Organizations get assignments from both, internal and external clients. Large and complex assignments that require distinctive effort are also called Projects. Projects consist of smaller units or jobs that require routine efforts.

Every organization develops its own methods of project handling. A Project is led by a core group of experts or a team leader. In Consultancy Organizations each project requires distinctive human skills. In Manufacturing organizations there is a heavy dependence on tools, equipment and plants, so the jobs are defined for their efficient use. Service organizations are governed by time as the key element, so their jobs are set in time modules.


A Job is a trade, skill or schedule specific work-module. It allows individualised attention and effective use of the available resources. Its efficiency of execution or operation can be examined and upgraded independently of other jobs. Jobs are handled on continuous as well as batch bases.


Organizations that repeatedly handle very large and complex assignments develop specific departments. Such specific job handling capacities are universal across that class of organizations. So spare capacities are offered to others, and excess work is outsourced. Jobs of routine nature are handled productively within the organization, but novel needs are better outsourced.


Other activities of the organizations

Prime activity of any organization is to earn a gain, but simultaneously many Conventional activities also occur within the organization.


● Conventional activities that sustain the organization as a functional entity.

1.1 Determination and Evaluation of aims, policies, goals

1.2 Planning and deployment of financial resources

1.3 Planning and Acquisition of other facilities

1.4 Procurement and Upkeep of assets

1.5 Personnel Management.


● Peripheral activities that add to the advantages for the organization.

2.1 Public relations

2.2 Client relations

2.3 Other relations (contractors, suppliers, co-professionals, associates, consultants, free lancers, etc.)

2.4 Facilitating the execution of assignments (raw material procurement, materials handling, erection, execution, manufacturing processes, testing)

2.5 Tasks’ evaluation (quality controls, testing, certification)

2.6 Marketing (goods, services), billing, money collection

2.7 Servicing (post execution or delivery, servicing, maintenance).


● Efficiency and productivity of the organization.

3.1 Determination and definition of procedures

3.2 Standardization of inputs, outputs and procedures

3.3 Information collection, Inquisitions, investigations and surveys,

3.4 Installation and management of information storage, manipulation and retrieval devices

3.5 Publications and dissemination of organization’s output (data, concepts, ideas) material.


Elements of Jobs or Projects in Organizations


Design organizations operate with assignments, which have Six basic elements:

1 Person/ s who: assign the task, determine roles, perform the tasks, oversee or supervise the task performers.

2 Task body: physical things like: parts, objects, raw materials, etc., and non physical things like: concepts, ideas, themes, etc.

3 Information, data: external inputs: from clients, organization’s own search, and internal inputs: from archived data, evaluations, judgments, from employees’ knowhow, site reports, feedback, by manipulation of various inputs.

4 Tools, plants, equipments Space, location facilities, methodology, formulations, processes, schedules, acquisition, replacement.

5 Services conveyance, communication, storage, data management, welfare, resources management, public relations, goodwill creation, information dissemination.

6 Time Schedules of delivery, servicing, rate of operation, rate of returns.



Postby Gautam Shah 

Organizations receive and generate lots of data, which have TWO sets of relevance. Information with distant use is strategic, and will be used for planning and forecasting. Strategic information is more general than any tactical information. Information with immediate use is tactical, and is used for decision making and problem solving. Operational uses of information are very occasion or situation-specific.


Information has FIVE qualities:

Brevity (specific to the context),

Accuracy (of the right context or sensible),

Timeliness or up to date,

Purposiveness (capable of causing desired actions),

Rarity (original, novel).


For organizations prime Internal Information Resources (IIR) are: experience and knowledge that comes with owners, employees, consultants, etc., and data generated from the routine activities. For organizations External information resources (EIR) are: media based such as books, periodicals, internet, CDs, tapes, etc., and input and feedback from consultants, suppliers, contractors and clients. These resources once procured by the organization, and if properly stored, can be a great internal asset.


External information is inter-organizational, fraternity level, society, community, national, or of a universal domain. External information is acquired for a payment of compensation in proportion to its quality, quantity and acuteness of need. Organizations, as a result, end up paying a stiff price for sourcing external information.


Internal information is personal, departmental or organizational. Internal information resources are nearly free, require only processing at a negligible cost, but are ignored. Organizations thrive and proliferate on the quality and quantity of data within their reach. Organizations by continuously processing their data generate synergies that in turn sharpen their data processing capacity.


Cost of information: Information as a commodity can have an ordinary cost, if it is universally available and not urgently needed. However, information of rare or proprietary nature and that requiring immediate access can have a high price. Information is also available in many free domains without any obligations. Cost of information is also formed by absolute factors like the cost of acquisition, processing, storing, retrieval and transmission.





Organizations primarily prefer activities, which provide a Direct Gain, followed by those that accrue some Indirect Advantage. To be commercially viable that is to be a profitable entity, all work which does not translate into a Direct Gain or Indirect Advantage, is avoided.

