BLOG LINKS on CURTAINS and SOFT FURNISHINGS

Post 665  –by Gautam Shah

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1.    TRANSLUCENCY for CURTAINS https://interiordesignassist.wordpress.com/2015/05/23/translucency-for-curtains/

2.    STAGE CURTAINS -types Part III https://interiordesignassist.wordpress.com/2015/02/05/stage-curtains-types-part-iii/

3.    STAGE CURTAINS – Part 2 https://interiordesignassist.wordpress.com/2015/01/17/stage-curtains-part-2/

4.   STAGE CURTAINS Part 1 ● Performance Spaces https://interiordesignassist.wordpress.com/2014/11/07/stage-curtains-part-1-%e2%97%8f-performance-spaces/

5.    AWNINGS or SHADING DEVICES https://interiordesignassist.wordpress.com/2015/04/18/awnings-or-shading-devices/

6.   NON SILK SHEER FABRICS and CURTAINS https://interiordesignassist.wordpress.com/2014/11/22/non-silk-sheer-fabrics-and-curtains/

7.    SHEER FABRICS and CURTAINS https://interiordesignassist.wordpress.com/2014/11/12/sheer-fabrics-and-curtains-2/

8.   CURTAINS https://interiordesignassist.wordpress.com/2014/09/22/curtains/

9.   SHEER FABRICS and CURTAINS https://interiordesignassist.wordpress.com/2014/04/02/sheer-fabrics-and-curtains/

10.  WEIGHT and TRANSLUCENCY of fabrics for curtains

http://talking-interior-design.blogspot.in/2014/09/weight-and-translucency-of-fabrics-for.html

11.   STRATIFICATION of VISION https://interiordesignassist.wordpress.com/2017/12/04/stratification-of-vision/

12.  DESIGN CONSIDERATIONS for DAYLIGHTING https://interiordesignassist.wordpress.com/2016/03/24/design-considerations-for-daylighting/

13.  MASKING of OPENINGS Part – II https://interiordesignassist.wordpress.com/2015/09/23/masking-of-openings-part-ii/

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14.  DRAPERIES https://interiordesignassist.wordpress.com/2015/05/15/drapery/

15.  VELVET – Fabric of Luxury https://interiordesignassist.wordpress.com/2015/04/05/velvet-fabric-of-luxury/

16.  TAFFETA https://interiordesignassist.wordpress.com/2015/03/14/taffeta/

17.  CALICO https://interiordesignassist.wordpress.com/2015/02/27/calico/

18.  COTTON https://interiordesignassist.wordpress.com/2015/02/08/cotton/

19.  GLASS and PERCEPTION https://interiordesignassist.wordpress.com/2014/08/31/glass-and-perception/

20. FABRICS and TAPESTRIES https://interiordesignassist.wordpress.com/2014/07/02/fabrics-and-tapestries/

21.  Use of Barriers in Performing Arts http://talking-interior-design.blogspot.in/2013/08/use-of-barriers-in-performing-arts.html

22.  FIBRES for Fabrics https://interiordesignassist.wordpress.com/2015/03/18/fibres-for-fabrics/

23.  FABRIC TEXTURIZING https://interiordesignassist.wordpress.com/2014/08/24/fabric-texturizing/

24. WEIGHTING or BODYING OF TEXTILES https://interiordesignassist.wordpress.com/2015/06/13/weighting-or-bodying-of-textiles/

25.  ANCIENT TAPESTRY MAKING https://interiordesignassist.wordpress.com/2014/11/04/ancient-tapestry-making/

26. QUILTING https://interiordesignassist.wordpress.com/2014/04/18/quilting/

27INTERNAL SHADING DEVICES https://interiordesignassist.wordpress.com/2014/04/07/internal-shading-devices/

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MATERIALS HANDLING PROCESSES

Post 664  –by Gautam Shah

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Hand GrindingMany of the Materials handling processes in use today are essentially the same as those employed in ancient times. These processes evolved from day to day activities like farming, irrigation, cooking, hunting, storage, shelter-making and rituals. For a very long time, the process were not purpose-specific, but tools or means oriented. And as a result refinement has come from tools and rationalization of procedures. Many such processes are now highly mechanized saving time and energy, and some even are fully automatized, using programmed automats and robotics that allows faster, accurate and safer production.

