ILLUMINATION and ARCHITECTURAL SHADOWS -Issues of Design 35

Post 729 -Gautam Shah

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Architectural objects are stationary, but their shadows move and shift around them. The directional variability of the solar illumination offers many different light-shadow conditions. The intensity of solar illumination varies during day hours, seasons and atmospheric circumstances (like cloud cover, mist, dust, etc.), and creates many grades of dark surfaces. These has taught the architects, how to exploit the utter darkness of the cast shadows along with the many grades of intermediate darkness of the back-face surfaces. There are other grades of darkness over surfaces re-illuminated with reflections from surroundings. Such variable contrasts conditions were exploited in many ways. It helped in scaling the darkness of deep set spaces, to grade the near and far-off distances, and add greater realism to nearer objects.

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Architecture is an inside and outside place of visitation, allowing many sided experiences of the object, with cast shadows and intermediate grades of darkness over the ’back-face’ surfaces. These was unlike the Art, where only a fixed extent of intended image is represented, be it a canvas, book page, wall fresco, stained glass, mosaic, or architectonic decorations. The shape of an object and size and form of its shadow, though continuously variable, reflect each other.

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Within an art work, the objects’ shape and the size-form of the shadows may not proportionately reflect each other. The selective framing and point of scene capture, chops the objects and their shadows. As a result, proportions, if any are not revealed. The process of selective elimination from art paintings began to be exploited further in architectural creations.

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In architectural works, extensive shadows conceal objects or architectonic elements that must be nominally seen for realization of the composition, form, size and proportion. The dominant and extensive shadows could, however, may be ‘concealed’ behind objects that are placed in the frontal most planes. Such dominant and extensive shadows, though are relevant for fixed hours and points of views. One of the classical examples of this is the Greek Columns forming the facade.

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Shadows massing form building fronts of two classes. Buildings that are comparatively of flatter plane, though with pockets of shadows of various depths (depth read as the downward length of the shadow). Some of the shadows indicating the depths get mixed up with darker colours of the facade surfaces like glass. This is an area, where seasoned designers fail to perceive the true dark-light play over the facades. Another class of shadows massing over building fronts occur due to the projecting out mass of elements. These projections over the facade are well illuminated but their shadows fall on plane surfaces as well as on undulating masses. The uneven masses, if, angular or with inclination, the complexity of the shadows increases manifold.

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Shadow massing affects the buildings’ around public or open spaces. Such buildings, if form a flatter plane, whether, due to the repetition of architectural motifs (elements of facade language) or due to the extensive scale of visual perception, dilate the surface shading effect of the sunlight. Buildings forming such ‘visually flat planes’ were socially throughly failures.

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The ‘fixed-view’ or panoramic architectural configuration for the Plazas and Public spaces are of two basic types, 1 a large open public space dilutes the surface shade-shading effect of the sunlight, because of the large scale, whereas, 2 a very compact frontal space, seems spatially so articulated that there are too many varieties of surface shade-shadings of the sunlight. In the later case few designers had resources, experience, opportunity or time (historically, decades, if not centuries, for the long process of improvisation) for any corrective action. So whatever, was locally plausible, was accepted.

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In case of an architectural entity, the field is infinite but can be visually scanned by movement of the eyes, forming a seamless scene. But that was not so, with older style cameras that captured visual scene that seemed jarring. In case of human eyes the proportion of object to shadow is variable, but with artificial devices the object to shadow is shifting and so jarring. To reduce such variability of scenes, architects have resorted to selective framing for fixated observations, through windowing or deep set perspectives (that focussed the points of views). In architecture limited observations were also enforced through smaller or occluding openings, open ended-deep spaces, overhangs, serrations, cavities, etc. The selective framing chops the objects or their shadows.

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At a first glass, the shadows as dark entities seem very dark in the context of bright exteriors. Eyes however, soon dilate themselves and begin to perceive finer details within the shadows. Architectural features, human beings and their shadows often create captivating compositions of scale and proportion, but this can be perceived by an observer or camera. So scene capture like photograph remains a ‘neutral’ observation.

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Shadows have natural relationship with the source, direction and type of illumination, but more importantly, it is the quality of objects and the surfaces on which shadows occur. Cast sun light shadows show a horizontal line as horizontal, but a vertical line as an inclined entity. Consistent exposure to these has come to be accepted as nominal phenomenon. But shadows of inclined elements such as stairs, ridge of the roof, etc. have a different character.

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11 City Center, Fort Worth, Texas Site plan with shadows] - PICRYL Public Domain Image

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Architectural shadows are defined by the geo zones. Nominally between 23° N and 23° S have brighter sunlight. The strong light here gets reflected in darker shadows, but that again is affected by the dominant colour of terrain, density of vegetation and surface colours of building materials. Tropical areas such as Southern countries of Europe have had deeper and elaborate architectural elements. The shadows are used as an architectural instrument of form, composition, and visual effects.

32 ART by Ottavio Viviani Capriccios of Light and Shasdows

This is the 35th article (in continuation of old series -new beginning) on ISSUES of DESIGN.

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ISSUES of DESIGN -List of 34 Blog articles

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Post 728 -Gautam Shah

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This Blog Series ISSUES of DESIGN began on 30MARCH 2016 with plan to include 20 Topics. But, later 20 more Topics were planned. Now, after FIVE years it has reached to 35 Blog articles. 6 More articles will be included by JUNE end 2021. –Gautam Shah

01 (603 30 Apr2016) BODY POSTURES – Issues for Design -1 https://interiordesignassist.wordpress.com/2016/04/30/body-postures-issues-for-design/

02 (605 13May2016) INTERVENTIVE SPACES – Issues for Design -2 https://interiordesignassist.wordpress.com/2016/05/13/interventive-spaces-issues-for-design-2/

03 (606 17May2016) PERCEPTION through SCALES and CONVERSIONS -Issues for Design -3 https://interiordesignassist.wordpress.com/2016/05/17/perception-through-scales-and-conversions-issues-for-design-3/

04 (607 24May2016) SPACE PERCEPTION – Issues for Design -4 https://interiordesignassist.wordpress.com/2016/05/24/space-perception-issues-for-design-4/

05 (609 6Jun2016) MOVEMENT and BALANCE – Issues for Design -5 https://interiordesignassist.wordpress.com/2016/06/06/movement-and-balance-issues-for-design-5/

06 (610 10Jun2016) NON VISUAL LANGUAGE -Issues for Design -6 https://interiordesignassist.wordpress.com/2016/06/10/non-visual-language-issues-for-design-6/

07 (612 20Jun2016) DESIGNERS and QUALITY -Issues for Design -7 https://interiordesignassist.wordpress.com/2016/06/20/designers-and-quality-issues-for-design-7/

08 (614 28Jun2016) ANTILIGATURE -Issues for Design -8 https://interiordesignassist.wordpress.com/2016/06/28/anti-ligature-issues-for-design-8/

09 (617 22Jul2016) SCALING the SPACES -Issues for Design-9 https://interiordesignassist.wordpress.com/2016/07/22/scaling-the-spaces-issues-for-design-9/

10 (621 18Aug2016) REAL and VIRTUAL -Issues for design-10 https://interiordesignassist.wordpress.com/2016/08/18/real-and-virtual-issues-for-design-10/

11 (623 Sep122016) METAPHOR Issues for Design -11 https://interiordesignassist.wordpress.com/2016/09/12/metaphor-issues-for-design-11/

12 (629 8Nov2016) CONTEXT -Issues for Design -12 https://interiordesignassist.wordpress.com/2016/11/08/context-issues-for-design-12/

13 (639 4Feb2017) SOLIDS and VOIDS -issues of Design -13 https://interiordesignassist.wordpress.com/2017/02/04/solids-and-voids-issues-for-design-13/