 Organizations have three basic forms, Production, Service and Advise. And commercially deliver a product, renders a service, or formulates a concept. These Deliverables are in the form of products, projects, reports, plan of actions, advisory, solution, jobs, assignment, order, commission, etc. The deliverable entity may result from the organization or its distinct departments.


 1 Deliver an entity to an External Client, who can compensate the organization for the goods supplied, services rendered, or the concept formed.

 2 Serve a deliberately created (planned) entity to an Internal person, Department, or an External agency, but for which no definite compensation may be available.

 3 Entities proliferate within the organization (including its sites and at clients’ places) without any particular strategy. These entities when properly monitored and exploited improve the working of the organization, its image in the market and core-competence in the field. Such entities could be in the form of products, procedures, styles, judgements, experience, confirmation, rejections, or assurance that every thing operates at desired or predefined level.


Mughal king Babar supervising Garden construction

The Emergent Deliverables of the organization often go to an External User, who may not be a paying beneficiary, but is expected to support the organization in some other context. Emergent Deliverables going to Internal users do not have sharply defined form, quantum or schedule. In both cases the cost or value of the deliverable is abstract, so billing is a difficult proposition.

 Yet Organizations audit their work periodically, to see if an activity is providing a gain or advantage, or is neutral. Organizations have a formal or informal set up to continuously evolve their domain of actions. Where for any reason this cannot be carried out impartially, external experts, advisors, evaluators, or auditors are called in.


Francisco de Orellana’s expedition building a small brigantine > Wikipedia image

 The evaluation results:

 ● Deliverables are recognized, neatly categorized and reclassified, to match the quality of the client (paying now, rendering an indirect advantage, non paying -departmental, or neutral).

 Designers charge payable-extra fees for drawing documents, site visits and other consultants’ costs, and not include it in the basic design fee. Doctors charge consulting and surgical fees, but charges for an operation theatre and medicines are payable-extra. Manufacturers often charge extra for delivery, site installation, test-run and the warrantee. These all are attempts to classify the costs as ‘compulsorily payable and negotiable’. A professional may provide a free counselling to a friend, but may charge for the services rendered and goods delivered.

 ● Clients are recognized as internal or external, and also their paying capacity (paying now, rendering an indirect advantage, non paying or neutral).

 Client definition helps an organization to identify internal departments, their inter-dependency and external bearings. Departments when realize the true value, decide whether to source their needs from within the organization, or out-source them on the basis of cost-benefit ratios.

 ● Clients are forced or encouraged to move to certain category with assurance of linked advantages (e.g. legal ownership, guarantee / warrantee) and satisfaction (service and operational support).

 TV and car manufacturers provide a cost-less guarantee or extended warrantee for their products to achieve brand faithfulness. Doctors and other estate developers etc. often provide free advice, ideas, consultancy etc. to know a client, but soon enough, the client becomes a recipient of charged product or service.

 ● An audit of activities taking place in the organization identifies departments with high public exposure (that offer too many freebies), These are reorganized either by moving them to the internal zones or as separate entities.

 Production organizations do not offer direct deliveries, but prefer independent sales agencies. Professionals offer their services through project consultants or such intermediaries. There are many architects and interior designers who work on exclusive basis with builders, estate developers, etc. Service agencies may not take individual jobs but prefer to work for clients as retained agents.

 ● Internal users of the organization often in-source their demands irresponsibly. Internal auditing can help tag such transactions. This ultimately helps in determination and recovery of the realistic costs.

 In design organizations technical talents like drafts-persons, model makers, site supervisors, messengers, etc. form a common pool, which is sourced by different project teams, but at a cost to be accounted for. In manufacturing units the use of a plant, equipment, tool and human resources are accounted into the component or project.


Detail from Column of Marcus Aurelius > Wikipedia image by MatthiasKabel





Personnel are the most important asset for any organization. Personnel as Human resource are not only immensely manipulable, but up-gradable to seemingly infinite levels of efficiency. An organization hires people with required education, skill, experience, inclination and personality trait. Organizations recognize, support and even reformat these qualities through formal training and by providing opportunistic exposures. To hire and exploit the human resources organizations use Job assignment as the key method and pay incentives. Members of the organization are motivated in different ways to modify or upgrade their expertise.


Exploiting individual talents and traits

Organizations fully exploit the individual talents and traits. First, persons with only required qualities are sought. Second, better compensation is offered for hiring specific qualities. Third, incentives are offered for the readiness to reformat the talents and traits. Fourth, employees who are unable to convert are punished or shifted out of the organization.

Small organizations do not have the capacity to reformat the talents and personality traits of individual staff members, either by retraining or by providing opportunistic exposure, to match the occasional requirements. Small organizations, as a result, resort to frequent hiring and firing of employees.

Large organizations reshuffle their staff consistently to adjust to the fluctuating needs. Large organizations handle large volume of work, and so can effectively reposition the personnel for reformatting the talent. For large organization it is more efficient to retrain a person, than hire a stranger, and with that disturb the normal work culture of the unit.