Post 309 ⇒   by Gautam Shah 


First ever human endeavours of unprecedented size and complexity, such as construction of buildings, forts, cities, or palaces, civic facilities like aqueducts, bridges, gates, fighting wars and calamities, writing epics, creating works of art, all have been executed as projects. These projects require strategic planning, research, innovations, procuring and transporting the supplies, storage, human resources, tools and equipment’s deployment. Such projects often lasted for several generations, or were conducted by different people taking over the controls. The three important elements of conducting a project are, namely: Documentation, supervision and feedback system helped the ‘timeless’ continuity by managing the changed circumstances.

Hanging Gardens of Babylon



Historically large projects were initiated by the powerful coterie of rulers who could command large number of workers as believers or slaves. The armed forces were the most organised of groups, and were preferred executioners. Post 14th C Europe and India saw rise of business men, who patronized construction of large projects like palaces, temples, cathedrals. Early 19th C. saw emergence of different class of entrepreneurs who began to build very large Industrial units, warehouses, wharf and rail roads. These industrial age projects, in comparison to any other project in the history, were conceived, executed and made operational in a very compact time frame. The time compression necessitated new methods of project management. The building had to be an economic entity. The style was not shackled by architectural isms, materials or technology. The new breed of industrial project initiators, were joined by new Governments that were turning more democratic. The Government sponsored economic activities were constructions of bus and railway depots, ports, canals, dams, bridges and roads, etc. These Government projects were often designed executed and managed by private agencies.

Industrial plant

Panama Canal under construction 1907

Mexico Cathedral

Earlier Designers were Planners of the project, and to many extent were active participants in execution process. These allowed them to detail and improvise the project during the execution. But during Industrial evolution Projects were planned for production strategies, then designed (Buildings) and executed by different agencies, and ultimately made operational. These processes required new methods of project handling or management.

Ship Yard

Just before and during the world war II, it was necessary to ensure that production of war materials of all forms matched the anticipated demand, and was supplied to the right place at the right time. For this purpose new planning and forecasting methods were required. After the world war, these mathematics based planning methods developed into a new discipline known as OR -Operations Research. OR is a discipline concerned with the planning, assessment and control of operating systems, such as industrial production, commerce, etc. or virtually any human effort. Interest in the methods for design and logic of these systems, rather than in their operations, led to another subject, SE -Systems Engineering.

Decision making in design is covered by SE. Decision making in planning of the construction, execution, implementation, operations and the management thereof, is covered by OR. In reality these two disciplines overlap and merge into an overall systematic approach for Project Management.

As a discipline, Project Management has developed from several different fields such as building construction, mechanical engineering, military projects, etc. Two types of mathematical project scheduling models were developed.

Miami station

The PERT -Programme Evaluation and Review Technique was developed as part of the United States Navy’s (with Lockheed Corporation) for Polaris missile submarine programme, and the CPM -Critical Path Method was developed (jointly by DuPont Corporation and Remington Rand Corporation) for managing plant maintenance projects. Other such tools were like: work breakdown structure (WBS) and resource allocation methods.

By the 20th C. project managers began to (time) schedule productions for the rapidly changing markets (choices, technologies). In the 1950s and 1960s project planning methods for time management and cost control through inventory, warehousing, transportation management, were developed. Much of this development was based on the concept of determining a precedence relationship (that is, identifying which work activities must be completed before other work activities).

Gas-Oil Platform Bombay high seas

Business was facing challenges of more complex products and services, demands for better quality products, cost-conscious customers, faster development cycles, stiffer international competition. There was need for joint ventures to share risk and collaboration for leveraging the expertise. Project management was designed to help the business leaders do just that.

.Soyuz Space craft

Enormous projects are often called programmes, divisible into multiple projects. The projects, in turn, can be broken down into smaller sets of activities. These are further dissected into tasks, or work packages. Tasks are assignments for a person, equipment or a facility (department). Project management techniques are applied to planning and managing activities at all such levels.




Post 279 – by Gautam Shah



Organizations exploit both, the individual talents and traits of their employees. FIRST, persons with only required qualities are sought. SECOND, better compensations are offered for hiring specific qualities. THIRD, incentives are offered to individuals who show readiness to reformat their talents and traits. FOURTH, employees unable to convert are punished, or shifted out of the organization. Employees of the organization are motivated in different ways to modify or upgrade their expertise.


Beyond paying out incentives, organizations use Job assignment as the key method, to exploit the human resources. Organizations divide their projects, assignments etc. into manageable lots or jobs of various skill and resources-based specialities. These are then assigned to individuals or teams as distinct roles. Jobs are presented as an opportunity, challenge, and incentive to a person or a team.


