BLOGS LINKS about PERCEPTION

Post 652 -by Gautam Shah

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These are my select few 91+ blogs (out of nearly 850 placed on my 4 blog sites) written over last 4 years, now compiled under a common theme ‘Space Perception’ with following sub sections.

      0  New series of Lectures (Four) on Perception

  1. SPACE PERCEPTION
  2. ILLUMINATION
  3. MOVEMENT, BALANCE
  4. OPENINGS SYSTEMS
  5. GLASS
  6. GRILLS, TRELLIS, CURTAINS
  7. SOUND and NON VISUAL
  8. OBJECTS, SURFACES, COLOURS, PATTERNS
  9. REALITY, MAKE-BELIEVE

 

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0  New series of Lectures (Four) on Perception

0.1 SOME SOUND BITES -Space Perception -I

https://designacademics.wordpress.com/2018/02/12/some-sound-bites-space-perception-i/

0.2 STRATIFICATION of VISION

https://designacademics.wordpress.com/2018/03/02/stratification-of-vision0.2 /

0.3 PERCEPTION of SPATIAL FIELDS -ILLUMINATION

https://designacademics.wordpress.com/2018/03/11/perception-of-spatial-fields-illumination/

0.4 MULTI NODAL PERCEPTIONS of OBJECTS in SPACE

https://designacademics.wordpress.com/2018/05/14/multi-nodal-perceptions-of-objects-in-space/

 

 

