LIST of BLOGS on LACQUERS, PAINTS and THINNERS

Post 499  by Gautam Shah

1 UNDERSTANDING LACQUERS

https://interiordesignassist.wordpress.com/2015/08/16/understanding-lacquers/

2 LACQUERS or NC LACQUERS

https://interiordesignassist.wordpress.com/2014/04/27/lacquers-or-nc-lacquers/

3 SOLVENTS for THINNERS

https://interiordesignassist.wordpress.com/2015/08/09/solvents-for-thinners/

4 WOOD SURFACE FINISHING

https://interiordesignassist.wordpress.com/2015/07/13/wood-surface-finishing/

5 PAINT THINNERS Part 2

https://interiordesignassist.wordpress.com/2015/05/14/paint-thinners-part-2/

6 PAINT THINNERS Part 1

https://interiordesignassist.wordpress.com/2015/05/08/paint-thinners-1/

7 ROSEWOOD

https://interiordesignassist.wordpress.com/2015/03/26/rosewood/

8 INDUSTRIAL PAINT FINISHES

https://interiordesignassist.wordpress.com/2015/03/07/industrial-paint-finishes/

9 APPLICATION of COATINGS

https://interiordesignassist.wordpress.com/2015/01/09/application-of-coatings/

10 COATINGS -Surface finishing technologies

https://interiordesignassist.wordpress.com/2014/11/08/coatings-surface-finishing-technologies/

11 CLEAR COATINGS

https://interiordesignassist.wordpress.com/2014/09/12/clear-coatings/

12 FILM FORMING PROCESS in COATINGS

https://interiordesignassist.wordpress.com/2014/09/03/film-forming-process-in-coatings/

13 WOOD SURFACE PREPARATIONS for CLEAR COATINGS

https://interiordesignassist.wordpress.com/2014/04/28/wood-surface-preparations-for-clear-coatings/

14 SHELLAC COATINGS and FRENCH POLISHES

https://interiordesignassist.wordpress.com/2014/04/26/shellac-coatings-and-french-polishes/

15 VARNISH

https://interiordesignassist.wordpress.com/2014/04/25/varnish/

16 MULTI COATS of PAINT SYSTEMS

http://talking-interior-design.blogspot.in/2014/03/multi-coats-of-paint-systems.html

17 WOOD FINISHES

http://talking-interior-design.blogspot.in/2014/07/wood-finishes.html

18 CLEAR COATINGS

http://talking-interior-design.blogspot.in/2015/03/clear-coatings.html

19 CEMENT SURFACE FINISHES

http://talking-interior-design.blogspot.in/2015/06/cement-surface-finishes.html

20 CRAFT of WALL PAINTING (Neolithic)

http://talking-interior-design.blogspot.in/2014/02/the-craft-of-wall-painting-neolithic.html

21 CRAFT of WALL PAINTING (Palaeolithic)

http://talking-interior-design.blogspot.in/2014/01/the-craft-of-wall-painting-palaeolithic.html

22 COATINGS

http://talking-interior-design.blogspot.in/2013/09/coatings.html

23 COATINGS Iron age

http://talking-interior-design.blogspot.in/2013/09/coatings-iron-age.html

24 PRIMITIVE COATINGS Surfaces, Materials and Techniques

http://talking-interior-design.blogspot.in/2013/09/primitive-coatings-surfaces-materials.html

25 LIME-WASH

https://interiordesignassist.wordpress.com/2014/06/01/lime-wash/

26 PAINTING WHITE – 1

https://interiordesignassist.wordpress.com/2015/07/27/painting-white-1/

27 PAINTING WHITE – 2

https://interiordesignassist.wordpress.com/2015/07/29/painting-white-2/

28 BLACK Part – 1

https://interiordesignassist.wordpress.com/2015/08/07/black-part-i/

29 COLOURANTS DYES and PIGMENTS

https://interiordesignassist.wordpress.com/2014/07/15/colourants-dyes-and-pigments/

30 RED Colours of ancient times

https://interiordesignassist.wordpress.com/2015/05/22/red-colours-of-ancient-times/

