LIST of BLOGS on COLOURS

COLOURS, COATINGS, PAINTS, PIGMENTS

Post 578 by Gautam Shah

.

640px-candy_colours_28209906271829

Colours > Wikipedia image > source Candy by Author terren in Virginia

1 UNDERSTANDING LACQUERS

https://interiordesignassist.wordpress.com/2015/08/16/understanding-lacquers/

2 LACQUERS or NC LACQUERS

https://interiordesignassist.wordpress.com/2014/04/27/lacquers-or-nc-lacquers/

3 SOLVENTS for THINNERS

https://interiordesignassist.wordpress.com/2015/08/09/solvents-for-thinners/

4 WOOD SURFACE FINISHING

https://interiordesignassist.wordpress.com/2015/07/13/wood-surface-finishing/

5 PAINT THINNERS Part 2

https://interiordesignassist.wordpress.com/2015/05/14/paint-thinners-part-2/

6 PAINT THINNERS Part 1

https://interiordesignassist.wordpress.com/2015/05/08/paint-thinners-1/

7 ROSEWOOD

https://interiordesignassist.wordpress.com/2015/03/26/rosewood/

8 INDUSTRIAL PAINT FINISHES

https://interiordesignassist.wordpress.com/2015/03/07/industrial-paint-finishes/

9 APPLICATION of COATINGS

https://interiordesignassist.wordpress.com/2015/01/09/application-of-coatings/

10 COATINGS -Surface finishing technologies

https://interiordesignassist.wordpress.com/2014/11/08/coatings-surface-finishing-technologies/

11 CLEAR COATINGS

https://interiordesignassist.wordpress.com/2014/09/12/clear-coatings/

12 FILM FORMING PROCESS in COATINGS

https://interiordesignassist.wordpress.com/2014/09/03/film-forming-process-in-coatings/

13 WOOD SURFACE PREPARATIONS for CLEAR COATINGS

https://interiordesignassist.wordpress.com/2014/04/28/wood-surface-preparations-for-clear-coatings/

14 SHELLAC COATINGS and FRENCH POLISHES

https://interiordesignassist.wordpress.com/2014/04/26/shellac-coatings-and-french-polishes/

15 VARNISH

https://interiordesignassist.wordpress.com/2014/04/25/varnish/

16 MULTI COATS of PAINT SYSTEMS

http://talking-interior-design.blogspot.in/2014/03/multi-coats-of-paint-systems.html

17 WOOD FINISHES

http://talking-interior-design.blogspot.in/2014/07/wood-finishes.html

18 CLEAR COATINGS

http://talking-interior-design.blogspot.in/2015/03/clear-coatings.html

19 CEMENT SURFACE FINISHES

http://talking-interior-design.blogspot.in/2015/06/cement-surface-finishes.html

Colour Palette

Colour Palette Flickr image by Rocco Lucia

20 CRAFT of WALL PAINTING (Neolithic)

http://talking-interior-design.blogspot.in/2014/02/the-craft-of-wall-painting-neolithic.html

21 CRAFT of WALL PAINTING (Palaeolithic)

http://talking-interior-design.blogspot.in/2014/01/the-craft-of-wall-painting-palaeolithic.html

22 COATINGS

http://talking-interior-design.blogspot.in/2013/09/coatings.html

23 COATINGS Iron age

http://talking-interior-design.blogspot.in/2013/09/coatings-iron-age.html

24 PRIMITIVE COATINGS Surfaces, Materials and Techniques

http://talking-interior-design.blogspot.in/2013/09/primitive-coatings-surfaces-materials.html

25 LIME-WASH

https://interiordesignassist.wordpress.com/2014/06/01/lime-wash/

26 PAINTING WHITE – 1

https://interiordesignassist.wordpress.com/2015/07/27/painting-white-1/

27 PAINTING WHITE – 2

https://interiordesignassist.wordpress.com/2015/07/29/painting-white-2/

28 BLACK Part – 1

https://interiordesignassist.wordpress.com/2015/08/07/black-part-i/

29 COLOURANTS DYES and PIGMENTS

https://interiordesignassist.wordpress.com/2014/07/15/colourants-dyes-and-pigments/

