BODY POSTURES – Issues for Design -1

Post 603 by Gautam Shah 



Matthew B. Roller of Johns Hopkins University, defines posture as ‘maintaining the body as a whole in a relatively motionless, stable state for an indefinite period’, and contrasts it with gesture ‘as nonverbal communicative techniques’. Gesture, for him, is ‘a continuous and temporally restricted movement of a bodily appendage’.



Posturing is using own body limbs and sensorial nodes in a coordinated manner vis-a-vis another person or groups of persons, elements of space or environmental effects. To avoid frequent posturing, one can also reposition the objects, reshape the surroundings, change the environment. One can also force recast of the sensorial connections with other beings or group through avoidance or engagement.


A winter party ART by Utagawa Toyoharu (1735-1814) Wikipedia image


Postures are body positions that one adopts, voluntarily or unconsciously. These are to accommodate effects of gravity, exert the body for movement or resist it, to reach-out or drawback or for exploiting the environmental effects. Postures are required for change in the position and orientation of the body, relaxation, transition, exercise, activities, conducting tasks, communication and interaction. One uses body postures with and without the tools, amenities and facilities.

‘Posture is a image that is at one level purely physiological and task based need, but at another level it is the accepted social behaviour, continuously refurbished through exchanges across cultures and imbibed from art-form images’.


Conversation > ART by Arnold Borisowich Lakhovsky 1935

Postures have many variations within a basic position. The variations are micro changes of the body that help tune in sensorial perceptions (including communication and expression). Postures create empathetic and confirming images. Certain body positions, patterns and movements suggest specific emotions. Postures directly and abstractly convey the state of interpersonal relationships, social standing, personality traits such as confidence, submissiveness, and openness, current emotional state and temperament.


Shiva Tandav Dance at Belur Halebidu India > Wikipedia image by Soham Banerjee (& Flickr image by Redtigerxyz)

Body postures are part of exercises and performing arts, in static or dynamic forms. Exercises are self conducted or assisted by person, tools or machines. The postural exercises are for Endurance (breathing and pulse-heart rates), Strength (muscles, postural capacity), Flexibility (stretch and increase muscular capacities) and Balance (safety and removing inhibitions). Yoga exercises, are dynamic consisting of sequential postures with transitory posers, or static meditative one with controlled mental activity and regulated breathing. Chinese body posture exercises Tai Chi also have sequences of postures but all connected by transitory movements rather than posers. Prayer postures have very little transitory positions and are less exercising. Postures in performing arts are linked to music and speech (recitation), and so have rhythmic change. The posturing is one seamless continuity of deliberate movements aided by gestures with breathing. Postures are also used for offensive, defensive and non-involvement purposes (Parades, martial arts).


Tai Chi exercise > Wikipedia image by Rudolph A furtado

Postures are static, transient or part of the movement. For static postures the body remains in same position but limbs are or sensorial nodes are aligned through change in orientation or metal attention. Transient postures occur as shift position between two postures. The transient position may ignore the gravity or safety risks as it is for a short period. Postures that are part of the movement are for the reach in space (walking, running, dancing etc.). Movements occurring with frequent changes in orientation are not stable, but often exhilarating.



Defensive-Offensive postures > Wikipedia image by Shi Deru (aka Shawn Xiangyang Liu)

Postures are axially balanced or skewed. Balanced postures are mirror-image (congruent) postures, such as equally posed two feet, two hands, etc., or are normal like the frontal face, upright torso, erect neck, straight eye level, etc. Skewed postures reflect a readiness to transfer to another posture, due to shift in interest or saturation of boredom. Both, the balanced and skewed postures, can be unstable and cannot be maintained for a very long period.


Zero gravity postures > Flickr image by Steve Jurvetson

Active movements are produced by own muscles to move body’s part, whereas passive movements are made by an outside force, and without the effort by the person. In both cases the distance, speed, and direction are important. Gravity related movements are of three types: parallel, against or towards the gravity. Of these, towards the gravity movements are passive, because these can be made without muscle activity. Other passive movements are like the reverting positions, where a stretched muscle ‘relaxes’ to its normal position. The aid of tools amenities, facilities, structures, etc., are required for passive movements. Infirm and aged people rely on these when their own muscles become weak or are incapacitated. Physiotherapists use passive movements to regain the muscle power. Socially any assistance for active movement hurts personal pride. Similarly physically disabled people do not prefer facilities marked as passive movement’s for them.