31 ART COATINGS

https://interiordesignassist.wordpress.com/2015/05/25/art-coatings/

32 PRIMITIVE COATINGS # 1

https://interiordesignassist.wordpress.com/2015/05/03/primitive-coatings-1/

33 NATURAL IRON OXIDE PIGMENTS 4 # SIENNA and UMBER

https://interiordesignassist.wordpress.com/2015/05/01/natural-iron-oxide-pigments-4-sienna-and-umber/

34 NATURAL IRON OXIDE PIGMENTS -3 # Ochers

https://interiordesignassist.wordpress.com/2015/04/28/natural-iron-oxide-pigments-3-ochers/

35 NATURAL IRON OXIDE PIGMENTS – 2 # Red Oxides

https://interiordesignassist.wordpress.com/2015/04/27/natural-iron-oxide-pigments-2-red-oxides/

36 FLOOR PAINTS

https://interiordesignassist.wordpress.com/2015/03/21/floor-paints/

37 ARCHITECTURAL COATINGS -beginnings of OIL PAINTS

https://interiordesignassist.wordpress.com/2015/02/15/architectural-coatings-beginnings-of-oil-paints/

38 SURFACE PREPARATIONS

https://interiordesignassist.wordpress.com/2014/09/26/surface-preparations/

39 WHITE PIGMENTS

https://interiordesignassist.wordpress.com/2014/08/05/white-pigments/

40 CEMENT PAINTS

https://interiordesignassist.wordpress.com/2014/07/09/cement-paints/

41 OIL BOUND DISTEMPERS -OBD

https://interiordesignassist.wordpress.com/2014/07/03/oil-bound-distempers-obd/

42 CEMENT FINISHES part 2

https://interiordesignassist.wordpress.com/2014/06/27/cement-finishes-part-2/

43 DRY DISTEMPER or CALCIMINE

https://interiordesignassist.wordpress.com/2014/06/03/dry-distemper-or-calcimine/

44 ECOLOGY and COATINGS

https://interiordesignassist.wordpress.com/2015/03/09/ecology-and-coatings/

45 ENCAUSTIC PAINTING

https://interiordesignassist.wordpress.com/2014/06/06/encaustic-painting/

46 COLOURS and BUILDINGS

https://interiordesignassist.wordpress.com/2015/01/20/colours-and-buildings/

47 GLOSS

https://interiordesignassist.wordpress.com/2014/09/20/gloss/

48 COMPOSITION of COATING

https://interiordesignassist.wordpress.com/2014/07/29/composition-of-a-coating-3/

49 COLOURED GLASS

https://interiordesignassist.wordpress.com/2014/08/03/coloured-glass/

50 GRISAILLE -monochrome form of presentation

https://interiordesignassist.wordpress.com/2014/07/28/grisaille-monochrome-form-of-presentation/

51 WATER COLOURS

https://interiordesignassist.wordpress.com/2014/07/10/water-colours/

52 FRESCO PAINTINGS

https://interiordesignassist.wordpress.com/2014/06/24/fresco-paintings/

53 PRIMER COATINGS

https://interiordesignassist.wordpress.com/2015/06/07/primer-coatings/

54 SINGLE or MULTI COAT SYSTEMS

https://interiordesignassist.wordpress.com/2015/05/30/single-or-multi-coat-systems/

55 BRUSHES

https://interiordesignassist.wordpress.com/2015/03/29/brushes/

56 ENAMELS

https://interiordesignassist.wordpress.com/2015/02/18/enamels/

57 TEMPERA

https://interiordesignassist.wordpress.com/2015/01/24/tempera/

58 GP -General purpose paints

https://interiordesignassist.wordpress.com/2014/08/26/gp-general-purpose-paints/

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UNDERSTANDING LACQUERS

Post 498 –by Gautam Shah

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Cosmetic Box

In early 1920 Lacquers were considered industrial coatings, mainly used by White-goods and Automotive industry. Earlier to this period a Lac or Shellac coatings were wood craft finishing techniques and material. Industrial age lacquers were favoured due to their fast drying and non-yellowing properties. Clear Lacquers were increasingly replacing tin as MS sheet coating for food packing but were found suitable for aluminium sheets packing such as collapsible tubes and canisters. Lacquers were also used for the nail polishes and as hair fixing sprays. These lacquers as the name suggests were not made of natural Lac or shellac but from Nitro Cellulose. The lacquers needed thinners of various types for different application technologies and seasons.

