock_paintings

Bradshaw rock paintings in Kimberley region W Australia > Wikipedia image by TimJN1

 The movement of images were first created in primitive cave arts where over deep and dark walls the drawn images were superimposed with shadows of dancers of a little lamp. This was aided by the shimmer over the oil-glossy surface. The enaction through sounds heightened the effect. Here the visual and other sensorial effects were merged to form the movements in images. Modern buildings use the shine over water, glass and other surfaces, mirror effects, acoustical surface treatments, skylights, strobe lights, conditioned and controlled air movements, vibrations of surface and object.

471px-the_scream

The Scream ART by Edvard Munch (1863-1944) > Wikipedia image

640px-rietveldschroederhuis

 House designed by Gerrit Rietveld  Utrecht, Netherlands > Wikipedia image 

 Movement and balance are opposite as well as complimenting effects. Balance is not necessarily a static state, but one that persists and does not force one to imagine the next state. Balance and un-balance both could be contrived effects. If balance creates lesser sequential expectations, then an unbalanced situation offers ‘a continuing saga’. An object could be axially balanced, well distributed mass, proportionate form, gravity compliant shape.

640px-the_taj_mahal2cagra

Taj Mahal Agra India -a balanced structure > Wikipedia image by Subhrajyoti

 640px-yale_art_and_architecture_building2c_october_202c_2008

Art & Architecture Building Yale University -Asymmetrical form > Wikipedia image by Sage Ross

For images one of the simplest tools for balance has been the positioning of the ‘ground line’. In films and videos a scene is balanced by acknowledging and placing the ground line (horizon) below the half-frame mark. Moving from left to right sides of the frame is preferred (this perhaps could be different for people used to reading-writing right to left). Symmetry is another aspect of balance. It is used in architecture, to provide a form that is safe, stable and assuring. Asymmetrical balance requires design skills as it involves exploiting many clues simultaneously. Objects or images with asymmetrical makeup have strong affinity to movement. Asymmetry and movement occur concurrently.

640px-yoyogi_national_gymnasium_2008

Yoyogi National Gymnasium Tokyo By Kenzo Tange > Wikipedia + Flickr image by Yoyogi Tokyo Japan

One of the most familiar asymmetrical forms that we have been using are the letters of the alphabet. But here again some consistencies occur through traditions of writing (or sculpting-forming), tools (pens, brushes, points, etc.), medium (Papyrus, pal-leaf, parchments, paper, fabrics, etc.). To these modern technologies such as of font composition, printing, reduction-enlargement, graphical manipulations, etc. can be added.

singers_rappers_fonts_by_zerjer97-d5hi1gy

Devianart image > Singers rappers fonts by

640px-palenque_glyphs-edit1

Maya stucco glyphs Mexico > Wikipedia image by Kwamikagami

.

This is the 5 th article of 20 topics series on ISSUES for DESIGN

BALANCE in DESIGN – Part 1

Post 596 by Gautam Shah

.

640px-david_-_the_death_of_socrates

Death of Socrates art by Jacques-Louis David (1748-1825)

Balance is a phenomenon that we experience within our body system and perceive with reference to objects beyond the body. Balance is stability essentially related to the gravity. In this, the absence of balance has strong relation to the vertical, and the presence of balance is equated to the horizontal. Balance, we perceive beyond our body is a perceptual composition. Its lack unnerves our sense of regularity, but its oddity excites us. Compositional balances are also related to force de majeure, the gravity. Compositional balance is also related distribution of mass across the perceptible zone. The composition is a time slot of a happening, a frame. The perceptible zone varies in extent, scale and intensity, and so the segment of the experience is very fluid. The perceptible zones have mutually related elements within the field, or are equated with the past experiences. The elements within the perceptible zones have many possibilities of relationships and so balance structures.

625px-little_girl_on_swing

Girl on a swing > Wikipedia image by Luiz Carlos

There are several mechanisms in the body that detect, and some auto correct the physical balance. The sensory system involved in balance is called the vestibular system located in the inner ear. ‘These detect head rotation, linear acceleration, and the direction of gravitational force to attain and maintain postural equilibrium and balance’. Senses are locational and some are directional so provide perception data to detect unusual positions and movements.