1 SPACE PERCEPTION

1.1 PROCESS of PERCEPTION

1.2 PROCESS of PERCEPTION part-I

1.3 SPACE PERCEPTION -through seeing, hearing and touching

1.4 SPACE PERCEPTION – Issues for Design -4

1.5 SPACE PERCEPTION

1.6 SPATIAL DEFINITIONS

1.7 SENSING OBJECTS BEYOND THEIR SIZE MEASURES

1.8 SPATIAL DEFINITIONS

1.9 SPATIAL DISTANCING and BEHAVIOUR

1.10 DISTANCING in SPACE

1.11 SPACES SIZES and SHAPES

1.12 SMALL SPACES and LARGE SPACES

1.13 REACH in SPACE

Scaffold Building Manhattan New York City Taxi

2 ILLUMINATION

2.1 CONTRAST EFFECT – PERCEPTION

2.2 PERCEPTION of SPATIAL FIELDS -ILLUMINATION

2.3 DAYLIGHTING

2.4 DAY-LIGHTING – in Interior Spaces

2.5 DESIGN CONSIDERATIONS for DAYLIGHTING

2.6 SPACE PERCEPTION and ILLUMINATION

2.7 DAYTIME INTERIOR ILLUMINATION -REALITY and PERCEPTION

2.8 INTERIOR ILLUMINATION through DOORS

2.9 WINDOW LOCATION and NATURAL LIGHTING

2.10 LE CORBUSIER and ILLUMINATION

2.11 COMPARING WINDOWS of FLW, LC and Mies

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3 MOVEMENT, BALANCE

3.1 MOVEMENT and BALANCE – Issues for Design -5

3.2 PERCEPTION of BALANCE and MOVEMENT

3.3 BALANCE in DESIGN – Part 1

3.4 BALANCE in DESIGN – Part 2

3.5 VISUAL PERCEPTION of MOVEMENTS

3.6 PERCEPTION through SCALES and CONVERSIONS -Issues or Design -3 

Landscape

4 OPENINGS SYSTEMS

4.1 LEVELS of OPENINGS

4.2 DESIGNING OPENINGS

4.3 CLASSICAL WINDOW FORMS

4.4 ARCHITECTURAL WINDOWS and VISION in-out

4.5 ARCHITECTURAL WINDOWS and the MEANING

4.6 ARCHITECTURAL WINDOWS and MECHANICS of VISION

4.7 MEANING of a WINDOW SILL

4.8 THIRD DIMENSION of OPENINGS

4.9 LANTERNS in ARCHITECTURE

4.10 CLERESTORY OPENINGS

4.11 SKY LIGHTS

4.12 ROOF LIGHTS

4.13 SHOP WINDOWS

4.14 SHOP WINDOWS – SHOP FRONTS – DISPLAY WINDOWS

4.15 FRAMING of OPENINGS

4.16 MASKING of OPENINGS Part -III -Framing

4.17 MASKING of OPENINGS Part -II

4.18 MASKING of OPENINGS Part -I

Eating_Alone

5 GLASS

5.1 GLASS in ARCHITECTURE -1

5.2 GLASS and PERCEPTION

5.3 GLASS in WINDOWS – Part • I

5.4 GLASS in WINDOWS – Part • II

5.5 COLOURED GLASS

Fixing Metallic Transparency Glass Front Metal6 GRILLS, TRELLIS, CURTAINS

6.1 CONTEXT -Issues for Design -12

6.2 ROOFS 3 -Skyline and Silhouette

6.3 HOLISM and DESIGN

6.4 TRELLIS

6.5 GRILLS

6.6 CURTAINS

6.7 TRANSLUCENCY for CURTAINS

6.8 SHEER FABRICS and CURTAINS

6.9 SHEER FABRICS and CURTAINS-2

6.10 NON SILK SHEER FABRICS and CURTAINS

6.11 WEIGHT and TRANSLUCENCY of fabrics for curtains

6.12 SHEER FABRICS

Religious Kneeling Worship Pray Prayer Church

7 SOUND and NON VISUAL

7.1 SOUND

7.2 SOUND, SPACE and PERCEPTION

7.3 PERCEPTION of SOUND and SPACES

7.4 SPACE and SOUND REVERBERATION

7.5 SOUND and NOISE MANAGEMENT

7.6 HEARING and interior spaces

7.7 ACOUSTICS in SMALL SPACES

7.8 SOUND and SMALL SPACES

7.9 SPACE PLANNING and NON VISUAL CUES

7.10 NON VISUAL LANGUAGE -Issues for Design -6

7.11 LANGUAGE EXPRESSION and SOUND PERCEPTION

wuzhen-1643267_6408 OBJECTS, SURFACES, COLOURS, PATTERNS

8.1 OBJECTS in SPATIAL FIELDS -Issues for Design -14

8.2 COLOURS -Perception and Expression

8.3 COLOURS and BUILDINGS

8.4 FLOORINGS

8.5 FLOORING COLOUR

8.6 FLOORINGS IN INTERIOR SPACES

8.7 PERCEPTION of SURFACE FINISHES

8.8 GLOSS

8.9 TEXTURES and MATERIALS

8.10 JOINTS in SURFACE FINISHES

8.11 MOSAICS

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9 REALITY, MAKE-BELIEVE

9.1 SOLIDS and VOIDS -issues for Design -13

9.2 AUGMENTED REALITY

9.3 SPACES and REALITY

9.4 MAKE-BELIEVE in INTERIOR DESIGN

 

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OBJECTS in SPATIAL FIELDS -Issues for Design -14

Post 642 –by Gautam Shah

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A spatial field is a definable extent of reality, occupied by: Physical elements such as objects, humans and other beings, Non physical things like environmental effects, air, illumination, etc. and Ephemeral presences like relationships, geometries, remembrances.

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Milan Cathedral Roof > Wikipedia image by Jakub Halun

 The SPATIAL FIELD

The spatial field consists of:

1 changing environmental conditions;

2 elements that are distanced from other elements, and so have potent relationships;

3 elements that are adjacent and so allow comparisons of scale or contrast, and have implicit connections;

4  elements that are partly concealed by other elements covering up the cuts, corners, edges and such other definitive elements, and have characteristic scale and distance;

5 elements obscuring the presence of other elements.

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A Tree obscuring the important junction detail > Pixabay Image by WikiImages Deutsch

ELEMENTS of SPATIAL FIELD

Spatial field and Environment are perceptible totality. A spatial field is perceived as a static event but the changing environment make it a dynamic happening.Changes are necessary in the spatial fields for us to see anything at all”. Other dynamics include, eye and body movements, changes in surroundings, movement of the objects, and shifting position of the perceiver.

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Spatial field and the Environment Holes in the roof > Flickr image by Hans Splinter

The elements in spatial fields have surfaces with colour and texture. The surfaces also have geometric configurations like convex, concave single or double curvatures. The surfaces have edges at the ends and intermediate breaks. The surfaces, present themselves with inclinations towards or away, in vertical, horizontal and other directions from the perceiver.