Aided posture by a physiotherapist > Flickr image by DFID – UK Department for International Development

A posture often requires support, aid, or simply a physical closeness (as an assurance) of tools, amenities, facilities and structural elements. Support structures may not be versatile enough to provide all the required proficiencies. Some degree of personal adjustments is required to achieve the intended purpose. To attain and continue the posture, one needs support from other means. Real supports are like: tools (walking sticks, shoes, etc.), amenities and facilities (architectonic elements, equipments, furniture, furnishings, etc.). Virtual supports are abstract: such as the required environmental conditions and psychological sureties that in need these are available in the vicinity.


Doug Collins, Coach of Philadelphia > Wikipedia image by Keith Allison ( Flickr image by Collins)

Gestures are voluntary or involuntary micro articulations of the body limbs and sensorial nodes (such as eyes, lips, skin, etc.). These are for expressions, directional perception, metabolic functions and other physiological reactions. Gestures include small moves of the head, face, eyes and nose (winking, nodding, twitching of nose, or rolling of eyes) and hands. Gestures are used to supplement the communication, but could be, either dependent or independent of the speech. Speech-independent gestures have a direct verbal translation, though often very abstract. A wave hello or peace signs are examples of speech-independent gestures. Gestures such as dance Mudra represent very abstracted information that is relevant to a culture specific group.


Courtship by the sea side



Post 584 by Gautam Shah



● Measures and Modulation

● Postures

● Space Planning

● Designing Furniture Elements




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A reading of Moliere in a Salon by Jean Francois de Troy 1728 Wikipedia image


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POSTURES for Furniture Design – 3 Blog Post 537 Dt 28 Oct 2015

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Judo formalism > Wikipedia image by + Cpl.Jeff Sisto


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Robert Irwin: Scrim Veil -Black rectangle – natural light Whitney museum of American art New York 1977 > Wikipedia image by Mduvekot


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STORING Blog Post 207 Dt 7 Oct 2014

STORING – II Blog Post 209 Dt 10 Oct 2014


Greek Furniture > Wikipedia image by Giovanni Dall’Orto


POSTURES for Furniture Design – 3

Post 537  by Gautam Shah


Supine position is also a relevant posture for Bed Furniture

Postures are some of the body-positions we use to conduct tasks. These positions or postural arrangements may need additional supports, reach tools and transfer utilities. Such postural arrangements are fairly persistent, but could be transient. All body postures have few things in common, such as: the manner of gaining and exiting out of a posture, achieving a stable or consistent position, confirming and exploiting the gravity for stability and transit to another posture and accommodation of minor shifts to relieve fluid pressures and muscle fatigue. Postures, along with the supports, reach tools, and transfer utilities, projects a behavioural attitude. When a person realizes this, the posture is modified.

Wikipedia image by Author Olaf Köhler

A posture as a body arrangement is a utility, with or without concurrent facilities. It increases the efficiency of work, rest, expression and communication. Postural arrangements develop due to many reasons such as the traditions of tasks handling by the society reflecting the local materials, processes, technological developments, customs and manner of accompanying interpersonal interactions. Some postural positions are affected by the body physique or stature, age related disabilities, training, anthropometric variations and climate. Postural positions are adopted from one task situation to another, due to the habit and predictable results. Postures differ according to age profiles, gender of the person, experience and incentives.

Personal variations of Postural expressions Wikipedia image by Author BigBrotherMouse

The prime influencing factor for postures is the gravity. Gravity affects the posture in static, mobile, and during transition from one posture to another. The body is rarely in a static condition, some degree of dynamism occurs due to body sway, respiration, restlessness, repositioning to adjust body fluids, metabolic activity and perspiration evaporation. Nominally in a static position with head held ‘high’, the centre of gravity lies near the sacral segment (pelvic bone). Its location can vary according to body stature, age, and sex. It may shift upward, downward, or sideways with new position of the body and limbs. The line of gravity is directed downward, and if falls within the base or ‘footprint’, the person is stable, or else needs an additional support for stability. Body-fat, clothing, footwear, hand held or shoulder carried baggage and walking with someone are some of the factors that shift the position of centre and line of gravity. Such constant shifts affect the personal gait, bearing, metabolism, respiration and muscular-skeletal system.

