PERSONAL AND BUILDING SAFETY –a List + Links to Blogs

Post 658 -by Gautam Shah

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Detectable_Warnings

ANTI-LIGATURE –Issues for Design -8 https://interiordesignassist.wordpress.com/2016/06/28/anti-ligature-issues-for-design-8/

ANTI-LIGATURE https://interiordesignassist.wordpress.com/2014/04/04/anti-ligature/

SAFETY ASPECTS of DESIGN https://interiordesignassist.wordpress.com/2016/04/15/safety-aspects-of-design/

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SECURITY in BUILDINGS https://interiordesignassist.wordpress.com/2015/01/05/security-in-buildings/

DOOR SECURITY https://interiordesignassist.wordpress.com/2014/07/13/door-security/

SPACE PLANNING and NON VISUAL CUES https://interiordesignassist.wordpress.com/2015/04/17/space-planning-and-non-visual-cues/

MANAGING the RISKS https://interiordesignassist.wordpress.com/2014/11/03/managing-the-risks/ 

Risk on Brinks

DE-WINDOWING http://talking-interior-design.blogspot.in/2016/11/de-windowing.html

FENCES https://interiordesignassist.wordpress.com/2014/08/28/fences/

GUARD RAILS https://interiordesignassist.wordpress.com/2015/04/08/guardrails/

COMPONENTS of RAILINGS https://interiordesignassist.wordpress.com/2015/05/04/components-of-railings/

RAILINGS AND PARAPETS https://interiordesignassist.wordpress.com/2015/01/12/railings-and-parapets/

GRILLS https://interiordesignassist.wordpress.com/2014/09/30/grills/

TYPES of BARRIERS https://interiordesignassist.wordpress.com/2016/01/07/types-of-barriers/

MANAGING the RISKS https://interiordesignassist.wordpress.com/2014/11/03/managing-the-risks/

ECONOMICS of RISKS https://interiordesignassist.wordpress.com/2014/11/10/economics-of-risks/

Door of a traditional Indian House

Sheth ni Pol Ahmedabad --a gated community

City Gate Prem Darwaja Ahmedabad

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ANTI-LIGATURE –Issues for Design -8

Post 614 –by Gautam Shah

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Anti-ligature products and processes are mainly used to stop someone from doing a hazardous act by tying, fastening or binding to something. It is a provision that discourages self harm or suicidal tendencies of a person under stress or with mental disorder. Anti-ligature means prevent people from causing self harm by attaching ligature to door handles, locks, grills, light fixtures, etc.

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Pediatric patient bed > Wikipedia image by Binodkpn

Abuses, of ‘self-harming’ nature occur with persons who may be ‘using it as a coping mechanism to relieve emotional pain or discomfort, or as an attempt to communicate distress’. Places where such ‘self-harm’ occurs, include homes, schools, care-homes, detention centres, prisons, hospitals and juvenile offenders’ remand homes. The means include using architectural components, hardware, clothes, adornments, ropes or linear elements for strangulation, cause cuts with sharp edges, jumping off a precipice (height related dangers), electrocution and drowning.

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Prison cell amenities > Flickr image by Global Panorama

Anti-Ligature is rather an unusual term. Ligature derives from Latin ligatura, from ligare = ‘to tie‘. A dictionary defines Ligature as:

  • a thing used for tying something tightly.
  • a cord used in surgery, especially to tie up a bleeding artery.
  • in music a slur or tie.
  • in printing a character consisting of two or more joined letters.

A ligature is defined as a ‘thing used for tying something with a cord‘ Cords of silk, gut, wire, or other materials have been used as tourniquet to control venous and arterial circulation for a very brief period of time. During surgery the blood flow is also stopped by pressure blocking the cut ends of arteries. (In surgical procedures minor bleeding nodes are also hot pinched -by burning the tissue, through a cautery –cauterization).

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Child-proof fence > Wikipedia image by I,Tony Wills

Anti-ligature Design is implemented for safety and security in jails, mental asylums, hospitals, children’s areas. Anti-ligature design is used for public spaces to prevent malicious damage to the property. It is used with reference to furniture, furnishings, utilities, facilities and amenities. Malicious use of architectural components, street utilities and furniture, public transport facilities, is a concern for all designers. The public misuse occurs with many intentions like: to misuse the elements, vent-out dissatisfactions through anger, use the extra ordinary reserve energies, occupy time in some activity or draw attention through behaviour. This is phenomenon common to both, developed and developing countries.

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Signage at Burra Bazar (Harrison st) and Strand road Calcutta India > Wikipedia image by Clyde Waddell

Anti-ligature is also increasingly used for ‘anti-vandalism’. Anti-vandalism strategies are required to prevent wilful or malicious destruction caused by removal or destruction of units or components from public or private property such as parks, bus stations, road sides or schools etc. Anti-ligature technology makes such entities no-removable.

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Knocked over dummy newspaper vendor in Munich > Wikipedia image by LepoRello

The acts of willful destruction of private and public facilities and amenities are also abuses. These are not intended for self-harm but physical changes, removal or destruction to parts and components at places such as parks, bus stations, road sides or schools etc. Anti-vandalism strategies are required to make such entities fixed (non -removable), temper-proof and non alterable.