American boys' handybook of camp lore and woodcraft (1920)Sommer,_Giorgio_(1834-1914)_-_n._11141_-_Museo_di_Napoli_-_Strumenti_di_chirurgiaSome of the traditional Materials Handling Processes

  • Removal of Materials for surface texturizing, levelling, form-making, polishing, finishing etc.
  • Addition of Material for levelling, filling-in, daubing, coating, plastering, rendering etc.
  • Joining of Materials by mechanical (screwing, tying), adhesion, proximate placement, knitting, knotting etc.
  • Downsizing of Material by breaking, cutting, splitting, chopping etc.
  • Extraction of Material by mining, excavation, selection, separation, sieving, winnowing, floating, fishing, cultivation, hunting etc.
  • Plastic Moulding of flours, clays, minerals etc.

640px-Right_Ground Roller Compactor Wikipedia Image byTechniques of Materials handling include: Shaping of the form is the prime technique for treatment of materials, by plastic moulding, casting, extruding, pressing, shaping, embossing, reforming, deforming, removal of material, stretching, compressing and forging. Materials like Clay with important quality of plasticity allowed the shaping at ambient temperature. Materials like Wood and Stone were shaped by removal of the mass. Metals were workable by heating, beating (forging) and addition or removal of the mass.Wattle_and_daub_constructionMaterials’ Depositions are used to add upon mass or surface, and create mixes with use of the same or foreign materials for alloying, embellishing, cladding, layering, fixing, daubing, coating etc. Materials’ Compositions are used in assembling, entwining, joining, tying, bracing, weaving, knitting, embroidery, stitching, etc. Forming Composites of materials is used through Matrix and Filler mixes, such as layering, particle composites, etc.Weaving_espartoCutting and crushing are the oldest of all material processes. Farming, irrigation, land levelling, minerals mining, cleaning the hunt and the hides, collecting and preparing fuel woods, skinning and shaving of hides, debarking timers, all require some form of cutting. Bare hands or sharp stones and sticks used as the cutting tools were aided by percussive tools like pounding sticks or stones and leveraged by long arms. Hammering was used for grinding foods, breaking and crushing nuts and compressing leather. Tools and arms served different purposes and required materials, creating processes of tying, wrapping, holding, fixing etc.

Peasant_in_the_vegetable_gardenShaving is done to remove material’s components such as outward hair or fibres, layers, etc. Leather surfaces are shaved to remove the surface hair and also for thinning. Leathers are also surface split to separate leather suitable for uppers and soles. The palm leaves are shaved to remove the stems and make them smoother for writing. Tree-barks are removed by axes and choppers to retard insect attack and increase moisture removal. Timbers are re-cut or planned with finer tools to achieve a smoother surface. Timbers are split very finely to create veneers. Wood planning is also a shaving technique. Carpets and rugs require close shearing by scissors to shave of protruding fibres.

Wet kneading shapingKneading soft or plastic materials to shape them, extract juices, forming homogeneous mixes were important material phase change processes. These were multi variant processes and gave magical capacity of material transformation. These were easiest and territorial universal processes. Using water for kneading, grinding, rubbing, levelling, polishing, coating, drilling, cutting, liquidizing, separation by flotation, emulsion-making, are processes used in food preparation, ceramics and metallurgical works.

Fireplace Cook Fire Wood Flame Heat Boil WaterFire processing of materials created a whole new set of chemistry. It began by cooking, but most important innovations included clay baking into ceramics and reshaping metal nodules by hot forging. Later it included refining metals, and processes of oxidation, carbonation, etc. Controlled burning allowed development of many processes and products, by selection of fuel material, distancing, exposure timing, environmental conditions, shielding, etc.

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STRATIFICATION of VISION

Post 663  –by Gautam Shah   (Lecture series: Space Perception’ -Article-II of 15).

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One of the most important functions of architectural openings is the composition of vision. And the fascinating aspect of the visual makeup, inward or outward, is the stratification of the view. The stratification is circumstantial, intentional or accidental.