Different postures on a Bench


Group behaviour is Largely detrmined by Posture allowed by Furniture

Centre of gravity and line of gravity have some correlation. A lower centre of gravity creates a shorter line of gravity leading to stability. A very low centre of gravity with a very wide body base, such as in case of supine body, very stretched out body (as on beach sands), or sitting in very low -deep seat makes it difficult to shift the body to any other posture. The reclining body has reduced energy usage, circulatory stresses are better managed.

Lounge Chair and Ottoman by Charles Eames (1955)

Visitors room, casual meeting cubicles, personal secretaries, peons, snack-bar attendants, who need to shift the body-positions frequently are provided with a straight back and slightly taller then normal height sitting arrangements. Elders, who have difficulty in shifting the body posture without a support, need a flatter, levelled and taller seat with full depth and slightly taller then normal hand rests. The same is partly relevant for seats on Metro and city bus systems. Seats are curved in width and depth directions. The width curve restricts sideways shifts, making the posture more fixed, whereas depth curve makes getting out difficult. Bucket seats as in airlines and cars have bends in both the directions, to restrict passenger movement and fully support the body against sway in case of accident. The body contoured forms of seat elements are rendered useless, when the seat, back or hand rests are adjustable like through tilting, compressive cushioning or seat height adjustments.


Direction of weave for seat furnishing fabrics are more accommodative (stretchable) in weft direction and are oriented width wise. To overcome this directional accommodation of fabrics for space-ship seats bi-directional, formed through knit-weaving. The fabric fibres are so formed-spun that cushions are not required to adjust the fluid circulatory issues.

Wikipedia image by Author Infrogmation

A proper posture, whether standing, sitting, crouching, squatting, kneeling, crawling, lying or sleeping, allows tummy to nominally remain withdrawn, even during inhalation. This can be done through training and exercise, but also by planning for posture in-out procedures. A bed that allows one to turn sideways to rise-up; a chair slightly wider and strong enough to lean on one of its sides to get out of it; a dining or worktable that discourage bend-forward sitting; paths or stairs of consistent passageways (visual, sensorial qualities and functionality, like colour, texture, gradient and side supports) where one need not be bothered about inconsistencies; are some examples that help provide ‘a tucked-in tummy’ posturing. A correct posture encourages good metabolic activity, which in turn determine the quality of health and performance. Both of these govern the stress the body takes.

Wikipedia – Flickr image by Author Nikki


POSTURES and MEANINGS for design

Post 526 by Gautam Shah



Posture is a body position that is taken with or without a support system, but always in consideration of the gravity and any accelerative or de-accelerative momentum of the body. We take postures consciously, fully knowing how it impacts others, subconsciously, reflecting the internalized or suppressed emotions and strains, by exploiting the body support and body-rich mechanisms like chairs, handrails, walking-sticks, etc. and to facilitate gesturing. Postures could be flitting or longer lasting with many sub postures and gestures.

PX 96-33:12Postures are fundamental form of visual communication but also expression of biological and psychological activities. Postures also occur as a response to a threat to personal security, survival, intimacy, privacy, etc. Postures occur in response to others present in the vicinity, such as direct one to one interaction or a group of people, elders and other people of deference or juniors, familiarity with people and space, eye level, angles of exposure, occluding features such as glass, curtains, screens, illumination, distance, duration, and possibilities offered by support systems (furniture etc.).


Support systems like furniture, offer many possibilities of posturing. Furniture pieces or architectural elements (parapets, railings, steps, ledges, etc.) are designed to facilitate largest number of users (by percentile method of accommodation). And yet some combinations of measures and angles, and quality of resilience of materials changes that facilitation.


Certain postures (where hands are free and upper section of the body or torso can be turned around) allow for greater degree of gesturing, as the head, neck, shoulders, hands and palms have greater freedom. Seating on a tall stool encourages social interaction, but a member may escape the gathering, whereas very comfortable seating makes a person less participating. Gesturing gets a boost when one perceives that such expressions are perceived and acknowledged by others.


A deep chair seat enforces in several different postures. One may push inward to secure the back support, and thereby not only increase the distance from the opposite person but reflect a very relaxed position when attentive posture may be necessary. A short depth chair seat makes a person sit upright shorten the distance from the opposite person, which may perhaps violate the personal intimacy. A chair with slightly a higher seat than required (for the person’s stature) will make the person push leg inward (backwards) and body stoop forward. Contrary to this, a slightly lower seat level makes a person push the feet forward, reflecting informal, nonchalant, or conformist attitude. Dining chairs need to be slightly taller to make the seating formal.