30 RED Colours of ancient times

https://interiordesignassist.wordpress.com/2015/05/22/red-colours-of-ancient-times/

31 ART COATINGS

https://interiordesignassist.wordpress.com/2015/05/25/art-coatings/

32 PRIMITIVE COATINGS # 1

https://interiordesignassist.wordpress.com/2015/05/03/primitive-coatings-1/

33 NATURAL IRON OXIDE PIGMENTS 4 # SIENNA and UMBER

https://interiordesignassist.wordpress.com/2015/05/01/natural-iron-oxide-pigments-4-sienna-and-umber/

34 NATURAL IRON OXIDE PIGMENTS -3 # Ochers

https://interiordesignassist.wordpress.com/2015/04/28/natural-iron-oxide-pigments-3-ochers/

35 NATURAL IRON OXIDE PIGMENTS – 2 # Red Oxides

https://interiordesignassist.wordpress.com/2015/04/27/natural-iron-oxide-pigments-2-red-oxides/

36 FLOOR PAINTS

https://interiordesignassist.wordpress.com/2015/03/21/floor-paints/

37 ARCHITECTURAL COATINGS -beginnings of OIL PAINTS

https://interiordesignassist.wordpress.com/2015/02/15/architectural-coatings-beginnings-of-oil-paints/

38 SURFACE PREPARATIONS

https://interiordesignassist.wordpress.com/2014/09/26/surface-preparations/

39 WHITE PIGMENTS

https://interiordesignassist.wordpress.com/2014/08/05/white-pigments/

40 CEMENT PAINTS

https://interiordesignassist.wordpress.com/2014/07/09/cement-paints/

 

640px-colourful_shoes_in_marrakech

Colourful Shoes Morocco Wikipedia image source > http://www.flickr.com/photo/cloudzilla/2718019182/ by cloudzilla

41 OIL BOUND DISTEMPERS -OBD

https://interiordesignassist.wordpress.com/2014/07/03/oil-bound-distempers-obd/

42 CEMENT FINISHES part 2

https://interiordesignassist.wordpress.com/2014/06/27/cement-finishes-part-2/

43 DRY DISTEMPER or CALCIMINE

https://interiordesignassist.wordpress.com/2014/06/03/dry-distemper-or-calcimine/

44 ECOLOGY and COATINGS

https://interiordesignassist.wordpress.com/2015/03/09/ecology-and-coatings/

45 ENCAUSTIC PAINTING

https://interiordesignassist.wordpress.com/2014/06/06/encaustic-painting/

46 COLOURS and BUILDINGS

https://interiordesignassist.wordpress.com/2015/01/20/colours-and-buildings/

47 GLOSS

https://interiordesignassist.wordpress.com/2014/09/20/gloss/

48 COMPOSITION of COATING

https://interiordesignassist.wordpress.com/2014/07/29/composition-of-a-coating-3/

49 COLOURED GLASS

https://interiordesignassist.wordpress.com/2014/08/03/coloured-glass/

50 GRISAILLE -monochrome form of presentation

https://interiordesignassist.wordpress.com/2014/07/28/grisaille-monochrome-form-of-presentation/

51 WATER COLOURS

https://interiordesignassist.wordpress.com/2014/07/10/water-colours/

52 FRESCO PAINTINGS

https://interiordesignassist.wordpress.com/2014/06/24/fresco-paintings/

53 PRIMER COATINGS

https://interiordesignassist.wordpress.com/2015/06/07/primer-coatings/

54 SINGLE or MULTI COAT SYSTEMS

https://interiordesignassist.wordpress.com/2015/05/30/single-or-multi-coat-systems/

