Post 251 – by Gautam Shah



Human behaviour is evident in responses related to: Body, Environment, Space and the Occupants.


BODY: The human behaviour is seen as conspicuous actions through body-limb movements or postures, discreet expressions of body related gestures, and also as overt expressions in modes like speaking, writings, painting, etc. Human behaviour originates from the genetic make up and is further conditioned by the experiences.

Physiological components of human behaviour are seen in survival, health, well being and comfort, spatial occupation with dimensional accommodation and fitment of the human-body, task functionality. Human behaviour relates to others. It manifests through group behaviour dynamics, expression and communication. Human behaviour can be sensed through cognition, psychology, sensorial perception, response mechanisms, metabolism, past experiences, inherited and learnt faculties.

On the Steps of St Martin's

The response mechanisms could be: accommodation, adjustment (like acclimatization), spatial shifting or temporal rescheduling, biological corrections or degradation. The responses are also assisted by the supportive systems such as tools, implements, gadgets, equipments, facilities and amenities. Body responses achieve task functionality by way of compliance within set confines for nominal to extreme purposes. Body responses achieve both, stability and mobility necessary for efficiency, comfort and security.

ENVIRONMENT: Environmental responses form a process of becoming aware of a space. Environment is the supportive system that moulds our perception and commands the responses. It permeates into a space depending on the spatial characteristics, such as the size, shape, sequencing, quality of barriers, etc. Environment formats a life style that passes on from one generation to another as ethnicity or ‘cultural ethos’. Environment also includes real presence of other occupants. The process environment acclimatization is in way a physiological reaction.



SPACE: Space is the setting where environment and cognition actualize concurrently. As cognition is personal, it endows environment subjective significance. Nature of cognition is one major factor that governs the Space experience. Environment is continually variable and so a space experience is ever expounding. It continues to reveal differently in spite of its scale or spatial features remaining static. Some environmental conditions and spatial features often occur in concert. And so we expect the presence of one to trigger the other. The accommodation of environmental changes makes the process of inhabitation tougher, but always equips one with better skills and greater efficiencies.


Street Football

OCCUPANTS: Occupants of a space are real, and sometimes through the metaphoric presences. Behaviour responses are due to the biological needs and also for cultural reasons or social norms. Occupants show varied behaviour due to factors like age, sex, level of adaptation, familiarity, limb capacity, body-limb coordination, sensorial abilities and reach extension tools, etc. Behaviour (even of lone beings) is substantially in the context of ‘awareness’ of other human beings (and not necessarily the physical presence). Interpersonal relationships among members of small groups are a result of the personality and cultural backgrounds of the individuals involved, their tasks, and the nature of the spatial arrangements or physical settings. Various races and cultures respond differently to the amount and arrangement of spaces. Humans evaluate the acceptability or appropriateness of behaviour using social norms, and regulate it by means of social control. The Sociological responses of human behaviour relate to the social needs of the occupants and awareness of their implications. The space, environment and the occupants together foster a social-contact mechanism.




Post 227 – by Gautam Shah


A user perceives a material-object in many different ways like: Engineering attributes, Dimensional features, Surface properties and for Other considerations.


A surface is the most proximate and tangible part of an object. A surface, is often the reason, why an object continues to survive in a particular setting. A user perceives the surface of a material-object through factors such as:

  • proximity (closeness, intimacy, distance)
  • duration (of encounter)
  • frequency and extent (area) of contact
  • mode of handling
  • our past experiences
  • our sensory capabilities
  • our physiological state
  • atmospheric conditions (temperature, humidity)
  • light (direction and level of illumination)
  • orientation, or point of observation.

There are more than 20 mathematical parameters applied to surface description, and some of the terms are: roughness, irregular features of wave, height, width, lay, and direction on the surface; camber, deviation from straightness; out of flat, measure of macroscopic deviations from flatness of a surface.


Surface Finishes have three main cognitive affectations: Colour, Pattern and Texture. Colour and pattern, are visual recognition, whereas texture has visual and feel affectations. Texture profoundly alters the perception of colour and pattern. As a combined effect of all the three factors, it is impossible to duplicate a surface finish. Cognition of a surface finish is a subjective phenomenon, which cannot be expressed truthfully.


A surface finish is a continuously varying entity, by processes like ageing, weathering, readjustment of stresses, and intrinsic physical and chemical changes. A surface finish is inherent with the material object or is an applied component. Applied components are affected by the behaviour of their base objects.