Similarly the height of the hand-rest and the height of work-surface or table define if you are going to cross the hands, place them on the table, keep them in the lap or use them for gesticulation. A sofa-chair seat angle, if flat makes a person alert and ready to get up quickly (necessary for waiting areas), but an incline inwards adds to comfort as well as lethargy. A senior person prefers others to sit on a flatter seat, so that they are more attentive and subdued in behaviour.



Readiness to serve or be useful is expressed by standing position. It is more attentive than a seating one. Teachers, receptionists, speakers and others who use both postures and gestures for expression and communication prefer standing position. Bosses and superiors expect a junior or employee to remain standing (to communicate) till asked to a sit-down. A standing position has a center of gravity at a higher level than a sitting position. So where frequent changes in body postures are necessary, a sitting or lower body posture is better. Bar stools and platform both are taller, because transition from standing position is effortless and suits the escapist. A stool with small seat size allows an easy turnaround. A snack-bar stool is designed with a smaller seat that unnecessary seating is not prolonged.


An adequate width of the chair-seat allows one to select one of the hand-rests to lean on, and opt for micro changes in posturing. Contoured seats do not permit such changes. Bucket seats for vehicle drivers and aeroplane pilots are movement-restrictive. Passenger seats are designed, narrow for economy of width and to curtail sideways (and backward) communication. The width and height of the chair define how one can position the legs, such as cross feet or knee. This in turn also governs where we position the hands, such as on the armrest, in the lap or on the sides of the leg.




Post 510  by Gautam Shah



Posturing or posture taking is part of conscious and subconscious behaviour. Postures are body’s individual positions or sequences of behaviours that reflect the subconscious reality and also present intentional or impressionistic expressions. Gestures are accompanied by posturing. Gestures are articulated with the hands, arms or body, and also include small moves of the head, face, eyes and nose (winking, nodding, twitching of nose, or rolling of eyes). Gestures are also, both, speech related and independent of it. Speech-independent gestures reinforce the behavioural expression.

Wikipedia Image source Gossiping. Author DuncanCV

● A wave hello or peace signs are examples of speech-independent gestures. Gestures such as dance Mudra represent very abstracted information that is relevant to a culture specific group. Speech related gestures are used parallel to the speech, to provide supplemental information.

Reagan office staff meeting 1981

Postures are of two types: axially balanced or skewed. Balanced postures are mirror-image (congruent) postures, such as left-right, equally posed with two feet, two hands, etc., or are normal like the frontal face, upright torso, erect neck, straight eye level, etc. Skewed postures reflect a readiness to transfer to another posture, due to shift in interest, boredom or tiredness. Both types of postures could be unstable, and cannot be maintained for a very long period. It requires some relief or support system. The support for balanced posture needs to be subtle, almost imperceptible, but for the skewed or transitory posture a perceptible obvious support system is required.

Oath of the Horatii

Designers design for important poses of behaviour sequences, but designing for postures and relevant behaviour is little difficult, or it is a neglected task. If one provides for some flexibility within the postural pose, it serves two purposes: It accommodates larger number of anthropometric ranges (of percentiles) and allows for postural flexibility. The postural flexibility allows wider range of expressions and wider scope for gestural reinforcements. The postural flexibility relates to minor changes for relaxation, resetting the body rhythms and facility to conduct momentary variations.


A chair that is slightly wider or lower, a bar stool with a foot support ring, a seat with multi flexural (revolving, tilting, rotating) adjustability, TV or monitor swiveling stands are some of the examples that allow flexibility. Office executive chairs allow many postures, due to the width of the seat, height of the seat, height of the handles from the seat, depth of the handles (elbow or arm accommodation), inclination of the back (tilting), height of the back (mid spine, shoulder support, neck and head support), swiveling, etc. Other postural options are provided through combinations of table top height from the ground, and seat level of the chair. The space and its environmental conditions also play their role, like placing a chair close against a wall, against an open space, facing a barrier or an open area, the source of illumination and air handling devices, one sided or multi directional interaction, communication devices being used and duration of work.