55 BRUSHES

https://interiordesignassist.wordpress.com/2015/03/29/brushes/

56 ENAMELS

https://interiordesignassist.wordpress.com/2015/02/18/enamels/

57 TEMPERA

https://interiordesignassist.wordpress.com/2015/01/24/tempera/

58 GP -General purpose paints

https://interiordesignassist.wordpress.com/2014/08/26/gp-general-purpose-paints/

59 COLOURS -Perception and Expression

https://interiordesignassist.wordpress.com/2015/03/07/colours-perception-and-expression/

Acrylic Colours stux

Acrylic art colours Pixabay image by stux

60 EMULSIONS

https://interiordesignassist.wordpress.com/2016/01/30/emulsions/

61 CLEAR versus PIGMENTED COATINGS

https://interiordesignassist.wordpress.com/2015/11/29/clear-versus-pigmented-coatings/

62 SELECTING and APPLYING a COATING

https://interiordesignassist.wordpress.com/2015/11/27/selecting-and-applying-a-coating/

63 COLOUR MODELS (RYB)

https://interiordesignassist.wordpress.com/2015/10/14/colour-models-ryb/

64 BLACK Part – II

https://interiordesignassist.wordpress.com/2015/09/17/black-part-ii/

65 MASONRY PAINT FINISHES

https://interiordesignassist.wordpress.com/2015/11/17/masonry-paint-finishes/

Artists coloursby skeeze

Artists’ colours Pixabay image by skeeze

.

Advertisements

NATURAL IRON OXIDE PIGMENTS -3 # Ochers

Post 408 –  by Gautam Shah 

.

12802736905_9f0847811c_z

Ochre is an iron oxide pigment of natural and synthetic sources. Ochers are coloured soft deposit of clays often with mixed layers or pockets harder crystalline iron ore. Some of the best yellow ocher’s are mined at Roussillon, Southern France. Here the mineral formations are naturally stained with colours to provide a wide variety of earth or natural iron oxide colours.

ocher_rocks_rock_ocher_roussillon_places France

The Greek word ochros, for Ochres describes it to a pallid or pale yellow, but natural ochers are brilliant colours. Ochres have a colour range that varies from yellow to deep orange or brown, due to the hydrated iron oxide. This is unlike the Red oxide which is from hematite powder, a form of iron oxide (Fe2O3). An ochre containing a large amount of hematite has a reddish tint, and is known as ‘red ochre’. The dominant yellow colour of ochre is due to the mineral limonite. Ochres are of two kinds, one with an argillaceous or clayey basis has richer colours, whereas the other with a calcareous base is slightly of ‘flatter’ colours. The nature of the associated minerals affects the colour, such as calcareous varieties have brownish-red and dark-brown shades, and aluminous types offer red and violet tints.

Vaucluse-roussillon-village

Earth colours of Roussillon village France

Different colours of Ochre pigments are extracted from different veins, and then mixed to obtain specific shades. Other shades are created by roasting (‘burnt’ or calcination), and dehydrating the mineral clays.

Santorini_girl_picks_flowers

Yellow Ochre is a very ancient pigment. It is without any trace of green. The oxide colours are called Earth colours, due to their richness, brightness and warmth. Ochres are mixed with high refractive whites like Lime (or zinc, titanium dioxide), or low refractive ‘extenders’ such as the barytes to achieve, respectively, high opacity or translucency.

800px-Manuscript_Cover_with_Krishna_Raising_Mt._Govardhan_(inside)_and_the_Coronation_of_Rama_(outside)_LACMA_M.88.34_(1_of_2)

Manuscript Cover India in Ocher colours

In Ancient Greece, red-ocher was called miltos, (hence Miltiades red-haired or ruddy). In Athens when assembly was called, everyone was supposed to attend it, and failure to attend it incurred a fine. To prevent people loitering around slaves swept the open space of the Agora with ropes dipped in miltos . It was also known as raddle, reddle or ruddle. In Ancient Egypt, the ochre was often used in place of gold, which was considered to be eternal and indestructible. It was used for painting tomb interiors in place of toxic orpiment (an orange-yellow coloured arsenic sulfide mineral). Ochre was used for painting women’s faces. Romans used the yellow ochre to to represent gold, skin tones, and as a background colour in their paintings such as the murals of Pompeii.