A surface finish visual appeal also changes depending, on the quality of light (spectrum range), angles of incidence, brightness, contrasts with background or surroundings. It is also impacted by dilation of a pupil, biological capacity to recognise colour, capacity to focus, and many other visual abilities.

The Patterns in natural objects result from granular or fibrous orientation, method of cut, cyclic nature of growth, formation of residual products, deposition of contaminants, and tools-techniques of handling and processing. The patterns over objects are enhanced by simple processes like washing, cleaning, polishing or roughening the surface, Surfaces are altered by little more complex procedures like sintering, acid-alkali treatments, chipping to expose an underlying surface or by sectioning. Patterns are also created by forming joints and use of distinctive joint materials and their profile forming. For many products patterning and colouring is a secondary process.


The textures primarily result from the degree of homogeneity, angle of cut, differential weathering, and stresses. Textures for manufactured objects are pre-set in the process of moulding, extrusion, shrinking, stretching, curling, twisting, spinning, weaving and forming, etc. Textures become apparent in the presence light and its incidence. Textures are more perceptible in reference to the shadows, which are more enhanced on lighter colours than darker faces. Textures are visible when one is nearer the surface; a little distance away it just seems a varied shade of colour.



Post 185 – by Gautam Shah


DCF 1.0

Interpersonal relationships signify the social interactions between two or more people. Interpersonal relationship at one extreme could be very intimate, or physical, and at the other extreme very casual and detached with no apparent contact except recognition of others’ presence.


The interpersonal relationships flourish in space that facilitate such interactions. It needs space for recognition, perception, expression and communication. One of the prime characteristic of such a space is its size or depth. ‘Adequate depth of space’ allows control over how much one want to distance own-self from others. For some personal encounters depth of a space determines the privacy, intimacy and security. The depth aspect of a space can also be debilitative factor negating the seclusion, familiarity and protectiveness.




Interpersonal relationships have less relevance in acutely sized and defined spaces (ergonomically sized, shaped and provisioned with very specific facilities), such as: toilets, kitchens, storerooms, study nooks, booths, etc. Spaces with a greater dimensional adequacy permit better recognition and perception. Security is also operative in a crowded space or participatory public space, as such places do not permit privacy or intimacy. Spaces with satisfactory depths allow time for decision making whether one wants to allow a relationship to flourish or not. It also allows sufficient time and space to improvise the body’s gesture, posture and orientation and thereby ‘correct the impression’.


Body posture, gesture and orientation vis a vis other person, are very important factors. All three begin to switch, the moment one realizes of being perceived. And, one needs time and space for the required improvisation. Often one needs momentary seclusion to effect the transition. The seclusion could be through furniture and other architectural elements or occlusion from perception range of the other person. It could also be achieved by intentional diversion.


Groups, to an extent subsists on spatial characteristics for expression and its perception and so the interpersonal relationships. Group level interpersonal relationships could be centric (one leader-many followers) or participatory (everyone involved in the process). The perception of a group leader and others may be partial or occluded (such as the audience in darkness) or fully perceptible (such as a round table conference, press interactions, discussion-workshops). In virtual communication modes the ‘depth of space’ required is irrelevant for domains like telephony or video conferencing, chat rooms, hangouts, etc.


Waiting Architecture Tate Building Shadows People



Post 164 by Gautam Shah


1 Simultaneous Contrast

Simultaneous Contrasts Wikipedia Image

We perceive things by different sensorial faculties and against many diverse contexts. In addition we perceive things and happenings in time and space scale. Whenever some details are required, the other senses fill-up the specifics. Typically our bilateral faculties like eyes and ears continuously back up the space position details. Similarly multilateral nodes of touch also support such a process.



experimental Night vision goggles

Space position or time marking details are affected by the quality of context. Where the context is dulled or rapidly changing the particulars of things and happenings fail to register effectively. The ‘back or fore’ grounds offer a scale to size-up the perception, and also format relationships in terms of now-then, here-there, far-near, etc. The time factor operates as ‘Concurrent and Sequential contrasts. These two aspects are affected by our past experiences and expectations (desires). The aberrations of perception arise from here. The way colours are seen or weights are felt is due to such contrasts. Our past experience and desires make us see or experience things before they happen at closer locations.