Lacquer Paint Pic from Wikipedia by Author Victorgrigas

Oil paints based on Alkyd resins or GP Enamels need thinner of single solvent material such as Genuine turpentine, Mineral turpentine and in few instance Naphtha or superior grades of kerosene would work. These solvents singly can work for all application needs and for cleaning-washing post-painting work. With alkyd-based paints, a resin is the film-forming component. It is reduced in viscosity during the manufacturing and later during application. The requirements of solvent-s differ according to ‘length of the resin’ (which designates the proportion of oil versus other modifying-polymerizing agents, such as typically a phthalic anhydride). Short-oil length resins may require stronger solvents. A solvent that dilutes the viscosity alone may not achieve application level of viscosity. Some type carrier or diluent solvents are required which acting as a ‘carrier’ material help achieves application level (such as spraying) viscosity. The carrier solvents evaporate fast before the chain linking (and so film forming-drying) process starts at ambient temperature, raised or baking temperature or through a catalyst enabled reaction.

Wood Brushing Lacquer Pic from Wikipedia Pic by Author Mk2010

The word Lacquer has become a misnomer. A Lacquer in nominal usage means a coating system that is fast drying, tougher and non-yellowing. All lacquers, however, are not NC (nitro-cellulose) lacquers. Other Lacquer coating systems formulations are based on Acrylic resins, Amino resins, Urethane and epoxy systems. NC lacquer dries with evaporation of solvents, at ambient temperature or often in warm chambers. Other formulations require baking-stoving environments or have two-pack system (a catalyst and paint mixed just before application). A NC lacquer film can be wetted-dissolved after drying (such as Nail-polishes of pre 1965 era) by a thinner, and are called ‘non-convertible systems’ (product that does not get chemically converted into something else). But newer generation-lacquers cannot be dissolved or removed easily after drying, and are called ‘convertible systems’ (product that gets chemically converted into something different).

Box Lacquered

Lacquer Nail Polish Pic through Wikipedia -Source http://www.flickr.com/photos/zitona/4733601645/ by Author » Zitona «

All types of Lacquers, convertible or non-convertible products require very specific type of thinner. A company that formulates the paint system, for reasons of Patent knowledge, may not reveal the exact formulation. So it is very necessary to use the thinner specified by the manufacturer. A thinner is a combination of different solvents. There are two important considerations, action of dissolving and diluting (acting as a carrier), and evaporation rates of the solvents. A Lacquer system may need as much as 75% or more thinners for spray like application. But after the deposition on the surface, it does not require such low viscosity. So some solvents (usually diluent or carrier) begin to evaporate very quickly. Some other slower evaporating solvents, allow time for film to level out.

640px-Hair-Spray-Painting-6415.jpg

Lacquer coated Brass

A lacquer-thinner is a combination of solvents of basic Five groups. First group consists of latent solvents like Toluene, xylene and naphtha. The other three groups are of active solvents such as, ketones, esters, glycol ethers. Alcohol, though a latent solvent, in combination with other solvents plays an active role.

Lacquer thinners are affected by the weather and process of application. A normal thinner works for average temperature-moisture conditions. For very wet, windy weather and for brushing or manual polishing with a cloth bundle, reduced the rate of evaporation achieved by adding or using a ‘retarder thinner’. For spray like application, an accelerated rate of drying is possible and for this accelerator or fast lacquer thinners are used. Spray applications require more and faster drying thinner compared to wood lacquers that require less and slow drying thinner.

Channapatna-toys

1280px-Sankheda_furnitureChairs_of_3_piece_set

Shellac finishes were the first true clear coatings. Shellac is an insect exudate known as stick lac. Stick-Lac is refined to remove impurities and lighten its colour. Button-Lac is a manually purified is of darker colour, while machine purified shellac is often dewaxed and de-colourized. Shellac is soluble in methylated spirit or alcohols. Sankheda furniture and Chinese lacquer items are examples of shellac coatings. Shellac is a very effective coating material even in very thin viscosity, as a result its penetration and filling capacity is excellent. It is eminently recoatable so a very level and glossy surface is possible.

640px-Burmese_lacquerware.JPG

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SOLVENTS for THINNERS

Post 492  by Gautam Shah

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Thinners are combination of ‘solvents’ whereas a solvent is single liquid material. Thinners and solvents are used for many purposes. These can be categorized in roughly THREE categories: 1 as a solvent for reducing the viscosity, 2 as a diluent an intermediating agent, and 3 as a non active carrier agent.