House Roofs Roofs Architecture Roofing Red Tile

Multiplicity of forms and Complexity > Roofs MaxPixel image (http://maxpixel.freegreatpicture.com/House-Roofs-Roofs-Architecture-Roofing-Red-Tile-565362

The elements in spatial fields have forms. The forms are composed of planes that are representations of solids, pretender fill-in-planes between wire networks, or apparent surfaces that are evident between points. These forms have two distinct qualities: have a gravity-based orientation or references, and are perceived in receding perspective. The second quality is highly dynamic, so offers a taste of reality.

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Forms in spatial field > The Willow Tearooms Glasgow designed by Charles Rennie Mackintosh > Wikipedia image by Dave souza

The forms can be of lines, such as in wire-frames, within which the surfaces are presumed to dwell, but without the nominative texture or colour. In such hollowed forms, the shadows of the frames complicate the perception of the holistic form.

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Roof frame for the Royal Albert Hall > Wikipedia image by KlickingKarl

The forms in spatial fields are compositions of regular or familiar surfaces, so even a partial reveal can disclose the entireness. Where the forms are of continuously and irregularly varying surfaces, then unless entire form is perceptible or from many directions, its totality cannot be known.

The forms in spatial fields often have orientation of sub-segments that depicts a direction or movement. When such directions are congruent, the form gains a momentum. Similar ‘things’ appear to be grouped together. Alternatively we connect several incoherent elements into a form with dominant theme  of the scene.

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Building a narrative from Elements > Pixabay image by WikiImages Deutsch

Scene building or Spatial narratives commence from parts. One takes in few particular sets, rather than searching for the wholeness. The scene or the narratives get built when cognized sets and our past experiences come together. “We do not just see, but look”. In a spatial field scene building occurs by moving along a predefined path, by shifting the elements and by delaying, hastening or filtering the environmental effects. Designers build scenes or spatial narratives by framing the vista with opportunistic framing, occluding certain sections and by modifying the foreground-background contrasts.

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Modelling the elements in a spatial field > Corridor > Pexels image

Modelling the Elements in spatial field, is posing of objects and people including own self, to make them noticeable. The process first requires the realization and than corrective measures. For realization one needs to perceive the element from multiple cues, which may be similar to many others, close to each other, interconnected, and part of a complex pattern. The corrective measures include perceptual aggregation of a visual scene. Here the edges, if, are breached, need virtual bridges, to form a larger extent and a perceptible whole.

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Securing a coherent pattern from multiple elements > Many stories on stairs > L’Arche de la Defense Paris > Flickr Image by Pierre Metivier

Structuring a pattern from multiplicity of elements is a process carried out in many different environmental conditions, referencing cues and positions of perception. Regions of space are natural zones, and elements occurring in them seem related. Such regions of space have similar environmental exposure, form, extent, or belong to the same perspective. Patterns replicate a form in many scaled versions, similarity of placement, orientation and contextual relevance.

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Cyclist in foreground against a simpler background forming a silhouette > Flickr Image by Pierre Metivier

Silhouettes in a spatial field are the edges or boundaries of forms. Edges distinctly delineate or separate the foreground (from background). Extreme silhouettes emerge when the foreground (the form) is extensive and without any details, and the background is vibrant. The vibrant background helps in bridging the breaks that may exist in the form. Distinguishing the foreground from the background is a task difficult for scenes that fall in visual (cone) of perception. Nominally we perceive dark colour to be a deeper element and the lighter colour to be a nearer one, but with silhouette formation a reversal is forced, creating a myth. Silhouettes in nature (sun-set or sun-rise) are short lasting, so elements with back-lit fields are perceived to be transient.

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Background-Foreground with equal value > Horses in Parc du Chateau de Versailles > Flickr Image by Pierre Metivier

Familiarity in Spatial field is unexplainable connection. Things that are in a foreground are proximate, and so have the first claim of familiarity. The relevance of purpose offers next level of familiarity. But when other elements in the scene compete in terms of size, orientation or distancing, a dilemma occurs.

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Recognition due to the elemental familiarity > Petra Jordan > Flickr Image by Pierre Metivier

Stratification of view in a spatial field occurs at many different scales. Stratification is horizontal sectioning and vertical segmentation, and both aided by situation and architectural elements. A person at the interior edge can view the exterior with movement of head and eyes, but from a depth visual limitation is imposed. Similarly skylights allow unchanging sky view whereas a very tall sill level cuts-off the view of the ground.