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The view of outside or inside gains different dimension depending on how far or close, one is from the picture plane (face of the opening), what is covered within the nominal cone of vision, and the postural-gestural movements of the head and body to scan the view. Architectonic elements also mask, frame and filter the view.

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Regular architectural openings, and incidental ones like the crevices or holes, are effective when the surfaces like wall or roof are very extensive. Openings arouse curiosity to discover the realm on the other side. Windows, can be enlarged or reduced in size to regulate the scope of vision, but doors cannot be modified due to the basic anthropometric requirements. For visual makeup openings are transgressed outward and inward, through the floor or roof.

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Low Level Window

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Window in glass floor

The mechanics of vision depend on several factors, such as: a vision cones, extent of the framing element, sill and lintel level, shading devices, depth of opening, design or configuration, quality of glazing, level of maintenance, differences of illumination between outside and inside, amount of the glare, treatments on internal and external faces of openings, quality of external surroundings, internal reflections, tasks, orientation, climatic conditions, illumination conditions, need for protection and privacy, etc.

The visual makeup also depends on the position of the viewer.

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Visual scope and depth of openings: A viewer deep inside, away from the opening, gets a nominal straight or horizontal view. But as one comes closer, the scope of vision increases. The visual makeup is surmounted by architectural elements like overhangs, horizontal fins, the sill height, height of the opening in comparison to eye level (in supine-sitting-or standing position) and depth of opening.

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Visual scope for clerestory openings: For a person positioned close to the plane of opening, if the sill level is above eye level, the range of visual scope is small. This scope becomes larger as one moves away from the plane of opening.

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Visual scope and the datum of floor: Tall buildings (multi-storeyed) have several floors, each of which offers different vistas. For a person positioned, approximately as deep as the internal height of the floor, the visual scape is nearly horizontal. So at lower floor one sees street and surrounding activities, from mid floors the view consists of horizon consisting of tree or building tops, but on upper floors the view is of the horizon. In the second and third categories, at night additional flickering brightness from bottom up sources is very distractive, such as from the head light beams of moving vehicles, street lights, road-light signals, illumination or glow from hoardings and neighbouring buildings. These reflections fall on the ceilings and sometimes on the wall, but distort the interior visual effects.

looking down

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Surrounds of the openings, all four sides, jambs, sills, or bottom of the door-heads, alter the inward and outward vision scope. The sloped surfaces due to chamferring on the outward or inward faces, enlarged the perceptive size of the opening. It however made the perception depth ambiguous due to the foreshortening.

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Downward View Tracy_Caldwell_Dyson_in_Cupola_ISS

● The dividers or sub elements of openings, such as traceries, mullions, muntins, are primarily used as mid support in the frame or sash, and divide the glazing into smaller units. Early age glazing units were small but had fuzzy transparency and wavy patterns of making. These crude smaller units, however divided the view and made it bearable.

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Openings in moving vehicles offer dynamic scenery, where the objects could be both, stationary as well as moving. Uniformly shaped and sized objects, in nearby visual range seem more dynamic, but variegated objects in distance, seem to be less moving. These two fields when viewed through separated horizontal sections of an opening, pose distinctly different scenes. Such experiences are more common in carriages with additional windows at higher level.

Slit openings

Stratification is very important issue with openings of fixed glazing and shop front windows, both of which serve the function of a picture window that frames a scene or to displayed items.

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Fixed glazing windows show a scene consisting of several layers depending on the point of observation and floor datum. These layers, typically at lower section consist of ground level shrubs and movement of people and vehicles. At mid level the scene consists of mid-portion of trees (effects of breeze-wind) and perhaps deeper vista. At higher level, (the top lite) mainly sky and upper sections of very tall buildings (becoming impersonal due to greater inclination-distance) are seen. Of the three, the change is more pronounced at the lower section, and often curtained of with ‘parlour curtains’.

485028169_373693d56d_zShop front windows reflect the opposite side scene, in mainly two distinct strata. Upper part, if shadowed by solar inclination or overhang, has little reflection, but lower section has strong reflection (called ‘bounce-back’). Reflections at lower section do not allow view inside, unless interior portions have additional illumination.

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This is the II article (of intended 15) in series ‘Space Perception’ that will form a course of One semester.

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