Egyptian Ocher colours

A rational process for refining ochre pigment was developed by the French scientist from Roussillon province of France, Jean-Étienne Astier (1780s). He washed the clay to separate the grains of sand from the particles of ochre. The decanted and dried ochre was crushed, sifted, and ground as the pigment. Best of the qualities were used for artists’ colours.

Three_saddhus_at_Kathmandu_Durbar_Square

Ochre robed Sadhus sitting on the Vishnu Temple of Kathmandu’s Durbar Square, Nepal Wikipedia Image by us Koljonen (Dilaudid)

COMPOSITION of a COATING

by Gautam Shah ➔

Coatings are thin surfacing. A coating comes into being mainly through a phase-change of a material. At pre-application-stage a coating material is in various phases such as solid, liquid or vapour, or a combination thereof like: suspension, solution, dispersion, emulsion, thermoplastic compound, thixotropic compound, etc. During application it changes to a Liquid phase, but once applied, it settles down to a heavier phase, usually (but not necessarily) a Solid phase.

Coatings are not exactly considered to be adhered-finishes, because the coating film is formed and (mainly) bonded through a lower to higher phase conversion process.

Coating is a thin Surface Finishing Technique. A coating system has Four main components.

1. Film forming substances

2. Solvents and Diluents

3. Pigments and Extenders

4. Other additives

Film forming substances are the prime materials of a coating system. Even if other components are not present, a coating (Clear coating) can still be created. Most of the film forming substances are in liquid form or convert to a liquid phase just prior to application. Film forming substances provide a film that binds all the ingredients, and also develop inter-facial adhesion between the coating and the substrate.

Solvents and diluents, impart solubility to specific film forming substances, allow dispersion and adjust the viscosity.

Pigments are chief colourants to coloured coatings. In some clear as well as coloured coatings, Dyes (dispersed or dissolved) are added to provide specific tinge (staining) to the coatings. Other colourants include opacifiers, whitening agents, fluorescent phosphorescence agents. These besides providing colour, impart transparency translucency, opacity, fluorescence, phosphorescent and luminance to the film. Extenders or fillers are low refractivity materials, usually white, but not necessarily. These are added to provide bulk to the coating, economise the use of pigments.

Additives help in manufacturing, storing, applying, drying and maintenance of a coating. These include surfactant, anti skin agents, wrinkle agents, dryers (metallic compounds that helps in polymerization of resins), thixotropic agents, foaming and de-foaming agents, catalysts, odour suppressants, mildewcide, insecticide, fungicide, plasticizers, anti setting agents, etc.

A clear coating (often called Varnish) has no pigments or extenders. For a specific tinge (transparent staining) dyes or very low proportion of pigments are used.

Surface treatments: Coatings are generally capable of forming a film on the relevant surface. But to receive a coating, the surface may require some modification or treatment. Surface treatments form a very important section of coating technology. Surface treatments are specific for the surface to be coated, such as cleaning, roughening, smoothening, etching, etc., or moisture proofing, rust inhibiting, barriers, static arresters, etc. Other surface treatments are designed to facilitate the application or deposition of the surface forming component and its setting or drying.

Coatings are deposited on objects by many different techniques and in variety of conditions. Common coatings are applied at normal environmental conditions. However, high end coatings require conditions that are usually unavailable at construction sites such as exact environment and controlled application, drying and handling techniques.

.

COLOURANTS -DYES and PIGMENTS

Post  -by Gautam Shah

.

9162893987_970666558e_z

Colours -Biennale Venezia > Flickr Image by Strolic Furlan -Davide Gabino

Dyes and pigments are colourants. These substances impart a colour to a material. Pigments are nearly insoluble materials, resulting in a suspension, whereas the Dyes dissolve during application, losing their particulate structure, resulting in a solution. Often a pigment is made by attaching a dye molecule to an insoluble particle. The difference between the two, can be said due to the physical characteristics rather than chemical composition.