As a viscosity reduction agent it is used with resins, coating materials, adhesives, etc. As a diluent it is used as an extender medium in thinners to extend thereby reduce the cost of costly solvents. As non active material it is used with pesticides, chemicals to achieve greater spread. Some solvents of very low boiling point temperature are used as carrier for sprays etc. Thinners or solvents are used for cleaning surfaces such as restoration of artwork, removal of oil-grease deposits, removal of moisture from very thin crevices such as electronic circuits.

Distillation of crude oil at different temperatures

One of the earliest needs for a solvent was to reduce the viscosity of wax without warming it with heat. Wax was one of the best and easily available waterproofing material, but required heat for softening, a highly dangerous fire prone processes. Similar problems were encountered while thinning vegetable oils, tallow and other fats. These issues were solved with some of the earliest solvent materials the turpentine and the spirits (crude ethanol-based products from fermentation-distillation processes). Turpentine has been known as: spirit of turpentine, natural turpentine, genuine turpentine, oil of turpentine, wood turpentine and turps.

Oil_of_turpentine

Turpentine is a steam distillation product from leaves of pine trees which also yields gum turpentine, turpentine oil and colophony (rosin). All these products have been used by artist for artwork and by crafts persons. The primary use of turpentine has been as a solvent for paints. During last century menthol and camphor were produced for turpentine, of this camphor was used for early Nitro-cellulose lacquer (NC Lacquer). Artists preferred distilled Turpentine as paint medium as it was more viscous than white spirit, and for being slow to evaporate. The later property was useful for ‘touching’ the colours, and keep it alive (green or wet) for longer duration. Residues or trace gum rosin in Turpentine prevents fast drying of film and keeps it tacky for along time.

White_spirit

During the last century Genuine Turpentine has been replaced by Mineral Turpentine. Mineral Turpentine is petroleum distillate and is also known as white spirit, petroleum spirits, solvent naphtha. It is a very efficient solvent for oil and alkyd-based paints and varnishes. It is as low cost as Kerosene and so used for cleaning oil-grease from engineering products and other dry-cleaning (non-water cleaning of garments, wools) purposes. Turpentine has very little or no odour, so for paint thinner of domestic use, little terpene oil or genuine turpentine is added as a flavouring agent.

ethanol1Alcohol is produced through fermentation-distillation. The resultant product is Ethyl alcohol (Ethanol). The word Ethyl derives from French word ether, meaning a substance that evaporates fast at room temperature. Alcoholic drinks through fermentation of grapes, berries, honey and rice were produced since 7000 BC. Spirit or ethanol was used to dissolve plant gums. Ethanol is miscible with water and its presence reduces the surface tension of water. Pure ethanol is misused for consumption, so many countries have made it compulsory to denature it adding 5% or more methanol. This is also called methylated spirit. Denatured spirits are used for dissolving gums and shellac to formulate ‘French Polish’ and Lac and rosinated Varnishes. It is also used as cleaning agent.

Kerosene is chiefly used as a fuel. There are commercial and superior grades available. It has very strong solvent properties. In far off regions where Mineral turpentine is not available, Kerosene is used as oil paint solvent.

Naphtha sold as Camp-fuel

Naphtha is a flammable liquid mixture consisting of hydrocarbons, and it is very similar to kerosene or gasoline. It is a feed material for fertilizer and chemical plants. It is used for cleaning(flushing out) petroleum product tankers and as a tool machine cleaning solvent.

Gasoline is basically a fuel product, but is used for removing grease, tars and waxes from tools, parts and equipments. It is not used for paints.

Water is universal solvent. Water was used for water-based coatings produced from gums, casein, egg-whites etc. and with cementious compounds like lime, gypsum, etc. Water emulsified, polymer paints are able to meet the ecological concerns for VOC (Volatile organic compounds are organic chemicals that has a high vapour pressure at ordinary room temperature).

Acetone

Acetone is a simplest ketone and called mother of solvents. It is colourless and flammable liquid utilized as an important constituent of lacquer thinner, nail polish remover and grease-oil cleansing. In restoration and conservation practices acetone is often used to clean dirt, soot and grime and old varnishes from paintings and furniture.