640px-gjelosh_gjokaj2c_composition2c_1997_oil_on_paper2c_70_x_100_cm

Composition by Gjelosh Gjokaj 1997 (Oil on Paper 70x100cms) Wikipedia image by Kosova National art Gallery

A composition is a natural or structured occurrence. A composition is part of a perceptible zone, segments defined by sensorial capacities. The sensorial capacities operate individually and coherently and as a result a perceptible zone could be very complex system. Compositional balances manifest within such a perceptible zone. The perceptible zone is ever changing and the perceiver rarely static, and both are continually in a flux.

8336372079_4f03c755f2_z

Complex composition of Spiral stairs > Flickr image by William

Movements are experienced in compositions as actual and apparent changes, former as a varying distance between objects, and the later as an indication or a possibility. The direction of the movement is related to the foreground or background of the main happening. Without the frame of background or foreground the movement in a composition is not evident. While traveling it becomes difficult to perceive if own or the other train is moving.

551px-gustave_courbet_-_bonjour_monsieur_courbet_-_musc3a9e_fabre

The Meeting Art by Gustave Courbet (1819-1877)

In art and design, the pursuit of creativity is in combining several elements into a holistic system. A formal’ composition has ‘striking’ arrangement, appreciated for the ‘balanced’ placements, or the arrangement is exciting and discomforting one leading to new possibilities.

640px-A_Sunday_on_La_Grande_Jatte,_Georges_Seurat,_1884

Sunday afternoon on island of La Grande Jatte Art by Georges Seurat (1859-1891)

Primarily a composition is perceived to be sitting or resting on a ground, and where none such exists, the bottom of the perception zone becomes one. Elements at the lower half of the field are perceived closer to the ground and perceived to be little more stable. The stability is enhanced by elements with mass wider in the lower parts. Inclusion of lighter elements such as air, water, sky, flowers, develops a sense of ethereal floatation. Some form of equipoise is sought for space occupation between objects and non objects. This is done by extent, weight, massing through sensorial intensities (colour, textural gradients, noise, serenity, axial steadfastness, duration etc.). An object that stands or greater verticality is perceived as post struggle phase. The height of the vertical is always referential to the horizontal of the ground. The depth of perception stretches the ground, and proportionately reduces the vertical.

2501817294_a0eb758ed6_z

Notre Dame du Haut Ronchamp by Le Corbusier > Flickr image by Rory Hyde

998px-Brouwer,_Adriaen_-_Interior_of_a_Tavern_-_Google_Art_Project

Interior of a Tavern Art by Brouwer Adriaen (1605/6-1638)

The symmetry in a composition is more balanced, as elements around vertical have same effect of gravity. A similar situation on horizontal is naturally unbalanced, as the lower half is under greater effect of gravity. The symmetry around the vertical, however, is affected by the position of the vertical in the field of perception. Symmetry is more apparent in visual fields as two eyes can focus to a single object. Two ears need some attenuation to perceive the balance. For the sensation of touch balanced localization is difficult to achieve. Smell and taste buds have singular identity but spatially too close for distinctive perception of balance.

640px-pieter_bruegel_the_elder_-_the_blind_leading_the_blind_-_composition_analysis

Blind leading the blind Art by Pieter Bruegel the elder > Wikipedia image by Curly Turkey

Non symmetrical balance results from several equalizing factors, such as extent, weight, massing through sensorial intensities (colour, textural gradients, noise) etc. and so could have very personal relevance. Non symmetrical compositions are very important for creating visual perspective or depth of field. Non symmetrical balance is used to prioritize and sequence the elements in composition. Stories are stretched from a start to an end, revelation to realization or consummation to nirvana. The story telling relies on asymmetrical arrangements as these add to the movement and passage of time.

3862998181_296c53f3bb_z

Simourd Holocaust Museum Yad Vashem Jerusalem > Flickr image by Kyle

640px-bath_circus_3

Circus bath UK Wikipedia image by Christophe Finot