640px-csontvc3a1ry_kosztka2c_tivadar_-_sun_looking_back_at_trau_28189929

Sun looking back at Trau > ART by Tivadar Kosztka Csontvary (1853-1919)

Dye molecules are comparatively smaller, so if each is presumed to be of pinhead size, relative size of a pigment particle would be of a football.

360px-Färbewerkstatt1

Traditionally pigments are considered to be more light-fast than dyes. Light destroys coloured objects by breaking open electronic bonding within the colourant molecule. Light fastness or permanence and stability are desirable properties of colourants. Lower Dyes are very much vulnerable. Pigments that are not permanent are called fugitive, as they over-time fade out.

6285056260_397184b155_z

Natural dyes for Alpaca Yarn, Peru, > Flickr image by Ken Bosma

Pigments change the colour of reflected or transmitted lights as a result of wavelength-selective absorption, wavelengths or parts of the spectrum are reflected or scattered. Pure pigments allow very little white light to escape, producing a highly saturated colour. However, a dye can only absorb light, and not reflect or scatter it. Pigments, can only subtract wavelengths from the source light, never add new ones, unlike the fluorescent or phosphorescent substances.

Cotton_dyeing_in_India

Organic pigments have carbon compounds. Natural ones were of animal and vegetable origins. Synthetic organic pigments include, alizarin, azo-pigments (yellow, orange red), phthalocyanine (variants of blue, green colour) and quinacridone (red-violet).

Inorganic pigments (of mineral origins) are metal compounds compared to organic pigments. Examples of Natural inorganic pigments: Oxides, umbers, ochres and siennas. Pigments produced synthetically often have the same names. Other Synthetic inorganic pigments include, cadmium yellow/orange/red, cobalt blue and titanium white.

548px-N-D_de_Tournai_Tax_on_food_stalls

Coatings are clear, dyed or pigmented. Clear-coatings are essentially, transparent to translucent in effect. Though, ‘water-white Clear Coatings are without any type of colourants. However, some tinted clear coatings or stainers include soluble colourants or dyes and often very minute quantity of non-soluble colourants or pigments. Dyes, are colourants soluble in water, organic solvents or oils. Clear coatings are used for where a very high level of transparency is required such as for the production of coloured metal foils and films, internal protective layer for cold-drink tins, coatings over paper, for flamboyant finishes in the paint industry and for wood stains (for floorboards and furniture). Dyes are also used for imparting colour to thermoplastics.

old-building-1317206_640(1)

Tinted Glass > Pixabay Image by mploscar

Pigmented coatings are mainly opaque. The opacity of the film, in a few cases, is inherent in the molecular lattice of the film forming medium, but mostly is imparted by additives (pigments and extenders) of crystalline nature. Pigments, natural or synthetics have a fine particulate matter, but these are in agglomerated state and require dispersion. Pigments are ground using ball-mill, roll-mill and attritor like equipments. Dispersion increases the spread of pigment or its covering or colouring capacity. Hiding capacity of pigment also depends on the particle size, shape and distribution, concentration, and also on the film thickness and clarity of the film forming substance. Pigments due to their particle size, shape and structure have greater capacity to reflect, refract and diffract the incident light, compared to extenders on volume basis.

Colour for Coatings

Additives with optical properties form the major and the quantitatively substantial part of a coating system, which otherwise consists of liquids or liquefiable film forming substances. Extenders, are low refractivity materials. Extenders have refractive index equal or lower than the pigments. Extenders provide bulk to the film, condition the viscosity, help even distribution of pigments, improve the brush-ability and define the gloss level and texture.

Pigment grinding machine

Extenders are mostly inorganic compounds like oxides, hydroxides, carbonates, silicates and sulphate, of metals like barium, calcium, aluminium and magnesium. Commercial extenders are asbestine, barytes, blanc fixe, china clay, diatomaceous silica, dolomite, mica, precipitated calcium carbonate, talc and whiting or chalks. Pigment and extender particles, both are held together by strong forces of attraction and are often enveloped by air moisture and other affinitive substances.

INDIA – Holi Festival of colours Radha playing with colours Painting of C-1788

.