Contrast or contextual effects created or employed in our daily life, are in home arrangements, food menus, dressing, expression and communication, etc. We create visual emphasis by accentuation of colour, illumination, texture, patterns, surface exposure duration and extent, etc. We generate audio accents by sound pitch, pressure, time gaping, replaying in different frequencies, etc. Touch experience is controlled by proximity, duration, exposure of body-limbs, extent and additional information such as temperature (warmth-cold), moisture, breeze, etc.

Contrast Abstract Metal Lines Fabric Folds


The contrast effects can be attuned by manipulating the time and space fields. TV programmes often separate out the interviewer and interviewee in time separated frames, within same frame by superior-inferior positioning, or by comparative sizing. Additional information such as audio-video clips can break the relationship developing between the two time and space consecutive items. In a formal party tea, coffee or pre-post dinner drinks are served in different rooms-ambience.


Colour contrast due to colour blindness

Contrasts occur within same reference of framing. Such contrasts are of position, orientation, scale or direction. Contrasts also occur as reference to an experience (of the past), which are intense or diffused, fragmented or converged with many others. There is no physical presence of framing. In the first case, the contrasts are framed objects and dealt (stored, manipulated, re-expressed or communicated) accordingly. But in the second case, the contrasts are transient, and if one tries to manage these by way of storage, expression or communication, it becomes a new subjective interpretation.


This was a later day Blog > from my site >>




Post -by Gautam Shah

The tonal quality of spoken language or sound is determined by many factors like social history and ethnic affinity. It is also formed by dominant building forms, materials and the physical environment factors like terrain, topography, (plains, coastal, valleys, lake fronts, forest, deserts). The quality of speech-sound is acutely affected by the environment one dwells in or aspires to be with.


There is a saying in Gujarat, India that every 20/25 km Speech varies. Such ‘Socio-linguistics’, can happen syntactically, lexically, and phonologically. The Phonology relates to the systems of phonemes or the organization of sounds in a language.


People (fishermen) who stay close to a sea coast are affected by the continuous splashing sound of waves. Similarly villagers staying in a valley often bear the echoing effect of the mountain range, whereas in plain desert land there is complete absence of bouncing sounds. People living on a very busy-noisy street have to talk louder and that habit remains with them for a very long time.


True colour of human speech comes about by intra vowel-consonants pauses, vowel and consonant utterance lengths and preferred frequency combinations, intra word pauses, phrasing, etc. When a language is spoken in different terrains each, creates its own variants. Human speech variants develop according to the environment one resides, and specifically how one listens to own speech sounds. This is perhaps the reason why children with deficient hearing capacity often have poor speech formation.


It is also true that people tend to accept the speech sound they can make as the perfect one, which may not be true. Teachers have better speech quality, as they have more opportunities to improvise. Similarly an American child or for that matter any child of a well to do family, bred in media culture is better attuned to a style of talking that is correct for good projection. Next generation of children are going to be more articulate than their parents or other non media children.

Speech intelligibility is a function of space. Space not only defines how the speech will be listened to, but also how the speaker or musician will improvise the output.


In Indian classical music concerts (vocal and instrumental) we have seen masters tuning the musical instruments, drums on stage, in front of the audience. This is often irritating to many, but in reality the musician is attuning the sound for that space and environment (moisture, temperature and air movement currents). The Alap in Indian music, the first rendering that is without the drum beats, is also attuning for the space and environment. Most Western concerts or Pop singers spend hours on the ground testing position of the speakers, their location and pitch of a sound etc. to attune to the site conditions.


Most experienced speakers and stage actors have the capacity to instantly modulate their output according to the quality of space. For example, if the background noise is high, the speaker will raise the voice and change the tonal quality (change the range of frequency to over come masking) or if there is a longer reverberation, the pauses between words are widened. Speakers also face the section of crowd they want the message to sink in. In group discussions, an experienced person automatically shifts to a ‘sound’ advantageous position. Seasoned actors during the rehearsals pick the nuances of stage positions and body posture to deliver an effective dialogue.


Effective sound delivery is closely related to how the speaker is perceived. For example on non visual space like the Radio or telephone a straight into the mike creates a steady delivery of sound, but a moving speaker (or the mike) carries the impression of a non-sincere person. Most of the TV anchors are taught to speak without moving their head or body. There was a time when the surroundings or space mattered a lot on the quality of Sound being carried, however, today the microphones can eliminate the background noise and also do some degree of micro balancing to eliminate the differences caused by shifting speaker or singer.