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This is the 14 th article of 20 topics series on ISSUES for DESIGN

 

SPACE PERCEPTION – Issues for Design -4

Post 607 by Gautam Shah 

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Faculties of Perceptions > Wikipedia image by Abellman

Perception is becoming aware of Objects and Environment. A person has natural or nominal capacities for sensorial perception. The sensorial faculties, though vary from person to person, and also depend on many other factors such as age, sex, moods, past experiences, sequences of happenings, motivation, learning capacity. The capacities are improved by various means of reach such as spectacles, hearing aids, insulators. The perception is also regulated by conversion processes, which diffuse, hasten, or delay through condensation, compression, enlargements, focussing, differentiation, etc. Perception of Objects in a space occurs as a sequence of events, where each segment is affected by the varying environment and the position of the perceiver.

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Algerian Nomads habitat > Wikipedia + Flickr image by Tonton Jaja

The word Perception derives from Latin perceptiō (a receiving or collecting, taking cognizance of, intuitive or direct recognition of some innate quality, obtain, gather, seize entirely, take possession of, to grasp with the mind, learn, comprehend).

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Shutting off the vision > Wikipedia image by davric

Perception occurs as congregation of several effects, and mutually compensative processes. We may not be able to isolate few parts of it. As for example, Smell and Taste often occur together. The sensory nodes have FIVE important characteristics that they have specific Location, Capacity and Multiplicity and the Duration.

● The Locations of the sensorial nodes provide information about the directionality, and encourages discrimination.

● The Capacity of the perceptive nodes is range bound which permit selections while providing comfort, sense of survival. Beyond the range bound capacity of the perception faculty, the perception process gets transmitted to other modes allowing different facilitation.

● The Multiplicity of nodes gives a sense of scale and referential positions.

● The Duration of perception gives a temporal scale. In other words The Location, Body capacities, Multiplicity and duration, all together and individually endow a Geo-Spatial identity.

● There are abnormal sensorial perceptions also. These arise from the Location related misinterpretations, Physiological deficiencies, differentiated perception of multiple nodes and time related intensifications and diffusions.

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Realization – Cognition > Wikipedia image

The process of cognition reveals how the environment is formatted, organized and represented in time and space. Environment helps in identification, and interpretation of the space, and so gives a measure to it. The measures are perceived because we have different types nodes of perception, where some have multiple and directional locations. The nodes also have a range bound capacity, beyond and under which the reception gets transferred to other systems, or ceases to be operative. With these operants’ one gets a sense of scale, size, gradations like concentration and diffusion, framing, juxtaposing, referencing, linkages, details and orientation.

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The Singing Tree (Burnley Panopticon) > a wind powered sound installation at Lancashire England > Wikipedia image by Childzy

Perception nominally means sensorial cognition, but could also be realization through other means. An understanding of a situation, acceptance or confirmation, are also part of the process of perception. There are some realizations that may not be attributed to sensorial nodes. Such non sensorial cognition makes us aware of orientations such as North, East, West, South, Up, Down, Front, Back, movements, acceleration-deceleration, energy flows, gravity, etc. There are other realizations that do not relate to physical perceptions, but are sometimes attributed to psychical experiences. These include empathy, sympathy, links or relationships between two objects and organisms, acknowledgement, familiarity, recollection of past events, fore-sightings, future purposes or utilities of objects and situations, orders in complex situations, hierarchies in multiple entities, etc. Cognition also involves forming expectations, directing the attention, learning and memory retention. At some level cognition is recognizing a thought, intuition, deduction, etc.

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Immersion into Virtual reality is a perception of being physically present in a nonphysical world > Wikipedia image

Objects are positioned in the Space, where the Environment manifests as a happening, marking the Time. In this sense a space and time form a matrix of relationship, and perception is becoming aware of such a matrix. Space perception is about recognizing the extent, gaining knowledge and schematising for means for sustaining the occupation. Perception is also regarded as ‘the modification of anticipation’ because some disequilibrium between expectation and stimulus. Designers create spaces that are anticipated, but with elements that are off the expectations. There are continuous process between perception and cognition (knowledge) that defines our expectations and fulfillment. It distinguishes, hypothesizes, bridges and replaces the voids.