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Water colour ART by John Orlando Parry ‘A London street scene 1835’ Wikipedia image

An anti-ligature product or a strategy is one that prevents a ligature from staying secure. The primary function of anti-ligature furniture is to deny anyone from using it as a means from which to attach anything, break it down to sharp-pointed edges, climb over to cause height related hazards, or inflict the parts on others.

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Wikipedia image through National Archives and Records Administration 548273

The design strategies for anti-ligature and anti-vandalism are to form a product of single material or through substantial synthesis of sub-items. The assembly joints and fixing zones are concealed or made inaccessible. Materials are non strippable, tear-able, breakable, or one can be cut or chipped off. Design elements like sharp corners or edges, apertures, punctures, grooved joints are avoided. Components that require different textures for visually hindered or for holding grips are created from (by way of embossing, engraving, etc.) the same body-material, while avoiding any applique treatments. Other methods of anti-ligature and anti-vandalism design include by removing access to harmful or harm-worthy items beyond reach. Mono colour and single texture items are less apparent and so less likely to attract attention.

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This is the 8 th article of 20 topics series on ISSUES for DESIGN

DOOR SECURITY

Post by Gautam Shah

A door is a prime target for an intruder for two reasons: a door is the entrance to a building, so a break-in here equals, to capturing the building. The door (entrance, back or any other exterior) is a node where other interior openings (of rooms, stairs etc.) verge, and for the intruder it becomes easier to spread out from here. However, buildings have many other ‘softer’ points for easier intrusion, like windows, thin walls, weak roofing, etc.

Ruin Dilapidated Building Decay Lapsed Old Home

Door security also relates to integrity of the door against high speed winds, rain storms, birds and insects, etc. Security also relates, to forcing an entry to save lives. A very strong door that is virtually unbreakable or impenetrable can pose equally a major problem in case of a disaster. Similarly a toughened glass door is difficult to break out or in during fire or accident.

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There is a tendency to caution the users for the security risks and hazards a door system could have, through signs, signage and other forms of alarm systems. But it is always ‘better to reduce the risks, do away with the hazards through design than warnings’.

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The strength of a door system derives from: its location, size, composition, materials of construction, the support framing and the nature of basic hardware and additional safety appendages.

Doors Street Old Brazil Center Santos

Security perception of a door varies from one situation to another. A door visible from a street, such as set flush with the wall surface is less a security risk than the one set back in a niche. Doors supported on all sides such as the hatch doors are stronger then supported on one or two sides like the sliding doors. Doors opening both ways are stopped by the hardware and are poorly secured such as the pivoted doors. A door of ordinary glass if breakable is a security risk, but being a see-through element in a well-illuminated environment may forestall break-ins. An intruder prejudges the entry but also remains fearful that someone can see from the outside. Malls, stores have glass doors to make the interiors visible and so safe. Fewer doors make a building safer, but adequate emergency exits must be provided.

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Door security is now considered in more in holistic terms. A well planned and managed community provides better security then the lonely but strongest door system. Electronic and other surveillance systems can eliminate the need for heavy doors.

Community Security

Gated Communities have common security systems 

 

Community surveillance systems: Where a community or a building is safe, its sub units (offices, residences, etc.) may not require strong individual security arrangements. Community security system consists of organizing units of a building and sub units within each zone as a domain or bastion with single entry. Several buildings within a community form a precinct, though not bounded by walls but one that can be patrolled circumferentially. Many colonies discourage erection of high and opaque compound walls or hedges, so that individual units remain visible by other members. Yet in case of a complete blackout or during riots some form of security surveillance is necessary.

Community Surveillance

Integrated security surveillance systems solve many of the individual security issues. It works on observation of oddities, recording it for post analysis, warnings, activating the multiple precautionary measures (cutting of exists, power cuts, sprinklers, etc.) Such security systems are part of both the door and the opening system, or even spread across a building. An integrated security system is not an appended system but rather designed and compounded with the building’s structure and functions as a unified method of building management. The system to be successful requires coordinated working of many different agencies. An individual user cannot hope to install and operate such a system, but must contract out such a service.

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ANTI-LIGATURE

Anti-ligature 

Ligature derives from Latin ligatura, from ligare = ‘to tie‘.

A dictionary defines Ligature as

  1. a thing used for tying something tightly.
  2. a cord used in surgery, especially to tie up a bleeding artery.
  3. Music a slur or tie.
  4. Printing a character consisting of two or more joined letters.

 

Anti-Ligature is rather an unusual term. It is used with reference to furniture, furnishings, utilities, facilities and amenities. Anti ligature products and processes are mainly used to hamper someone from doing a hazardous act by tying, fastening or binding to something. It is a provision that discourages self harm or suicidal tendencies of a person under stress or with mental disorder. Anti-ligature means prevent people from causing self harm by attaching ligature to door handles, locks, grills, light fixtures, etc. Anti-ligature is also increasingly used for ‘anti-vandalism’. Anti-vandalism strategies are required to prevent wilful or malicious destruction caused by removal or destruction of units or components from public or private property such as parks, bus stations, road sides or schools etc. Anti-ligature technology makes such entities no-removable. Continue reading