14 (642 4Mar2017) OBJECTS in SPATIAL FIELDS -Issues for Design -14 https://interiordesignassist.wordpress.com/2017/03/04/objects-in-spatial-fields-issues-for-design-14/

15 (649 9Jul2017) REFERENCING buildings -issues for design -15 https://interiordesignassist.wordpress.com/2017/07/09/referencing-buildings-issues-for-design-15/

16 (653 6Jun2017) RHETORIC in DESIGN -issues for design -16 https://interiordesignassist.wordpress.com/2017/08/06/rhetoric-in-design-issues-for-design-16/

17 (654 14Aug2017) SCALING the SPACES -Issues for design -17 https://interiordesignassist.wordpress.com/2017/08/14/scaling-the-spaces-issues-for-design-17/

18 (659 2Oct2017) PERCEPTION of CONTRAST -Issues for design -18 https://interiordesignassist.wordpress.com/2017/10/02/perception-of-contrast-issues-for-design-18/

19 (661 4Nov207) SOUND and SPACE -issues of design -19 https://interiordesignassist.wordpress.com/2017/11/04/sound-and-space-issues-of-design-19/

20 (662 16Nov2017) MODELLING of OBJECTS in SPACE -issues of design -20 https://interiordesignassist.wordpress.com/2017/11/16/modelling-of-objects-in-space-issues-of-design-20/

21 (661 3Mar2018) GEOMETRY -Issues of Design -21 https://interiordesignassist.wordpress.com/2018/03/03/geometry-issues-of-design-21/

22 (669 27Mar2018) SUPPORT SYSTEMS -Issues of Design-22 https://interiordesignassist.wordpress.com/2018/03/27/support-systems-issues-of-design-22/

23 (674 14Jun2018) SIZING and SCALING the SPACES -Issues of Design 23 https://interiordesignassist.wordpress.com/2018/06/14/sizing-and-scaling-the-spaces-issues-of-design-23/

24 (684 14Dec2018) DYNAMIC CURVATURES -Issues of Design 24 https://interiordesignassist.wordpress.com/2018/12/14/dynamic-curvatures-issues-of-design-24/

25 (686 9Jan2019) DESIGN, MOTIF, PATTERN -Part 1 -Issues of Design 25 https://interiordesignassist.wordpress.com/2019/01/09/design-motif-pattern-part-1-issues-of-design-25/

26 (689 15Feb2019) DISTANCE as an ELEMENT of DESIGN -Issues of Design 26 https://interiordesignassist.wordpress.com/2019/02/15/distance-as-an-element-of-design-issues-of-design-26/

27 (692 15Mar2019) VANDALISM -Issues of Design 27 https://interiordesignassist.wordpress.com/2019/03/15/vandalism-issues-of-design-27

28 (702 26Nov2019) DISTANCE MEANINGS -Issues of Design 28 https://interiordesignassist.wordpress.com/2019/09/26/distance-meanings-issues-of-design-28/

29 (707 19Nov2019) SPATIAL MEMORIES –Issues of Design 29 https://interiordesignassist.wordpress.com/2019/11/19/spatial-memories-issues-of-design-29/

30 (708 28Nov2019) ELEMENTS of BUILDING SYSTEMS -Issues of Design 30 https://interiordesignassist.wordpress.com/2019/11/28/elements-of-building-systems-issues-of-design-30/

31 (711 23Jan2020) 711 SEGMENTING the SPACES -Issues of Design 31 https://interiordesignassist.wordpress.com/2020/01/23/segmenting-the-spaces-issues-of-design-31/

32 (714 24Mar2020) DESIGN PROCESSES -Design Handling –Issues of Design 32 https://interiordesignassist.wordpress.com/2020/03/24/design-processes-design-handling-issues-of-design-32/

33 (720 3Sep2020) DEPTH and DISTANCE PERCEPTION -Issues of Design 33 https://interiordesignassist.wordpress.com/2020/09/03/depth-and-distance-perception-issues-of-design-33/

34 (727 15Jan2021) ILLUMINATION and SHADOWS -Issues of Design 34 https://interiordesignassist.wordpress.com/2021/01/15/illumination-and-shadows-issues-of-design-34/

Other topics likely to be included >

35 ILLUMINATION and ARCHITECTURAL SHADOWS -Issues of Design 35

36 ILLUMINATION and ART WORKS SHADOWS -Issues of Design 36

37 ILLUMINATION and COLOUR SHADES -Issues of Design 37

38 TRACING -Issues of Design 38

39 DESIGN, MOTIF, PATTERN -Part 2 -Issues of Design 39

40 COLOUR HUE TINT -Issues of Design 40

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BLOG links for Articles on BALANCE and MOVEMENTS

Post 724 –Gautam Shah

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Few Links of articles on BALANCE, MOVEMENT as published on my Blog site   https://interiordesignassist.wordpress.com/

BALANCE in DESIGN – Part 1

https://interiordesignassist.wordpress.com/2016/04/05/balance-in-design-part-1/

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BALANCE in DESIGN – Part 2

https://interiordesignassist.wordpress.com/2016/12/02/balance-in-design-part-2/

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MOVEMENT and BALANCE – Issues for Design -5

https://interiordesignassist.wordpress.com/2016/06/06/movement-and-balance-issues-for-design-5/

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PERCEPTION of BALANCE and MOVEMENT

https://interiordesignassist.wordpress.com/2015/08/14/perception-of-balance-and-movement/

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VISUAL PERCEPTION of MOVEMENTS

https://interiordesignassist.wordpress.com/2015/04/15/visual-perception-of-movements/

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PERCEPTION of MOVEMENTS

https://interiordesignassist.wordpress.com/2015/01/07/perception-of-movements/

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DYNAMIC CURVATURES -Issues of Design 24

https://interiordesignassist.wordpress.com/2019/01/09/design-motif-pattern-part-1-issues-of-design-25/

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GEOMETRY -Issues of Design -21

https://interiordesignassist.wordpress.com/2018/03/03/geometry-issues-of-design-21/

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MODELLING of OBJECTS in SPACE -issues of design -20

https://interiordesignassist.wordpress.com/2017/11/16/modelling-of-objects-in-space-issues-of-design-20/

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MORPHING the ARCHITECTURAL GEOMETRY
https://interiordesignassist.wordpress.com/2018/04/12/morphing-the-architectural-geometry/

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STABILITY of BUILT FORMS

https://interiordesignassist.wordpress.com/2015/06/25/stability-of-built-forms/

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DRAPERIES

https://interiordesignassist.wordpress.com/2015/05/15/drapery/

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REVERING THE NATURE – GREEN MAN

Post 722 by Gautam Shah

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Green Man is a mystery that persists through various times, faiths and cultures. Historically the Green Man has appeared in unconnected locations and periods. The unexplained history and purposes are as enigmatic as the combination of human and plant. There are very few human-plant blends in comparison to human-animal mixes. The human-plant combinations have not been deific figures of worship or even reverence. The human-plant mix as Green man has only the characteristic head that is immortalized. It has remained a superfluous motif and never became an integrated architectonic element. Green Man has survived with minor transformations in the same form. The few changes have not been very evolutionary, like the changing forms of Gothic grotesque images. The forms are not easy to mark out for the age or culture.

13 Facade of house at Elizabetes ielā, 10b, by Mikhail Eisenstein 1903

Green man is not set to any particular context, position or location. The facial expressions do not reflect, where it is posited, in corners, over columns, door-heads or under the brackets. Green Man though expresses many different moods, angry reflective, gloomy humorous melancholic, idyllic, cheerful, whimsical, romantic, mysterious, ominous, calm, hopeful, fearful, tense, lonely, etc. Green man is usually interpreted as a positive and benevolent force. The figure is never angelic but always earthly.