People also exploit the seats for varied postural positions such as seating with feet drawn closer to the seat, extending beyond the seat, crossing the legs or feet, feet resting on heels or toes. All these varied positions help to adjust to anthropometric needs, seats related accommodative problems and allow variegated postural positions. Where possible a person would primarily select most appropriate type of seat with reference to the stature of the host or other participants, own social status, own psychological make-up, presence or absence of intervening elements, angle, level and distance of the encounter, level of comfort and formality desired. Next strategy would be for macro or micro shifting of the seat. Where such devices are lightweight mobile, micro shifting for angular and distance adjustments are done, but such choices are usually limited. Other strategies include body or postural accommodation, such as seating by fully drawing back or upright, leaning on, one of the arm resting rather then a balanced posture, keeping arms on armrest, lap or any other front side device, placing the legs under the seat, straight-up, seating frontally but looking sideways.

low stools Image from Flickr by Michael Coghlan


POSTURES for Furniture Design – 2

Post 259 – by Gautam Shah



We take postures to work and relax. Between these two ends we take many transitory postures. Even within each, there many incidental or micro positions that re-establish balance, regenerate blood circulation, adjust fluid balance, reset the body rhythms and facilitate sensorial perceptions. These body portrayal are accompanied by voluntary and involuntary gestures. Gestures are revelations that aid communication, and often reduce the need for re-posturing.

2 Construction_Workers


Work consists of several tasks in a continuum, which require major body movements, shifting of one or few limbs, and small changes such as the head or eye ball movements (for reading, seeing, smelling, sensing, etc.). Work-task related postures occur mostly to manipulate objects, handle tools and for holding. A task is efficiently carried out in certain positions that is an absolute need for it, or to continue the previous postural adaptation. The absolute needs result from factors like comfort, body position, intra-personal communication, supervision or observance, and reach or access to facilities. Tasks occur in a continuum, so for comfort and for economy of effort, not only the work-tasks but incidental tasks for relaxation, diversion, expression and communication are conducted from the same location, position and using the same facilities-amenities setup.

1 92984-004-5A8B72F9.jpg

Ergonomics considerations ensure that ‘designs complement the strengths and abilities of people and minimize the effects of their limitations’. A good design covers variable capacities of task handling of people of different race, sex physique, cognitive abilities, experience, expectations, motivation and restrictions of age, sickness, boredom and fatigue.

3 Wissam's_Human_Space_Theory

Work-task execution must allow one to improvise the postures, as it allows improved cognition and better blood circulation. Small and temporary variations in postures help in conducting intra-personal relationships, expression and communication. Posturing is a set of three body activities, occurring for the Main action and just before as well as after it.


6 Apollo_11_mission_officials_relax_after_Apollo_11_liftoff_-_GPN-2002-000026.jpgThe preceding actions are preparatory to main action, to overcome the resistance, look for the sufficiency of space and clarity of direction for the range of movements to occur, look for the required supports and energize the body to gain the momentum and balance. Preparatory action also involves observing everything in the sensorial field, co-workers, tools, equipment and environment.

5 Yuet_Tung_China_Works,_a_craftsperson_at_work_(Hong_Kong)

The main action relates to the intended set of tasks. In case of regular work, the routines are defined as algorithms, so there are no surprises, but a new desk, chair or machine involves actual or mental trial-runs. These trials involve the nature of postures, range and reach of actions. After this, comes the main action, where first few routines are conscious ones, of being aware of the environment, space features and people. These may not require any exclusive postures, but gestures. In case of routine work this may not be very obvious phase.


600px-Hindu_women_bathing_in_the_Yamuna_river_before_worship_at_the_Birla_Temple,_Delhi_in_1946The concluding action of a task is the regaining the balance and allowing sufficient flow of body fluids to those limbs or body sections that will be used now. One may need temporary support till fluid balance is achieved. Usually concluding tasks, after the main action includes organizational efforts, such as house keeping, storing, cleaning, personal grooming, etc. These are intermediate tasks requiring short duration posturing. But as these are different routines from the main work, provide diversions that may not be liked by everyone.





POSTURES for Furniture Design -1

Post 250 – by Gautam Shah



Human body is a segmented system. Each of the segments has varied needs of stability, comfort and need for transition to other positions. Some human body positions are substantially formed by the individual limbs, but many others are operational in consonance with other limbs. Stability of the body depends upon the stability of the individual limbs and the state of composition of the limbs.


Gravity is the major force that affects the equilibrium of individual parts, and the body system as whole. Individual parts readjust to contribute the stability of the system, where for some reason their contribution fall short other segments augment that effort.