Design creation processes have many stages such as project formulation, concept evolution, planning, detailing, job award processes, execution, client and consultant relationships. In very small offices few individuals take on many of these roles. In very large offices there could be several individuals or departments to handle these functions.

design process

A leader of the organization or project manager diverts a job from one to another person, to achieve diverse results. Jobs are assigned to remove the tedium of repetitions, or to provide new training or exposures. Jobs are also given out, to infuse new thoughts, work methods, and utilize different resources (plant, equipments, tools, talents). An organization becomes innovative and creative through such shifting of the personnel.

In design organizations personnel are identified in terms of their talent, and experience. In medium to large organizations common pools of human and other resources are formed. Project managers draw from such pools their requirements of human and other resources.

An organization is formed of employees of different talents and personality traits. These manifest in their attitude and conduct. A person may reflect multiple characteristics within a situation, or show a different personality if adequately motivated and conditioned.


Dream-weavers are prolific generators of ideas and new concepts, but lack the skill to detail them. The dream-weavers are mercurial and often have a fear of failure. A dream weaver must be an extrovert otherwise never gets acknowledged.

Technocrats have a talent of visualizing structured entities. For them an entity is conceivable, if it is structured and so practicable. Technocrats are fastidious, uncompromising, and hard-headed. A technocrat may get entwined in detailing the parts, and may lose the grasp of the holistic scheme.

Exponents enjoy advocating ideas or schemes, without bothering either its authorship or practicability. They feel that the public attention received through the advocacy is the measure of their skill and success.

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Patrons are not necessarily resourceful people, but are ready to support any new activity that takes them away from their routine chores, provides a novel experience, and keeps them busy. A person may become a sponsor by virtue of the position and powers to allocate resources. Such people are motivated by strategic gains through various sponsorships.

Arrangers are expert manipulators, and keenly look for a chance to jump into any difficult situation to manage it. As a risk taker they collect a lot of benefits, and very fast.

Orthodox are very over careful by personality. Their conservatism is due to a struggle less life or due to old age lethargy. They detest change, but if instrumental of causing even minor innovation, take a great pride.



Post 201 –by Gautam Shah


Stages in Project Planning over a period Louvre Palace Wikipedia


Projects evolve out of circumstances such as: Capital to invest, Land or property requiring a higher return, Experience, or Aspiration to venture out. A person (the ‘client’) often comprehends the potential, when familiar with such circumstances of the project. But the same person, however, finds it extremely difficult to formulate and manage a project (planning + execution + operation aspects of it). Services of experts are required to structure a project.


New projects more often than not, evolve from the investment vs return studies by a financial expert, who also identifies other resources required for the project. Projects involving building of physical assets cannot be formulated or detailed by a financial expert. Such projects require multi disciplinary engineering contribution of technocrats. Project definition exercises are prompted by the client.

Projects Planning


Project consultants are multi disciplinary experts, and have the capacity to check the feasibility and viability of a project from many different considerations. Project consultants, though detail the project more intensively, in areas familiar to their domain.


Clients sometimes have good comprehension of routine projects, and may directly retain a Design professional. A designer is then required to formulate the project. A good designer must have the multi disciplinary capacity to judge the scale, scope and technicalities of a project, often even before a formal design-scheme can occur. Such proficiency equips a designer to deal with larger and complex situations in future.


Project consultants, define agencies that can design, supply, fabricate and operate various systems of a project. They specify the nature of various professional services required, modalities for selecting appropriate experts, and create outline for individual assignments. Project consultants, if authorized by their clients may even supervise and coordinate the agencies through the planning, design, construction, and operations phases.


Project definition exercise starts with formation of a Project’s facts file. It is developed further as a -Project report or Project profile report, and ends as an evaluation of the completed project a -Historic report. The project definition work at all levels is carried out by the same expert, or on each occasion, a new set of experts are called in.



A project consultant (financial, technocrat, or designer) compiles a file, stating all the facts of the project. The project’s facts file, to be intelligible to a wider section of users like, non-experts, clients etc., is intentionally made very simple. It is concise, though may contain few graphical views or charts. A Multimedia presentation of it is also made to achieve different purposes such as to put forth the nature of the project, entice a client, demonstrate design professionals’ competence to handle such jobs, convince the sanctioning authorities, procure resources, etc.


ProjectAll design parameters, concepts, etc. start from this facts-file. Once a project is approved, the original creator of the facts file may not have any role, and someone else is asked to create a detailed project report or project profile report.