Green Man

The Green man is depicted as a masculine face ranging from the middle aged to elderly. It is a strong figure of power, almost like the mythological iron smiths in various cultures. Green man is construed to be a symbol of a rebirth, cycle of growth in spring, fertility or procreation, but without any iconographic evidence. Some have claimed it to be a pre-pagan example of belief system of nature related deities, but again without any mythological trace.

6 Green Man in the presbytery of St. Magnus Cathedral, Kirkwall, Orkney, ca. twelfth-thirteenth centuries, Norman and Romanesque Wikipedia Image by Wordandsilence1979

Green man has strong lineage to plants, shrubs, climbers or trees. During and before the pagan period, groves of oak and yew trees were places of worship and sacrifices. The trunk, branches and foliage were shaken or cut on ceremonial occasions. The parts of trees, like the trunk, branches, twigs and sap were seen as human arms, fingers, blood etc. The trees were associated with death and rebirth, because of their capacity to regrow from almost dried and dead conditions. The timber of the yew trees as support posts were supposed to ‘outlast a post of iron’. The sacred groves were ideal location for propagating the new belief through the new churches. The ancient sacred groves of trees were maintained in churchyards. Christian Roman priests, during the periods of gruesome spread of Christianity were very suspicious of tree worship. But Green man has manifested in close proximity to the figure of Christ, but not as a deity. It was continuing symbol of life.

25 Face of a Green Man on the north side of the main west entrance of Derby Cathedral, England Wikipedia Image by Parkywiki

Ancient pre-pagan icons of fertility were a forest-god, a symbol of birth-death-rebirth cycles. The forest God was personified as a man, but only as a spiritual presence of nature. He was worshiped in hope of good harvests and symbolically guarded the gate between the real and unreal worlds.

26 The Ancient Religion of the Celts – Celtic Polytheism Imge from https about-history.comthe-ancient-religion-of-the-celts

Celts considered themselves as descendants of trees. Celtic Paganism, like many other regional versions were polytheistic in nature, but with strong reverence for the trees. The identity of a tree was as a benefactor of fertility, albeit a male one and not that of a mother or a Goddess of fertility. The fertility was celebrated with sexual intercourses, during the springs in sacred groves. Trees were more of holy places but not present as deific motifs.

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The Green man is depicted as a face of an elderly man, with a dense backdrop of wild shrubs. Green man image of face has wines and leaves jutting mainly from ears and head, occasionally from mouth, but less frequently from the nostrils. Edges of face and beard are lined by vines and shown bearing flowers and fruits. These images are consistent, though lack literary or other folklore descriptions.

Female Mascarons

There is no evidence of images or sculptures of Green man placed as the main deity or near an altar for worship. Green man images occur as decorative ornament in architecture, doors, columns, wall corners, gates and graves. Green man is found in both secular and ecclesiastical buildings. The ‘Green-man’ became a popular name and emblem for inns, pubs, and public buildings. It is as a mystical character, a superfluous image of just the head. The Green man now had three distinct forms, ‘1 Foliate head, completely covered in green leaves except the eyes, 2 Spewing head, mouth bursting with vegetation, and, 3 Hideous head, sprouting vegetation from all facial orifices’.

28 Acheloos, detail of roman mosaic from Zeugm

From Renaissance periods, Green man began to be included as symbolic emblem on manuscripts, adornments, stained glass and murals. The Green man now literally began to be green coloured. A number of images of the Green Man have been found on graves. The head, in the form of, not a pompous person, but an empty skull suffused with greenery. Green man also occurs as hollow mask of cast plaster and embossed metal, the image may seem a stylized, but with facial expressions set to be relevant to the place and purpose.

Early ‘Green-men’ were known simply as foliate heads. These foliate heads were coined as the Green Men, by Lady Raglan in her article ‘The Green Man in Church Architecture(published in the ‘Folklore’ journal of March 1939).

29 Acanthus Foliage used in Green Man images

Green Men are connected with the acanthus for foliage ornament and decoration. The pattern of foliage leaves and branches, the flow of beard, mustaches and head hair, eyes, mouth, in each motif are different. The sculptor or artist can have different manners of expression but was there an attempt to depict certain type of mood? Some motifs or masks do convey friendly, fierce or pensive emotions, taking away the grotesqueness.

16-17 Rodin

24 Relief_libation_Louvre Votive relief libation to a vegetation goddess. Limestone, Early Dynastic III ca. 2500 BC, found in Telloh ancient Girsu Wikipedia Image by Jastrow 2006

Green deities have been mainly of two types: The deities are placed against a plant or tree to prove their lineage, or the body features such as face, limbs etc. have elemental transplants of vegetation. At another level certain class of persons are respected for their knowledge about vegetation and medicinal value. Greek and Roman gods Dionysus/Bacchus, are considered precursors of the Green man. Bacchus is often portrayed crowned with vines or ivy.

21 The druids; or the conversion of the Britons to Christianit Engraving by S.F. Ravenet, 1752, after F. Hayman

Celtic culture offers, another tree related character, Druid. It was a real one, rather than a concept. Word Druid originates from the Latin word nemus =grove (Nemetona =goddess of the sacred grove). Druid has many mythical connections such as (Breton=drouiz, Welsh=derwydd, Old Irish=druí, Scottish Gaelic=draoidh). In Celtic cultures (like Gaulish, British, Irish), the druid was accepted as social leader and knowledgeable person. He was responsible for divination, worship and sacrifices. The Christians naturally did not approve of such a cult figure. The Druids were not allowed by Christian leaders to document their knowledge of occultism or medicine, as both were more rational and could pose problems. Druids were experts on vegetation and use of natural medicines (almost like Indian ‘Vaidya’). And in spite of Druid’s age seniority, robe and white beard, their identification with the Green man has never been validated.

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The Green One, has continued to be a revered figure, in spite of Islamic dictates against physical deities. Green one has been the mysterious and spiritual guide and protector of all Sufis.

9 Al Kadir Islam

Khidr or al-Khidr =the Green One or Verdant one, also transcribed as Khidar, Khizr, Khyzer, Khizar, is a revered figure in Islam, described in the Quran as a ‘righteous servant of God, who possessed great wisdom or mystic knowledge’. The most popular shrine in Yazd, the Pir-e Sabz =the shrine of green vegetation (perhaps due to the green foliage it), is dedicated to a female figure Anahita (who brings rain and marks the beginning of spring). Worshipers pray for the fertilizing rain and celebrate the greening of nature and the renewal of life.

23 Naqsh-e Rustam investiture of Narseh (r. 293-302), in which the Sassanian king (second from right) receives the ring of kingship from Anahita (right).

10 Immeuble_art_nouveau_(Riga)_(7575658724)

11 Door of the Art Nouveau Building by architect Jules Lavirotte, Sculptures by Jean-François Larrivé

12 Mascarons Mosaic by Miksa Róth at Török Bank [fr] building in Budapest 1906

The Green Man vanished, for a while, from major buildings, but it never disappeared from the psyche of common people. It began to appear, surreptitiously, as street motif, in nondescript buildings and odd corners of restored buildings. Green man became a Mascaron (an ornamental motif of a human face). These were placed on door lintels, heads, to keep off the evil spirits. The motif became a decoration in Beaux Arts and Art Nouveau styles. The face motifs adopted special moods or expressions of the place and context.

7 - 8 Modern Green Men Full body sculptures

This is the Second article of the seriesREVERING THE NATURE

First article was REVERING THE NATURE – Part-I Human-Plant Lineages.

Next Article in this series will be > REVERING THE NATURE – HUMANOID or ANIMALISTIC FORMS.