Olivia Boteler Porter before and after restoration – removal of yellowing due to dirt and ageing

Methyl ethyl ketone (MEK) is an industrial solvent which is easily miscible with water. It is used as thinner solvent and as a remover-softener of stubborn paints.

Carbon tetra-chloride fire extinguisher 1930

Carbon tetra-chloride is also known as tetrachloromethane, carbon tet (cleaning industry), Halon-104 (firefighting) and Refrigerant-10 (HVACR). It was very popular cleaning agent for amateur electronics people. It is a colourless liquid with a sweet smell detectable at low levels. It is no longer preferred as a solvent or cleaning fluid.

 Sistine Chapel, the prophet Daniel before and after Restoration

>> A decision was made that all of the shadowy layer of animal glue and “lamp black”, all of the wax, and all of the over-painted areas were contamination of one sort or another: smoke deposits, earlier restoration attempts, and painted definition by later restorers in an attempt to enliven the appearance of the work. Based on this decision, according to Arguimbau’s critical reading of the restoration data that have been provided, the chemists of the restoration team decided upon a SOLVENT that would effectively STRIP the ceiling down to its paint-impregnated plaster.

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PAINT THINNERS – Part 2

PAINT THINNERS – Part 2

Post 423 ⇒   by Gautam Shah 

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A Paint Thinner nominally changes a material’s solid phase into a liquid phase and heavier liquid into low viscosity liquid. Thinners act by dissolving, suspending the solids and by intervening into viscous liquids.

Paints, Thinners

A thinner is a mix of different solvents that act as a thinning compound, suspending agent and a diluting material. A thinner is also conceived as accelerator or retarder of film formation of a coating. Thinners are used for cleaning of lubricants, machine cutting fluids, coolant materials, greases, waxes, etc. Thinners are used as stripping agent of dry or wet coatings (paint remover). A thinner sometimes may not strip a film of coating, but softens by affecting some of the constituents (through wetting, etching, etc.) of the film. Rest of the stripping act is accomplished with other chemicals, heat softening, singeing, mechanical stripping, scrapping or grinding.

Benzene

Viscosity of a coating medium can be adjusted by including a low viscosity medium into a high viscosity material or by solvents and diluents. Solvents dissolve by entering the inter-molecular space and changing the intermolecular forces. Diluents by themselves do not enter the inter-molecular spaces but extend the action of a solvent as a liquid to liquid-phase. Often in a multi medium formulation ‘one material that acts as a solvent, to a particular medium, may act as a diluent for the other medium’.

Air brush spray nozzle

Solvents and diluents both increase the fluidity of a coating medium. The fluidity of a coating medium is important for applications (spray, brush, etc.), flow or levelling properties, nature of drying and ‘curing’ of the film. Very high fluidity may not mean very low viscosity. Very thinned down coating material leads to separation of solids (like pigments) from liquids (resins, solvents, etc.) Excessively thinned down coating, on drying produces porous film (a film with marked solvent escape pores). Too much thinning often creates non-opaque or patchy (in terms of colourants) film. Solvents also affect the inter-molecular structure of resins affect their interlinking or polymerization, and thus the quality of the film.

Turpentine

Solvents and diluents are added during the manufacture and also prior to application. For the later purpose, a well proportioned an economic blend of solvents and diluents, suitable for specific categories of coatings are marketed as Thinner or Reducer.

paint-brushes-500x500-250x250Thinning solvents included in a coating material, encourage separation and towards the gravity settlement of solids on storage. Nowadays thixotropic compounds are added to water based coatings (such as Plastic or Latex paints). These compounds create a false setting (thickening of liquid mass into a viscous paste), and with little stirring, the coating material gains the original consistency.

Majority of Plastic (or Latex paint as in USA) are water based system, though very small quantity of solvent do exist in them

Constituents of thinners are nominally low boiling point temperature solvents. These evaporate at a faster rate but are affected by the temperature, moisture, movements of air, and the application process. In nominal weather, 25 ° C and 40% humidity, thinner evaporates at an average rate, but in hot weather thinner leaves the coating film before it has time to flow and level out. In case of moist weather (raining periods) the moisture in the air gets trapped in the film and cause blushes or whitish spots. This can be corrected by using retarder additive or slow drying thinner.

