Post 679 –by Gautam Shah



Openings often transgress the nominal edge of the architectural entity. Such outward, and occasionally the inward push occurs on the wall faces, roofs, corners and floors. Outward pushes mainly add to the floor spread. But it also facilitates the side view and breeze from the street. It also offers greater opening size. Outward push of a building element is used to architecturally undulate the surface by projection and its deep shadows. Outward push from the roof has formed interesting silhouettes by varying the skyline. Outward transgressions have occurred in occupy-able buildings like homes, palaces and also in other structures such as fort-walls, gates, estate walls, barricades etc. Inward pushes like chowks or cutouts are basically climatic relievers. But these also serve as space dividers, isolators and privacy-security elements.

ORIEL 3 geograph-5427416-by-Derek-Harper

ORIEL 2 Bouxwiller_Oriel(2)

OUTWARD TRANSGRESSIONS: Examples of wall face transgressions are: Oriel, Bay-window, Bow-window, Zarokha and Mashrabiya.

ORIEL 4 Lincoln_Castle_oriel_window

BAY 3 Red_house_with_bay_window_(Strasbourg)_closeup

ORIEL WINDOWS are polygonal bay windows, but with a larger perimeter and so allow wider view of the outside. Oriel windows are usually placed on the upper floors of the building, but siting on ground floors is common. The windows as a projected bay is supported off the base-wall by column, piers, corbels or brackets.

BAY 2 old-town-268330_640

ORIEL 5 bay-window-3116256_640

BOW 5 x Groothaert_Boulevard_De_Smet_de_Nayer_bow-window

The word oriel is derived from Anglo-Norman oriell and post-classical Latin oriolum, both meaning gallery or porch, perhaps from classical Latin aulaeum =curtain. Oriels developed in the 15th C, when under the Tudor kings. Merchants and artisans, generally living over the shop in a narrow and tightly-packed town houses, added space by building oriel encroachments. This often resulted in extremely dark streets. Oriel windows were also placed over gateways or entrances to manor houses and public buildings. Oriel windows once again became popular during the revival of Tudor style in the 19th and early 20th C.

ORIEL 1 Bay_oriel_window_in_Cliftonville_Margate_Kent_England

ORIEL 6 geograph-5766945-by-John-Sutton

BAY WINDOW forms a projected bay or bow like polygonal shape. Bay windows became popular with Victorian architecture (1870’s). A typical bay window consists of three windows, the middle unit is parallel to the house, and adjoining two units are set at 30 to 45 degree angles. There are three basic types of bay windows. In full bay windows the opening stretches from floor to ceiling level to create a nook in a room. In half or part bay window, the window starts at seat or nominal sill level and reaches head height level or full ceiling level. In the third version the bay is more of a flower box projecting out.

B6 27290476501_a6f834febd_z(1)

BOW WINDOWS are curved or polygonal bay windows. Unlike the bay windows, there is no middle window unit, parallel to the room. Instead several small width window units (fixed and shuttered) are joined to form a bow shape. Bow windows first appeared in the 18th C in England, and in the Federal period in the USA. Bow windows are also called compass window and radial bay windows.


Bay 4 Carved_balcony,_Mehrangarh_Fort

ZAROKHA originated from the Gokh or Gavaksh (Sanskrit), a form of articulated wall niche for storage. It became more of a projection with a seat or a window form. A Zarokha or Baithak (seat) is a raised platform from the room floor. Zarokha is often partly ow wholly latticed. The Zarokha as an ornamental element was part of the architectural composition. In tropical architecture Zarokha compensated the need for an intermediate element like a verandah. The Zarokha and the derivative window forms, as Chhatri (belfry or umbrella), were further refined as pavilions and other roof level facilities.

Adalaj Gujarat India StepWell Zarokha

M 1 16952841285_55c9ed7de4_z

'M2 Mashrabiya'_at_Al-Sadat_house_in_Cairo

MASHRABIYA is a projected window on upper floors, in buildings mainly in the urban setting. Mashrabiya is used in houses and palaces although sometimes in public buildings such as hospitals, inns, schools and government buildings. It is commonly placed on the street side, but occasionally on the internal courtyard ‘sahn’ side. Mashrabiya windows are presumed to have evolved during 12th C in Baghdad. Iraq and Egypt are two countries where many examples survive. Mashrabiyas are enclosed with carved wood latticework. Mashrabiya has been used for correcting the shape of upper floor front rooms. The word Mashrabiya has varied origins. It denotes drinking or absorbing. The name perhaps has derived from a wood lattice enclosed shelf located near a window to cool the pots of drinking water. Mashrabiya also has originated from verb Ashrafa =to overlook, ignore or to observe.