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ARTICLES on DESIGN THINKING

Post 719 by Gautam Shah

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ARTICLES on DESIGN THINKING > All articles from my Micro Blog site > DESIGN SYNOPSIS https://wordpress.com/view/designsynopsis.wordpress.com

52  REDESIGN IDEOLOGY
105 POINT or BINDU
120 ELEMENTS and SYSTEMS in DESIGN
192 MINIMALISM in DESIGN
194 WINDOWS by FRANK LLOYD WRIGHT
195 SYSTEM through DESIGN
219 FRUGALITY in DESIGN
220 CHANGING STYLES in DESIGN
242 PLAYING with PSEUDO in DESIGN

Apparatus for the Distillation of Vague Intuitions. Installation
250 CONVEYANCE of CONCEPT and DESIGN
253 Le CORBUSIER and OPENINGS
275 BREVITY in DESIGN EXPRESSION
297 CULTURAL PRACTICES AND TECHNOLOGY
316 APARIGRAHA and MINIMALISM
319 KNOWING ART DECO
335 The ARTS & CRAFTS MOVEMENT
348 ARCHITECTURAL FORMS as ART
380 DESIGN THINKING in INDUSTRIAL AGE

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381 FRANK LLOYD WRIGHT WINDOWS
404 TERRITORIES and SPATIAL DESIGN
455 FUNCTIONALISM in DESIGN
492 METAPHORS and SYMBOLS in DESIGN
493 CHANGES in DESIGN ETHOS during 19th C.
510 VASARI CORRIDOR FLORENCE
558 SPATIAL MEMORIES as DESIGN CUES
569 SYMBOL to SYMBOLISM
580 QUALITY METICULOUSNESS in DESIGN

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588 RASA
595 ABSTRACTION for COMMUNICATION
601 REMEMBERING the SPACES
606 ARCHITECTURAL PERSISTENCE
624 DEUTSCHER WERKBUND
631 FORECASTING in DESIGN
637 DESIGN CONCERNS
640 ABSTRACTION in ART
648 COSTUMBRISMO
649 ANEKANTAVADA
653 REAL, VIRTUAL and SUPERFLUOUS

640px-Stoclet_Palace_Hoffmann_Brussels_1911657 ORIGINS of ART NOUVEAU
668 OPENINGS by -FRANK LLOYD WRIGHT
721 LANGUAGE for WRITING and SPEAKING
727 PALLADIAN OPENING
734 CONCURRENT or SIMULTANEOUS ENGINEERING
746 HOLISTIC ENTITIES
748 BODY MEASURES of VITRUVIAN MAN
767 REALISM in ART and ARCHITECTURE
775 FUTURE of DESIGN
780 CONVERGENCE vs DIVERGENCE
784 OUTSIDER or BRUT ART
807 REALITY and DESIGN
810 SPATIAL NARRATIVES
811 REALISM, IMPRESSIONISM to EXPRESSIONISM

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HEINRICH LAUTERBACH -Polish architect of Wroclaw modernism

Post 718 by Gautam Shah

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1 HEINRICH LAUTERBACH Polish architect of Wrocław modernism

2 Haus DR. SCHMELOWSKY in Gablonz by Architekt HEINRICH flickr.comphotosapfelauge26916269368

Heinrich Lauterbach (1893-1973) was a prominent architect of Wroclaw (largest city in the historical region of Silesia, western Poland). He worked between two world wars and post WW-II period. He was in close contact with architecture from a young age. At the age of 14, Heinrich Lauterbach met the architect Hans Poelzig, then director of the Wroclaw Art Academy. He studied drawing and watercolour with Theodor von Gosen, the chief of the sculpture class at the Wroclaw Art Academy. The shaping of Lauterbach as architect was also influenced by contacts with the extraordinary bohemian art environment at the Wroclaw Academy of Arts and Crafts (1920-30s). This included people like Hans Scharoun, Adolf Rading, Oskar Moll and Oskar Schlemmer.

5 Hans Poelzig Grand_Theatre 1919 Berlin Germany

3 Jablonecké Paseky Háskova vila

1 Hans Scharoun, 1893-1972 was a German architect dedicated to experimentation, an eccentric and with influential vision of democratic architecture.

4 Hans Scharoun WeissenhofsiedlungScharoun-pjt

2 Adolf Rading was a German architect of the Neues Bauen period. He briefly worked in the office of Peter Behrens in 1919, and then moved to Breslau, becoming a professor at the National Academy for Arts and Crafts

6 House designed in 1928 by Adolf Rading in collaboration with the painter and sculptor Oskar Schlemmer casa rabe, Zwenkau, Leipzig, Germany 1928-30

3 Oskar Moll was a German Fauvist painter; best known for his landscapes, portraits and somewhat abstract still-life.

7 Mallorca by OskarMoll

 4 Oskar Schlemmer was a German painter, sculptor, designer and choreographer associated with the Bauhaus school. In 1923, he was hired as Master of Form at the Bauhaus theater workshop, after working at the workshop of sculpture.

8 Oskar Schlemmer, Small Houses Bauhaus style near Berlin

Lauterbach, after the war, attended the Darmstadt University of Technology and Technical University of Dresden. Here he came in contact with Martin Dülfer, one of the pioneers of Art Nouveau. Later in Berlin he became a master student with Hans Poelzig at the Prussian Academy of the Arts. He then went through studios and design offices at places like Berlin, Kassel and Opole. The work of Heinrich Lauterbach resulted from his fascination with the creative method and projects of his master Poelzig and the ideas of Neues Bauen (new building).

21 Heinrich Lauteinrich

22 Schmelowský Villa

Neues Bauen (New Building) was an avant-garde movement by than rationalist and functionalist. It emerged in Europe during 1920-30s and was identified as New Objectivity (German Neue Sachlichkeit =New Sobriety). This movement re-modelled many German cities in the period. It originally associated with the Arbeitsrat für Kunst (a union of architects, painters, sculptors and art writers, who were based in Berlin from 1918 to 1921). Arbeitsrat worked closely with the Novembergruppe and the Deutscher Werkbundn with Häring. Many members were important founders of the Bauhaus. Among the supporters of such German movements contributors were Walter Gropius, Otto Haesler, Ludwig Hilberseimer, Ernst May, Hannes Meyer, Ludwig Mies van der Rohe, and Martin Wagner.

18 heinrich-lauterbach-muzeum-architektury-2012-11-27-001

The Neue Sachlichkeit (new sobriety) approach was to pursue architecture and design to fulfill objective functions and not along the lines of personal taste, preexisting historical, national or regional styles. The intention was to create objects without any emotional attachment, like how these were designed or used previously.

15 Single-family House No 35 built for the 1929 building exhibition “Wohnung und Werkraum0

Lauterbach launched his practice as a freelance architect in Wroclaw in 1925, and one of the first project was a Studio for portrait photographer Max Glauer. From 1925 until the outbreak of WW-II, he worked in Wroclaw as an architect. Some of his early projects were a residential house with an exchange office and Kampmeyer parquet factory. Lauterbach, in 1929, he organized an exhibition at Breslau in 1929, Werkbundu Wohnung und Werkraum, WUWA, (Werkbundu apartment and workshop). For Lauterbach, the organization of an exhibition, articles and comments in architectural magazines, brought in fame. He secured projects for two functionalist villas in Czechoslovakia and Dubrovnik (Jablonec and Nisou). He built an apartment block in 1928-29. He also re-modelled Wroclaw Chamber of Commerce. Lauterbach’s design projects were residential buildings, villas, and multi-family houses. ‘The work of Heinrich Lauterbach resulted from his fascination with the creative method and projects of his master Poelzig and the ideas of Neues Bauen’.