Spray Gun formulations require special thinners

Coating applications require special thinner formulation. French polishes and lacquer coatings applied by rubbing pads need very thinned down and slowly evaporating thinner. Brush application of coatings needs film levelling time, high fluidity without reducing the viscosity. Spraying with compressed air creates cooling and moisture condensation and so prescribed quality of thinners must be used. Spraying by airbrushing (thin-narrow and a fine nozzle) for delicate work, need fast evaporating solvents.

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SOLVENTS and THINNERS for coatings

SOLVENTS and THINNERS for coatings

Post 320 ⇒   by Gautam Shah 

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Thinners are specific mixtures of different solvents to achieve desired viscosity for the film forming constituents of a coating system. Solvents are liquids that have power of dissolving or formulation with something.

Viscosity of a medium can be adjusted by including a low viscosity medium into a high viscosity material, or by solvents and diluents. Solvents dissolve by entering the inter-molecular space and changing the intermolecular forces. Diluents are non dissolving low viscosity substances, do not enter the inter-molecular spaces but extend the action of a solvent as a liquid to liquid-phase. Often in a multi medium formulation, one material that acts as a solvent to a particular medium, may act as a dilutent for the other medium. Solvents and diluents both increase the fluidity of a medium.

1200px-Various_thinning_media_for_oil_paint

Various thinning media for oil paint –by Ellywa – Own work. Licensed under CC BY-SA 4.0 via Wikimedia Commons – http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Various_thinning_media_for_oil_paint

The solution of the film forming substances of a coating helps in manufacturing and application processes. Solvents or thinners are also required to clean up tools (brushes) and equipments (spray nozzles and containers) of application. These are also used for removal of patches, over-sprays and body parts.

Solvents convert resin and polymer molecules into smaller clusters, and it is a process of separating the molecules. In solution, the molecules of solute and the solvents are dispersed into each other.

Solvents on evaporation help in formation of a solid film. The coating may be deposited, and solvent evaporates to form a solid film (non-convertible system). Alternatively the coating undergoes one or many processes of chemical conversion (such as oxidation, chemical reaction on application of heat or catalyst reaction), while solvents get evaporated (convertible system).

Fractioning

Most solvents, including the most versatile one the water, evaporate at some temperature. There are two classes of solvents: Hydrocarbon (Petroleum) solvents and Chemical or oxygenated solvents, though these terms are overlapping due to complex process of manufacturing. Hydrocarbon solvents theoretically have only Carbon and Hydrogen but other substances such as Sulphur and heavy metals may be present as trace elements.

Coating formulations are in consideration of Solvents’ cost, flameability and the environmental effects. The solvent-power or solvency is very important aspect. The formulation must achieve a viscosity that is correct for manufacturing or application processes with a minimum amount of solvent. For a coating formulator, another important aspect is the rate of evaporation of solvent. If a solvent evaporates too rapidly, the applied coating will not get sufficient time to level out. Faster evaporation also induces early start for cross linking, and may seal the face, trapping part of the solvent. In spraying a fast evaporating solvent hinders even spray and may cause condensation of water around spraying nozzle and sprayed surface.

Thinners are mix of solvents and other carriers or non-solvent material. Thinners are formulated and proposed by the coating manufacturer, as competent authority they know what forms the coating. Often Thinners of different qualities are suggested such as for application and for cleaning of tools, equipments, patches and over-sprays. Some even provide specific thinners or special additives for monsoon seasons to counter effect of excess moisture and condensation.

For the later purpose, a well proportioned an economic blend of solvents and diluents, suitable for specific categories of coatings are marketed as Thinner or Reducer.

Hydrocarbon cracking Lab plant

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Following categories of solvents are used in coatings:

  • Aliphatic hydrocarbons: white spirit (mineral turpentine), kerosene (superior and fuel grade)
  • Aromatic hydrocarbons: benzene, toluene, xylene
  • Alcohols: methanol, ethanol, butanol, isopropanol
  • Chlorinated hydrocarbons: carbon tetrachloride
  • Ketone: acetone, methyl ethyl ketone (MEK), methyl iso-butyl ketone
  • Esters: methyl acetate, ethyl acetate, butyl acetate
  • Ethers: methyl cellulose, cello-solve, cello-solve acetate
  • Terpene: turpentine (genuine), di-pentene, pine oils
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