Human body manifests in many different ways. Position is a very nominal term for a composition effected by the segments of the human body. This is nominal static state, in consideration of stability, comfort and need for transition to other positions. The Posture is a purposive position attained intentionally, or a condition borne of habitual response to a situation. The Pose is a reflection of position or posture that expressly communicates or involuntarily conveys some form aesthetic intentions. A pose requires some degree of posturing, when several segments have to be manipulated and often beyond the stability of gravity balancing. Attitude is considered impressionistic posturing or posing. Intentional or not, it is used to express or imitate through learnt forms of behaviour. Attitude is seen as minor manifestation of posture and pose, but mainly through the gestures. Gestures convey messages, idea, information and attitudes, through movement of part of the body, especially hands, head, eyes and facial twitches. Postures encourage certain range of gestures.



Furniture Design is essentially about creating forms to support, encourage and sustain certain body positions. There could be several optional ways of doing it due to climate, culture, habit, social conditioning and racial differences in anthropometrics. So in this sense an item of furniture is as universal as human body is, and as diverse as the users are. The Furniture item as devised by trial and error and with intense design attitude, both have to foster a posture system. This posture system is then exploited by the user for posing, gesticulation and attitudinal purposes. Some of these aspects can be intentionally impressed in the design, through the symbolism of form, material usage and technological explorations.




Furniture designers deal with following Quarries in their field:

  • What is posture?
  • How does one acquire a posture, sustain it, relieve the tedium and transpose it with another posture?
  • Why do we take a posture?
  • How does gravity affect a posture?
  • To conduct an activity, would you really need the same type of posture in an environment without the gravity?
  • How would you differentiate between comfortable and non comfortable postures?
  • What causes discomfort in a posture?
  • What is the role of vascular circulation in posturing?
  • What is the role of accumulation of body fluids in postures?
  • What is the role of axial balance system of body in a posture?
  • What is the role of sensual perception vis a vis a posture?
  • What is the role of sensorial communication vis a vis a posture?
  • What is the role of metabolic activity in a posture?
  • What are yoga and exercise postures?
  • What are skeletal movements?
  • What are muscular movements?
  • If one had lower capacity to move the parts of body (old age, children, disabled people), would it affect the capacity for a posture?
  • If one had higher capacity to move the parts of body (sports people, circus artists), would it affect their capacity for a posture?
  • What are micro postures within a posture?
  • Why do we make micro variations within a posture?
  • What do postures express or communicate?





Post 193 –  by Gautam Shah



We, conduct tasks more efficiently, in certain positions or postures. To achieve, maintain or terminate (transit to another one) postures we normally do not need devices, but for some posturing certain devices and amenities are required. The capacity to change over to another posture and sustain it depends on the physiological structure of the body, deformities, age related in-capacities, motor (movement-flexibility) potential and response time etc. Body posture devices and amenities are primarily designed to make available maximum energy for the activity. The posture-devices could be support available from other beings. The efficiency of task performance is a direct function of the body posture achieved.


Posture for home work

Posture for home work

Wissam's Human Space Theory Personal space for posturing

Wissam’s Human Space Theory Personal space for posturing

We need to take different types of body postures for conducting various tasks. The posture could be defined as main position of the body for the task, and micro variations that may be required for conducting sub-tasks. Other micro variations include postures for relief and diversion.

Posture for contemplation Caspar_Netscher_-_Young_Girl_Holding_a_Letter_(detail)_-_WGA16521

Posture for contemplation >> Caspar Netscher Young Girl Holding a Letter

Devices related to postures include amenities that allow work in certain position and body configuration. Other devices extend the reach of human limbs, and thereby reduce the need for posturing. Posture devices are also used for correcting deformities and work deficiencies of the body. Understanding of Postures is very important in design of furniture, amenities, facilities, tools, gadgets and machines.


Different postures of participants >> An Experiment on a Bird in an Air Pump by Joseph Wright of Derby, 1768


Gravity is one of the most important factors to affect the postures and the need for posture related devices. Besides the conduction of a task, the postures are formed in consideration of the Environment such as for the heat exchange of the body and moisture control mechanisms. Postures must allow functioning of the important Biological routines such as breathing, metabolisms, fluid control, blood circulation, etc. Postures are taken primarily to conduct tasks, and also allow Sensorial perception. Posturing instinctively takes care of needs for Security and survival.

European Space Agency astronaut Frank De Winne, Expedition 21 commander, exercises on the Combined Operational Load Bearing External Resistance Treadmill (COLBERT) in the Harmony node of the International Space Station