9 Heinrich_Lauterbach WUWA House 35 South-West_Façade Wrocław Poland

The Werkbund estates, were developed as experiment in modern residential architecture in Stuttgart, Bern, Zurich, Prague, Vienna and Wroclaw. Lauterbach now led the Silesian regional Werkbund. His colleagues were Hans Scharoun, Adolf Rading, both of the Wroclaw Art Academy. Members of the Silesian Werkbund were involved in the planning and execution of about 40 buildings.

10 Haus H. in Gablonz Built following the Werkbund exhibition Flickr comphotosapfelauge3987225291

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In 1930 he moved into one of his row houses in WUWA, with a neighbour as painter Oskar Schlemmer. The main driving force for Werkbund for Neue Sachlichkeit (New Objectivity), was of Ludwig Mies van der Rohe, who realized it with his colleagues, Belgian Victor Bourgeois, Swiss-French Le Corbusier, Austrian Josef Frank, Dutchmen J.J.P. Oud and Mart Stam. Neue Sachlichkeit was a movement against expressionism, and rejected the romantic attitude of the expressionism. Expressionism was strongly seen in German public life like performing crafts, art, architecture, literature, etc.

13 House 35 Heinrich Lauterbach South-West Façade Wrocław Poland

Academic Life From 1930 to 1932 Lauterbach was a lecturer at the Academy of Arts and Crafts in Wroclaw. From 1940 to 1945 he had to do military service. After a teaching assignment at the Technical University of Stuttgart (1947 to 1950), Heinrich Lauterbach became a professor of architecture at the State Academy of Fine Arts in Kassel in 1950. He was also a professor at universities in Poland and Germany.

17 Villa Friedrich Schmelowsky in Gablonz Jablonec nad Nisou, Architect Heinrich Lauterbach 1933 Wikipedia Image by FrantAla

Since 1955 he was a full member of the Berlin Academy of the Arts. He also became a member of the prestigious association of architects, ‘Der Ring’ in Berlin. In the postwar period he taught at the universities in Stuttgart and Kassel.

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Schmelowský Villa “It was designed by the architect Heinrich Lauterbach designed a Villa for the dermatologist Friedrich Schmelowský and his wife Marie. The Schmelowský Villa stands in a quiet area of greenery. From Opletalova Street, it seems closed and inaccessible, but it presents a friendly face on the garden side with its large glazed surfaces. The extended shape of the house with the protruding rounded living area supported on steel pillars and the bathroom oriels with round ‘portholes’ gives the impression of a cruising steamship. The layout of the house and the interiors is timeless and as such it continues to serve its enlightened owners today without the need for any modifications. Experts consider the villa to be an excellent example of the aerodynamic functionalism of the Wroclaw school”. (https://www.jablonec.com/en/jablonec-nad-nisou/monuments-and-culture/the-schmelowsky-villa/).

19 Heinrich Lauteinrich

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716 ARTICLES on MINIMALISM in DESIGN

Post 716 by Gautam Shah

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Minimalism

ARTICLES on MINIMALISM in DESIGN -Gautam Shah

These SIX articles are from my Micro Blog site https://wordpress.com/view/designsynopsis.wordpress.com  The articles are listed in terms of their publication sequence.  The Topics relate to #Minimalism, #Functionalism, #Frugality,

#Brevity, #Abstractions, #Reductionism

192 MINIMALISM in DESIGN

275 BREVITY in DESIGN EXPRESSION

316 APARIGRAHA and MINIMALISM

455 FUNCTIONALISM in DESIGN

595 ABSTRACTION for COMMUNICATION

649 ANEKANTAVADA

 

192 MINIMALISM in DESIGN

An Expression to be effective requires condensation and rearrangement of the content. The minimalism takes many different forms, in Art, it takes abstraction of form or story, in Writing, it turns to recitable poetry, and in Built forms (product design and Architecture) it needs to remain steadfast with sheer functionality.

In audio-visual expression, the reenactions are never faithful to the original, and yet the improvisation can be creative. For minimalism, the productivity is just the frugal use of means, but efficiency of the process. Minimalism is the distinctive impression created through the space and time scales. ‘In design, clarity trumps the brevity’.

The word Frugality stands against Substantial. A thing, substantial, is more ‘down to the earth’, but conversely a minimal entity is infinitesimal or spectral.

Bauhaus was about rejecting the unnecessary things that had begun to undermine the functionality of designed objects. Minimalists ask, What can we strip away without losing the purpose and identity? This is in stark contrast to Redesign Engineering ideology, which ask, What can be redefined? And the search is not a “Eureka”, but adopting and improvising the operative efficiency available in competitive offerings.

275 BREVITY in DESIGN EXPRESSION

Brevity in Design relates to two fundamental measures, the TIME and SPACE. And the calibration of both, leads to efficiency. Brevity in architecture is a reflection of minimalism. It comes from a yearning to ‘shed weight’ so as to be less ‘substantial’. In architecture (and also other forms of design) ‘substantial’ translates into monumental or elaborate. A monumental entity, must confirm to the stabilizing force of gravity, and so should be large and wide-based. An elaborate entity could be multi-functional or multi-faceted, satisfying many needs.

The superfluous ‘becomes intense and dense’ in ‘classical ages’ that reappraisal becomes necessary not to discipline it but to discover the ‘new’. But such pursuit for Brevity starts at personal level, and is initially a preconception. By the time the originator and followers understand the means and methods of it, it may become a style weighed down by ‘substantial’.

Brevity as a doctrine has many subscriptive forms, like, ABC art, minimal art, reductivism, rejective art, De Stijl, neo-plasticism, Bauhaus movement, minimalism, Ludwig Mies van der Rohe’ Less Is More and Traditional Japanese art.

Brevity (First attested in English in 1509)has origins from Latin -brevitās or brevitātem, Anglo-Norman brevité, Old French brieveté (=br -brave + evity -evidence).

316 APARIGRAHA and MINIMALISM

Aparigraha means non-possessiveness or being non-greedy. Aparigraha is the opposite of Parigraha, which means, to amass, crave, seek or seize material possessions.

Aparigraha is one of the virtues in #Jainism. It is also one of the five vows that both the householders (Sravaka) and ascetics must observe. Aparigraha is a desirable self restraint and sincerity (as a fellow citizen) for possessing what is absolutely necessary and so minimum.

(#Jainism -a religion in India, originating in roughly the same time span as Buddhism).

American scholar Richard Gregg coined the term ‘voluntary simplicity’ to describe a lifestyle purged of the inessential. My space is small but my life is big.

The concept of minimalist design was to strip everything down to its essential quality and thereby achieve simplicity. Thereafter nothing can be eliminated ‘to simplify or improve the design’. Minimalists not only ‘reconsider’ the physical qualities but spiritual meaning also.

This usually creates a design statement that is very frugal and personal. And it requires converts, who can understand, believe and accept it. If you are a design service provider that needs spirit and energy of a crusader.

455 FUNCTIONALISM in DESIGN

In the wake of World War I, an international functionalist Design movement emerged, riding on the wave of Modernism. This was triggered by consumer product periodicals that had wide base of female subscribers.

The movement was for achieving purity in design of a product through functional relevance. This was gaining momentum with a similar trend in art, architecture and craft-artefacts. It was for reduction and restrain with the aim to remove the unnecessary and put the essential in the spotlight. These trends in Design were confirming to than current ideas of socialism and humanism.

Louis Sullivan’s 1896, idea of ‘form ever follows function‘ was more metaphysical than being practical to users’ needs. It was more reflective of ‘lack of (‘excessive’) ornamentation. Some treated as ‘bald and brutal’ manner. Philip Johnson daringly ‘held that the profession has no functional responsibility whatsoever’. The postmodern architect Peter Eisenman was more extreme, ‘I don’t do function.’