Architecture Glass Bay Window About Building

4775158313_71d4c3be87_zProjecting an opening has taken many different forms where glass is used as a supporting or structural entity. It counters the perception that structural entities are nominally opaque. Projected openings have had opaque floors and now replaced with glass. Original intention of projected openings system for stretched or unlimited view is now being re-purposed.






Post 619 –by Gautam Shah















 Post -by Gautam Shah


Windows and Doors, both are penetrable surfaces, but a Door allows intentional physical transition, whereas a Window allows only sensorial connection. Perception through a window is invariably obtrusive. A window as an opening is more manipulable then a door. ‘The eyes are the windows of the soul’, but eyes see what the mind decides to perceive. Khalil Gibran says a window is like a Doctrine -we see the truth through it, but it divides us from truth.


City (1924) by le corbusier Ville le Lac, Corseaux (1924) by Le Corbusier

From a deep interior The view is straight just across it. Everything to the left, right, above and below the window is out of view. Yet, a window allows the taste of reality from the safety of our abode. The safety of indoors, behind a window, is often worth more then being out of doors and free.


In fiction ‘people who look through windows have a narrow view, and are standoffish. These people will watch the world go by from their window, but not do anything about it. People who are scared to look out of the window are people that do not want to know what is going on in the world around them. Even though they are still protected by the glass, they are still worried that the world will be too shocking to behold. Sometimes, these people will open the window just to holler out. These are the ones who believe that they have a say in the world but are not truly a part of’.


The protection of the window instigates us to do things, which one may not dare across a door. We cast off unwanted things out of the window because nothing is likely to bounce back from here. For punishment or revenge people have been thrown out of the windows as an act of defenestration. In some expediencies some enter or jump out of the window like a Romeo. Gaining an entry through a door is much more authoritative then breaking in like a thief through a window. Finestrata in Italian language is slamming shut a window in anger.


Defenestration is an act of throwing someone or something out of a window. The term was coined around the time of an incident in Prague Castle in the year of 1618. The word comes from the Latin de (from; out of) and fenestra (window or opening). Although defenestration can be fatal due to the height of the window, through which a person is thrown, or lacerations from broken glass. The defenestration, though was an act of rejection rather then with the intention of causing death.


The painful experience of going across a window makes one extra ordinarily careful before venturing in or out of a window. Fire or emergency exit doors do not cause as much alarm and skepticism as much as egress windows do. An opening becomes a window due to hindrances it offers, so slight raising of the threshold turns a door into a French window.


It is said heavens have doors only for entry, because no one would want to leave it, ever. Though, heavens have windows to look down and realize the difference between here and there, or perhaps to defenestrate a mischief maker !


Italians try to avoid buttare il denaro (throwing money) out if a window. Mangi la minestra o salti la finestra,’ is the threat an Italian mamma gives to a child who doesn’t want to eat the food she’s prepared. Eat the soup or jump out the window is the Italian equivalent of, Take it or leave it.

Going out of a window could be hazardous, but going out through a door is a conscious move but full of dilemmas. Italian lovers in trouble, however, find a way to uscire dalla porta e rientrare dalla finestra -leave by the door and sneak back in by the window with apologies.

‘A doorway has a narrow view of the world, but a person can walk through the doorway. The doorway is their opportunity to actually make a difference in the world. People who are more willing to make a difference in the world have an easier time walking through the doorway then others. Characters in stories that are too scared to walk through a door are also scared about what the world might do to them. They would rather keep that doorway as their shell from the rest of the world’.


Scaffold Building Manhattan New York City Taxi

Windows, seems to have suggested a different physical and psychological interpretation to J. R. Tolkien. Unlike other openings, one doesn’t usually use a window as a passageway, but rather as a means by which to see and assess the world before using the door to step into it. Because of their relatively smaller size, windows often present a limited view or frame of the world. Tolkien frequently uses this idea to frame a particular character’s view of present circumstances. Virtually every mention of windows includes a reference to light or lack thereof. Because the view through a window is limited, characters may perceive the situation to be better or worse than it actually is, depending upon the perspective the window affords them. In other instances, Tolkien frames the situation for the readers by referring to the level of light seen in a window or by the protective measures applied to the window. Windows generally offer less protection from dangerous intrusion than doors, so their number, size, and treatment reveal the world view of the house’s inhabitants. Hundreds of windows as at Brandy Hall imply a sense of peace, prosperity, and security, as opposed to the heavy-shuttered and curtained windows found in Bree where suspicion and caution rule.’ Crossing the Threshold, Openings and Passageways in J. R. R. Tolkien’s The Hobbit and The Lord of the Rings. By C. Riley Auge.