Organizations get assignments from both, internal and external clients. Large and complex assignments that require distinctive effort are also called Projects. Projects consist of smaller units or jobs that require routine efforts.

Every organization develops its own methods of project handling. A Project is led by a core group of experts or a team leader. In Consultancy Organizations each project requires distinctive human skills. In Manufacturing organizations there is a heavy dependence on tools, equipment and plants, so the jobs are defined for their efficient use. Service organizations are governed by time as the key element, so their jobs are set in time modules.


A Job is a trade, skill or schedule specific work-module. It allows individualised attention and effective use of the available resources. Its efficiency of execution or operation can be examined and upgraded independently of other jobs. Jobs are handled on continuous as well as batch bases.


Organizations that repeatedly handle very large and complex assignments develop specific departments. Such specific job handling capacities are universal across that class of organizations. So spare capacities are offered to others, and excess work is outsourced. Jobs of routine nature are handled productively within the organization, but novel needs are better outsourced.


Other activities of the organizations

Prime activity of any organization is to earn a gain, but simultaneously many Conventional activities also occur within the organization.


● Conventional activities that sustain the organization as a functional entity.

1.1 Determination and Evaluation of aims, policies, goals

1.2 Planning and deployment of financial resources

1.3 Planning and Acquisition of other facilities

1.4 Procurement and Upkeep of assets

1.5 Personnel Management.


● Peripheral activities that add to the advantages for the organization.

2.1 Public relations

2.2 Client relations

2.3 Other relations (contractors, suppliers, co-professionals, associates, consultants, free lancers, etc.)

2.4 Facilitating the execution of assignments (raw material procurement, materials handling, erection, execution, manufacturing processes, testing)

2.5 Tasks’ evaluation (quality controls, testing, certification)

2.6 Marketing (goods, services), billing, money collection

2.7 Servicing (post execution or delivery, servicing, maintenance).


● Efficiency and productivity of the organization.

3.1 Determination and definition of procedures

3.2 Standardization of inputs, outputs and procedures

3.3 Information collection, Inquisitions, investigations and surveys,

3.4 Installation and management of information storage, manipulation and retrieval devices

3.5 Publications and dissemination of organization’s output (data, concepts, ideas) material.


Elements of Jobs or Projects in Organizations


Design organizations operate with assignments, which have Six basic elements:

1 Person/ s who: assign the task, determine roles, perform the tasks, oversee or supervise the task performers.

2 Task body: physical things like: parts, objects, raw materials, etc., and non physical things like: concepts, ideas, themes, etc.

3 Information, data: external inputs: from clients, organization’s own search, and internal inputs: from archived data, evaluations, judgments, from employees’ knowhow, site reports, feedback, by manipulation of various inputs.

4 Tools, plants, equipments Space, location facilities, methodology, formulations, processes, schedules, acquisition, replacement.

5 Services conveyance, communication, storage, data management, welfare, resources management, public relations, goodwill creation, information dissemination.

6 Time Schedules of delivery, servicing, rate of operation, rate of returns.



Post  -by Gautam Shah



Each Design Project is set in a different context. In each of the case, Clients, Location, Conditions of work, Design professionals’ Needs and Compulsions are different. A new project by seasoned professional will be handled with wider experience and maturity then the past one, so charged with slightly a higher fee. Whereas a young professional, on the other hand brings in freshness of new and modern ideas, and for that reason may demand a higher price.


Yet a professional seeks following answers while determining a Right Fees:

# Is one aiming at a reasonable profit?

# Is one striving for a high return to manage a high risk situation?

# Is one striving for a high return for the rare contribution?

# Is one trying to break-even -no loss no profit situation?

# Is one seeking to avoid or provide for residual liabilities?

# Is one looking for hypothetical – future benefit?

# Is one bartering an advantage?



Professional always face such dilemmas. The reasons could be many: Unknown project, too familiar (repeat) a project, too busy, unsuitable location, lack of resources (staff, equipment, finance), too small or too large a project, non profitable, a doubtful client, etc.

A professional first raises following questions:

          a.       If the project is taken, then. What would be the gains / loses?

          b.       If the project is not taken,then. What would be the gains / loses?


Design fees

The second question may seem absurd, how can one make a profit or loss, by not doing a job?

For a busy professional an odd project will require reorientation of the firm’s working, additional investments in plant, equipment, retraining or hiring of extra employees, slowing down some current assignments, etc. In such a situation, not taking on an additional project is advisable, unless gains are unusual in quality and quantity.


On the other hand a normal project with reasonable gain prospects can be carried through the firm, if it fits within the working style, specialization, employees’ capacity etc.