From all these personal interpretations products, art and architecture began to rely of structural stresses as expressed through straight line and right-angled geometry. This was bereft of emotion, as good design should be ‘clear and unobtrusive.’ The success of functional design was in the rationality and cost effectiveness, as it removed wastage of space and materials.

595 ABSTRACTION for COMMUNICATION

Communication occurs through writing, orally, gestural deliveries and through metaphors or graphics. Authors usually have some knowledge about the target audience.

All communications use spatial or temporal assets and so need to have minimal content. The tradition is ancient one, as knowledge was conveyed orally as Shrut Gyan (Vedic mantras are in easy to remember and in recitable form).

For content rationalization several strategies are resorted to. The contents are abstracted by removing all time-space gaps and less important information. The language in Internet chat-rooms, whatsapp, etc. shows the nature of abstraction spreading across the world. Here common words are shortened by eliminating vowels and are denoted by their phonemes. Symbols and metaphors are also used to squeeze the contents.

The contents are sequenced, with time as the operative element. Oral or gestural deliveries are sequenced in time and so are lineal. Writings can have non-lineal arrangement if aided indexing. Graphical formats are impressionistic, rely on the holistic effect.

The focus of abstraction and communication are through the retrieval and re-enactment of content. So what one strongly feels, desires, believes, becomes the force-de-majeure.

For frugality of expression beginning with a pre declaration or concluding with a definitive statement

The contents can be minimized by forming bridges (e.g. hyperlinks, bibliographies, index) to create a seamless statement or a larger concept. A well linked or cited content vouches its authenticity through circumstantial referencing.

640 ABSTRACTION in ART

Abstraction is a process of removing irrelevant appendages from the idea, thought or concept. This reduces the complexity and increase efficiency.

Abstraction in Art began with the removal or de-emphasis of the background or the context. This allowed the thematic concept to be perceived not just distinctly but in a different manner. The abstract Art was more concerned with the later. The newness of the object independently of its associations or attributes provided an exciting option to impressionism and expressionism. Both the -isms were substantially dependent on negation through colour, texture, form depiction, foreground-background delimitation, depth representation with intensities, perspective or scaling, and environmental connections like light and shadows.

Word Abstract derives from the Latin Abstrahere =to divert and Aabstractus =drawn away, drag away, detach, pull away, divert. It is an assimilated form of Ab =off, away from + Trahere =to draw.

In computer programming abstraction hides all but the relevant data about an object.

Acute abstraction takes away the reality. The subject is not sought or to be recognized. It has no bearing of perception like top-bottom, left-right, real or mirror. But on massing the abstract creations, do reflect the creator and that becomes the style. It is the mannerism that becomes universal. But before that universalism sets in the Art moves to something New.

649 ANEKANTAVADA

The word ‘anekaāntavāda’ is a compound of two Sanskrit words: anekānta and vāda. The word anekānta itself is composed of three root words, ‘an’ (not), ‘eka’ (one) and ‘anta’ (end, side). These three together connote ‘not one ended’, ‘sided’, ‘many-sidedness’, ‘manifoldness’ or ‘many pointedness’.

According to ‘Jain’ (Indian religion that originated in roughly the same time span as Buddhism) doctrine, there is no absolute truth or reality. Anekantavada has also been interpreted, to mean non-absolutism. It is said no single concept can describe the nature of existence and the absolute truth.

Every truth is incomplete, and at best a partial truth. The ultimate truth and reality, if any, are complex and multi faceted. All knowledge must be qualified in many ways, including being affirmed and denied. Anekantavada is a fundamental doctrine of Jainism.

According Jainism reality has many facets, which are difficult to be perceived by one person or through several cycles of life. Different people interpret different aspects of it. Their conclusions are good for them and in the time-space context.

Reality is what we perceive and also of what we do not perceive. We cannot understand the reality unless we are ready to accept both. So all conditions have potentials of many truths.

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DESIGN PROCESSES -Design Handling –Issues of Design 32

Post 714 by Gautam Shah

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13371239983_48e0879262_

Designs occur as a concept, idea or theme, expressed in the form explanation, process of creation, or representations like drawings, models, surrogates, samples, digital images. All Designs are documented briefs for realization. Design also carries a meaning of forming a pattern. Creations by artists or craftsperson may occur as experiment or improvisation, and are not truly designs. Designs need not be realized as a physical reality. A design can be a strategy for operational management or conducting services.

Structure at Kabah 4707705100_82facac70a

For a designer, knowing means to achieve a specific end are very important. Proper record keeping of all design processes helps here. It is very difficult to register dreams, intuitions or inspirations. One needs to recall them in a different time and space context. All intuitions or inspirations, however, absurd, have some physical context of origin. Designers unlike a lay craftsperson or artist, are trained and disciplined, to record their design related thought processes. The thought processes thin out or obliterate completely with passage of time, so must be recorded as early as possible.

825px-warship_diagram_orig

Design Processes for a Lay person and a Designer are very different. A creative lay person simply goes on creating (assembling, modifying) things without being aware why certain things manifest in a certain manner. For a creative person the end is important and means irrelevant. A Designer, on the other hand, tries to discover the logic behind it. Selection of an element may be initially intuitive, but there is always a later effort to justify the actions intellectually. A designer justifies all actions like selection, rejection, inclusion or composition of various elements. In doing so the designer refines the intellectual prowess by equipping with an experience that is:

  • definable
  • repeatable or recreate-able as a whole or in selective parts
  • recordable -its perceptive aspects
  • transferable to another person
  • increase or decrease its intensity (time scale) and diffuse or intensify its concentration (space scale).

Scaffold structure-construction-pattern-line-electricity-531489-pxhere

For these (above) purposes Designers rely on documents. The expertise of documenting all aspect of design helps a designer to handle extensive or more complex intuitions or inspirations. Personal and impulsively formed systems tend to be Holistic, with few or no recognizable sub systems and being very unique require more extensive definitions and so complex documentation. On the other hand, planned systems, whether personal or evolved through multilateral effort, and over a longer period of maturation, consist of many sub sets. Planned systems have subsets that are already formed by vendors and well prescribed.

Easton_Lodge_19th-century_architectural_drawing_by_William_Young

Documents are personal method of transmitting a design to stage of realization. In large projects designs are transmitted to professional executors and in different locations. Design transmission and interpretation, require ‘culture’ of protocols. Many such protocols are not defined but accepted as the traditions. Such traditions make a Design transmission and interpretation fast, but are prone to errors.

architecture-107881

Designers create both, Closed and open-ended systems. Closed Ended Systems are intentionally made holistic. Closed-ended systems are planned to protect the intellectual rights of the innovators. Closed systems are improvise-able only by the author or inventor, whose capacity to update it continuously is finite. Proprietary computer software may be used by a licensee, but its code remains restricted. The closed systems cannot be dissected for inspection or repair, the form is compact and rigid. Closed ended system need nodes of connectivity or gateways to be useful. Such gateways may or may not allow access to others. Such systems become irrelevant as soon as an open-ended option is available. In the world of mutual dependency, closed systems cannot survive much longer.

construction-site-construction-workers-wallpaper-preview

Open-ended Systems evolve from multilateral effort or multi trial endeavours. Where large number of people are involved in design and execution, and where these processes are likely to take place at different time and locations, the system automatically becomes Open ended. The subsystems usually offered by venders, to be replaceable, are conceived as substantially independent systems, by their vendors. Open-ended systems have a ‘design-architecture’, formed through common measurements, materials and procedures. To allow these, open-ended systems have a skeleton type frame structure (infrastructure) and fit-in modules. Open-ended systems have built-in reserves or additional safe capacities, often wasteful, but such reserves make systems more persistent. Open-ended systems allow replacements, improvisations and up-gradations of their subsystems and components.