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ART by Paolo Uccello (1397-1475) Innovative use of a geometric algorithm incorporating linear perspective in painting where broken lances run along perspective lines

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This is 4th article of 20 topics series on ISSUES for DESIGN

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GLOSS

Post 190 –by Gautam Shah

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SURFACE GLOSS

Objects are seen when illuminated. Light illuminates objects, but in the process affects it in several ways. Some light is absorbed within it which is mainly responsible for perception of colour. If the object is transparent to translucent, than part of the light gets transmitted though it. The transmitted light (through the object) may get re-reflected through the object. In the process the re-reflected light gets scattered. Light also gets specularly reflected from it the surface of the object provided it has reflective properties.

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Nearly reflective surface -Glossy coating on wood https://www.flickr.com/photos/editor/2065638637/sizes/z/

Specular reflection: The substantial quantum of light is reflected from the surface, in equal and opposite direction, to the angle of incident light.

Diffuse reflection: The light that gets scattered in many directions.

Vietnam Veterans Memorial, National Mall

lathe turned pillars chennakeshava_temple_in_belur

Gloss is one of the most important of parameters that describe the visual appearance of an object. It is an optical property of a surface to reflect light in a specular (mirror-like) direction. A specular reflection can be said to be a reflection in very small range of direction. This is distinctively different from diffuse reflection, where the incoming light is reflected in a broad range of directions. Factors that determine the gloss are the refractive index of the material, the angle of incident light and the surface topography.

early american room

Distinctive examples of specular and diffuse reflections are glossy and matte paints. Matte paints have almost exclusively diffuse reflection, while glossy paints have both specular and diffuse reflections’. A surface of a non-absorbing material such as plaster, are nearly perfect diffuser, whereas polished metallic objects, glass, and some polymers are specularly reflective.

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Texture of a surface is a key determinant of level of specular reflection. Objects with a smooth surface, i.e. highly polished or containing coatings with finely dispersed pigments, appear shiny to the eye due to a large amount of light being reflected in a specular direction. Rough surfaces have irregular defects or undulations which scatter the light in other directions, and so appear dull. Dull surfaces do not reflect the image (like a mirror), so the reflections seem blurred and distorted.

lines reflections

In case of transparent and translucent materials, not only there is surface level specular reflection but the back face coatings-treatments and closely placed materials (substrate materials) also reflect specularly. The reflecting material of mirrors is the highly polished surface of glass, and its capacity to reflect light from the back side coating of lead, aluminium or silver.

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Gloss is often considered a subjective term (though scientific tests exist) for representing specular reflection of a surface. Commercially, in the surface finish world, gloss is recognized as Flat or matte, Egg shell, Semi-gloss, Full gloss. A Flat surface is considered free from sheen even when viewed at an oblique angle whereas at the other extreme Full gloss is a mirror like face at all angles of view. Satin (silk) finish is somewhere between Egg shell and semi gloss finish.

A rough guide for level of gloss of a surface is: Flat (0 to 10 % reflective), Low Sheen (10 to 25% reflective), whereas Glossy (70–90% reflective).

Dull-matt surface

Dull- matt surface Unglazed Ceramic

  • The non-reflecting surface of a flat-matt finish helps to hide or de-emphasize the imperfections of the surface to be painted. Semi-gloss finish and high-gloss finishes highlight such imperfections. Flat-matt surfaces do not reflect light at any angle so are very useful as a coating-finishing over very extensive surfaces such as corridors, lobbies, halls, ceilings, and exterior faces, etc. Flat-matt finishes over the floors, also offer an assurance of their being no slippery surface. Flat-matt surfaces show off true colours at all angles, so are visually more recognizable. Flat-matt surfaces may look patchy if the substrate or the application techniques are improper. Automobile interior trims are intentionally designed to be of matt finish so as to minimize the irritating reflection while driving.

Reflective-Glossy Roof

Walt Disney Concert Hall LA CA

Walt Disney Concert Hall LA CA

  •  Semi-gloss and full gloss finishes offer better wearing, cleaning and humidity resistance than flat paints. Flat paints may show polishing or burnishing marks when rubbed for cleaning. Semi gloss surfaces are slightly deceptive and may not show true colour or depth perception.
Brushed Matt metal finish

Brushed Matt metal finish

  •  High gloss surfaces get easily tarnished by oil, grease or waxy streaks. High gloss surfaces are first to show off substrate impurities and malfunctioning of plasticizing agents or entrapped moisture, etc. High gloss surfaces show of minute scratches or dents etc. in terms of defective specular reflection. High gloss surfaces are very deceptive in colour recognition.

Glasses

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