Overhelming spaces piqsels.com-id-ovdvv

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BRIGHTNESS and COLOUR

Post 712 -by Gautam Shah

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1 Col-18 A ray of Light 32215719528_70dbfd2d22

Brightness and Colour have mutual dependence. Greater brightness leads to sharper visual perception and the colour (spectrum) affects the perceived level of brightness. Physiological and environmental conditions alter the perception of brightness as well as colours. Noon time daylight conditions are accepted as the optimal brightness condition for experiencing the colour. But this condition of high brightness can reduce the contrast between two near by objects and so confuse the colour perception.

3 Col-16 White architecture-2564221

Brightness and colour, both are strongly affected by the immediate past experience. Sudden transition from darkness to brightness or one colour to another affects the pupil dilation.

4 Col-15 Wine 43232031714_e0887c0d36

Brightness and colour relate to reflection from a surface. The quality of a surface, the texture and its grain orientation vis a vis the directions of illumination and observation, affect the perception. Most of the objects reveal their multiple surfaces concurrently but brightness and colour on each of the face seems different. In this scenario the source of illumination (if solar) and observers both vary their position. As a result colour perception is very dynamic phenomenon. In Architecture or Interior design colour matching or determination of brightness is always worrisome affair.

2 Col 14 marble-648432

Next factor is the context in which objects or scenes are observed. The juxtaposition with a lighter background enhances and darker backdrop setting dulls the perception of brightness and colour.

5 Col-12 Brightness architecture-street-spain-day

Colour perception operates at three basic levels, as the capacity of a surface to reflect light, as emission of light from a hot body and the personal capacity to differentiate various colourations. But the conveyance of the ‘colour related experiences’ is even more difficult. The interpretation of colours varies in different setting of locations, cultures and circumstances. Environment and Terrain are two major factors that alter the colour. Environmental conditions like solar brightness, inclination, orientation, cloud-cast conditions, atmospheric refractions, etc. vary depending on the geographic location. These are further attuned by the surface extent, texture, angle and duration of exposure. The terrain offers very pervasive colour context against which everything is observed. The different terrain effects are really not perceived on the site, but experienced through time-space segmented documents like photographs, paintings, videos or movies.

11 Col-8 Contrasting context Dark brown to Black Edouard Manet Olympia Google Art Project Image 3

Charles Sheeler Whiteness Brightness White Sentinels

ART by Edward Hopper Daylight and Artificial light depiction

6 Col-13 Evening Colours san-nicola-arcella-praia-a-mare-sunset-noon

The conditions at ground level such as surface colour, wetness, snow, vegetation cover, topography, orientation, man-made and natural features, surroundings, density, reflection (albedo), absorption, altitudes etc. determine the colour quality of light. Since all these surface conditions are very localized, the colour variations are conditioned by them. The buildings in surrounding areas, immediate terrain and water bodies have a bearing on the quality of illumination entering a building.

7 Col-2 France_Haut_Rhin_Colmar

12 Cantebury Cathedral Day-Night

Illumination in a space is Natural (daylight, chiefly solar origin), Artificial and often combination of both. Daylight has Four important facets, the illuminance, warmth, colour and the variability. Daylight on an outdoor location is a combination of direct sunlight, diffuse sky radiation, and both of these as reflected from the earth and other objects. The brightness and colour of daylight are governed by the sky conditions, like clouds, fog, smoke, atmospheric pollution, morning and evening twilight zones (when the atmospheric scattering of predawn sunlight takes place).

16 Col-5 Twilight colours in sky

The solar radiation as received on the surface of Earth varies from place to place, season to season, day to day and even hour to hour. Equatorial regions receive more radiation, than polar regions. Darker surfaces, like the tropical forests reflect very little radiation, 10 %, compared to snow bound high latitude areas, which nearly reflect 80 % of the energy received. Cloudy and dust polluted areas receive less solar energy. Direct sunlight at noon can have illuminance as high as 120,000 lux (Compared to this moon light is <1 lux). Sunlight is a warm colour light, at noon, the colour-temperatures are about 5500°k, bluish-white or ‘cool colours’ and at sunset, these are about 2700-3000°k (degrees kelvin), are yellowish-white through red or called ‘warm colours’.

8 Col 1 Street-in-Eguisheim France

The reflected light from the exterior surfaces of buildings, roads and pavements affect the illumination on lower floors of the buildings. These cause minor variations due to movements of people, vehicles, ripples on water bodies and leaves of trees. Upper floors of tall buildings, except in similar localities, receive fairly consistent, but very strong daylight from nominal windows. Such floors with low or no sill windows (glass curtain walls) get varying levels of illumination, often strongly coloured.

14 Col-9 2016_Newport_Beach_Boat_Parade_by_D_Ramey_Logan

Reflectance of rooms’ interior surfaces impacts the perception of brightness and colours in a space. The surface reflectance is a function of colour, its texture (matt, dull-sheen, glossy) and the orientation of grains of textures. Extreme levels of brightness, if, are present within the same field of view, can be calibrated by the surface texture and colour. Historic buildings, sites and remains, are conserved with surroundings updated through paved stones of same colour-texture as the original built-form or green lawns. These choices, alter the degree of interior brightness, as well the quality of colour.

Terrain Colours

Similarly cities conserved with enforced thematic colours (blue -Jodhpur, Pink -Jaipur, both in India, white -Santorini, sienna browns -Italian, Piazza del Campo and ), create monotonous colour tonality in interior spaces.

Bowling_Green_Bridge,_Raglan_Castle_-_geograph.org.uk_-_1531252

For artificial illumination sources Brightness and Colour have some sensorial connection. Artificial light sources one commonly accepted rating, the Colour rendering index (CRI). It is supposed to index ‘how the colour will look’. High CRI (nearly equal to daylight in afternoon) will mean colour will look ‘real and right’ and low CRI will mean unreal (weird) and wrong. CRI has limited relevance, if only the illumination source is white (Candles and incandescent bulbs can have high CRI ,but are off-white. The sodium lamps have low CRI but high brightness.

9 Col All Colours

13 Col Brightness_and_colorfulnes

 

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PETER BEHRENS -Product Designer

Post 710 -by Gautam Shah

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Peter Behrens (1868-1940) was a German artist, architect and designer. His creative conceptual clarity, art, products, architecture and typography all have influenced a generation in Europe. He was born in Hamburg. He studied painting at the School of Art in Karlsruhe (1886-1889). He spent the 1890s in Munich as a painter and designer, practicing in than current Jugendstil or German Art Nouveau style. He was actively involved with the Berlin Sezession group of artists, architects and designers in 1893.

Peter Behrens Products

Sezession was an Austrian and German group of progressive artists, who in 1892 (first in Munich and then in Berlin) formed a separate entity, breaking away from the conservative artists. The secession was a space for people from different backgrounds to work together to influence a new culture of German Modernism. The First World War created a negative impact on the Sezession but Hitler’s rule removed it from the scene.

2 Glasgo School of art

Peter Behrens was the co-founder of the Deutscher Werkbund, whose aim was to link industrialists and artists, paving the way for design-led technology.

The Deutscher Werkbund (German Association of Craftsmen, German Labour League or German Work Federation was -ˈdɔʏtʃər ˈvɛrkbʊnd) was inspired by the Government, in 1907. Its initial concept was to bring together designers and manufacturers to integrate the traditional crafts and industrial mass production techniques. Its motto was ‘Vom Sofakissen zum Städtebau’ (from sofa cushions to city-building).

It became the most important group of artists, architects, designers, and industrialists, to support the development of modern architecture and industrial design. Werkbund was first led by Herman Muthesius. Other key members included Mies van der Rohe and Eliel Saarninen. This initiative later led to formation of the Bauhaus School of Design.

Werkbund members believed that unity and beauty of form was essential and saw industrialization as a force that demanded a re-calibration of the German aesthetic standards. They believed that German designers needed to shift their focus toward designing objects that could be mass produced, to object based on its functional logic, and that each object should be honest about its materials. Its mandate was to enhance the quality of German products in world markets, mainly England and United States in pre WW-I period.

3 Henry_van_de_Velde_-_Chair_-_1895

Peter Behrens (with Henry van de Velde and Muthesius) was also part of the original leaders who developed the philosophy of Gesamtkultur #a cohesive cultural vision where design was the central force for fresh, man-made environment. The visual language perceived for Gesamtkultur was bereft of ornamentation, in favour of simple and function. For the cohesive cultural vision and for re-configuring, optimizing and mechanizing their productions, they discussed all areas of design, graphic, typography, products industrial products design, architecture, textiles, etc. Hermann Muthesius had returned from England to Germany with Morris’s Arts & Crafts concepts, but here he was focussing on mechanizing the production with high-quality design and material integrity.

4 Haus Muthesius Musikzimmer

# Gesamtkultur, as a word was coined by 19th C German composer Richard Wagner, who saw his operas as a total work of art, synthesizing music, poetry, drama, theatre, costume, and set design. It is used for a work produced by a synthesis of various art forms.

18 Dining Room set Behrens

19 Behrens

Peter Behrens, began working as a painter, illustrator and bookbinder. He in 1899, under the influence of J. M. Olbrich moved from Art to Architecture. He was a self-taught architect. In 1899 Behrens accepted the invitation of the Grand Duke Ernst-Ludwig of Hesse to be the second member of Darmstadt Artists’ Colony. Here Behrens built his own house as a debut in architecture. He also designed furniture, furnishings paintings etc. for it. This building in Jugendstil style (German equivalent of Art Nouveau style), though Behrens never lived in it, is considered to be the turning point in his life.

5 PeterBehrens-Affiche1901

Behrens became director of the School of Applied Arts in Düsseldorf (1903-1907). At Düsseldorf, Behrens became interested in Theosophist geometry. The curvilinear forms that he once used in own residence were now replaced with the rectilinear geometry. At Dusseldorf Behrens designed a remarkable building, the Crematorium in Hagen (1906), using the plane surfaces and incised linear decoration with experimental cubic symmetry of geometric volume. He also designed several other buildings in now sober and austere style. This included the Exhibition hall for the Northwestern German Art Exhibition at Oldenburg (1905). With new prestige, he began to frequent the bohemian circles and showed interest in subjects related to the reformation of the lifestyles.

6 Musik zimmer Haus Behrens Schiedmayer

Deutscher Werkbund principles of quality, as formulated in 1907 was the first theoretical formulation for pursuit of Quality. These concepts were so remarkable that several decades later QMS ( Quality Management Standards, ISO 9000) of the ISO and the SA (Social Accountability Standards ISO 8000) had similar foundations.

7 La maison de Peter Behrens (Musée_de_la_colonie_d'artistes,_Darmstadt)_(8728647639)

Germany was embracing a new philosophy and visual style for its simplicity and exactness. The new products, with their high level of functional utility and beauty were expected to build a new future for German exports. Behrens, with his multi disciplinary experiences was capable of designing things in diverse fields. As a product designer, in 1898, he designed glass bottles and different types of wine glasses. In 1907, Behrens was invited for the post of an artistic adviser to Germany’s largest electric company AEG (Allgemeine Elektricitäts Gesellschaft, Berlin). He was required to form a monumental image for the prestige of the firm by arranging mass production with artistic expression. His job included design of electrical equipments, fixtures, branding packaging, catalogues, posters, architecture for factories and workshops.

8 Behrens Office

Peter Behrens, in Berlin office, between 1908-1911, designed five large industrial buildings. The Berlin office had during the period apprentices and design assistants like, Walter Gropius 1907-1910, Mies van der Rohe 1908-1910 and 1911-1912, and Le Corbusier, Adolf Meyer and Jean Kramer. Mies worked on interiors of two houses, AEG Small Motors Factory and Assembly Hall for Large Machines. Other works include Berlin Turbine factory, High Voltage Factory, AEG factory complex, two houses Cuno and the Schroeder, Osthaus -the site plan for a group of villas in Hohenhagen, Mannesmann Administration Building in Düsseldorf and the Gas Works in Frankfurt-Osthafen.

9 AEG Turbine factory facade.jpg

22 AEG Voltastraße Alte Fabrik für Bahnmaterial

25 Peter Behrens AEG High Tension Factory, Berlin

The Turbine Factory for AEG, of exposed steel, concrete, and large areas of glass was admired Le Corbusier as the ‘cathedral of labour’, in 1912. The Mannesmann Administration Building in Düsseldorf and the Gas Works in Frankfurt-Osthafen both, were designed in 1910-12.

17 Behrens Peter Hoechst administration offices 1920-27, central hall elevations

21 Behrens Hoechst administration offices 1920-27, central hall elevations

10 Project Mies

Behrens always made the final decisions and had total control of the design process. The clarity of the volumetric articulations is evidenced by the choice of the points of view. The buildings were always represented in relation to the environment. He showed an ability to express the materials in the facades through the representational graphics and in the reality of built form.

23 Peter Behrens Bau Oberhausen

11 The Mannesmann house

Design is not about decorating functional forms – it is about creating forms that accord with the character of the object and that show new technologies to advantage.’ –Peter Behrens.

13 Crematorium

The transition between this naturalistic period and his later activities, in the Berlin office show a search for new linguistic conventions based on abstraction, anti-naturalism and expressionism with a degree of monumentality. Peter Behrens remained head of the Department of Architecture at the Prussian Academy of Arts in Berlin. In 1922 he became a professor of Architecture at the Academy in Vienna, and thereafter little works of consequence emerged. Behrens became associated with Hitler’s urban dreams for Berlin. Hitler also admired Behrens’s Saint Petersburg Embassy.

14 Behrens's Saint Petersburg Embassy

From 1920 and 1924, he was responsible for the design and construction of the Technical Administration Building (Technische Verwaltungsgebäude) of Hoechst AG in Hoechst. In 1926, Behrens designed a home for Englishman Wenman Joseph Bassett-Lowke in Northampton, UK. It is regarded as the modernist house in Britain. In 1928 Behrens won an international competition for the construction of the New Synagogue, Žilina.

12 Peter Behrens Neologic Synagogue in Zilina 1928-1931

15 Behrens Mausoleum 1925, elevation + Plan

Behrens was AEG’s chief artistic advisor from 1907-1914 and is now considered the Father of Industrial Design. He designed several domestic products for use of electricity. The domestic products were conceived for mass production, utility and not have ‘impersonal’ identity. The objects include fan or Ventilatoren in 1908, light fixtures and electric teakettle. The Fan evolved from the first electric fan, created by Schuyler Wheeler in 1886, with variations in speed setting and wind direction. The electric kettle was the first product with immersion heating elements, integrated into the body of the kettle rather than placing it as an adjunct element. The kettles were produced in several shapes (cylindrical, octagonal or oval), materials (chromium and brass), and surface finishes. Of the possible 216 configurations only 30 were produced. He devised, the Sans serif fonts for the reductive graphic style. Behrens is credited with Schrift (1901-7), Antiqua (1907-9) and Medieval (1914), through Klingspor Type Foundry.

26 Behrens 1930 Berlin Bernauer Strasse subway

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