Organizations get assignments from both, internal and external clients. Large and complex assignments that require distinctive effort are also called Projects. Projects consist of smaller units or jobs that require routine efforts.

Every organization develops its own methods of project handling. A Project is led by a core group of experts or a team leader. In Consultancy Organizations each project requires distinctive human skills. In Manufacturing organizations there is a heavy dependence on tools, equipment and plants, so the jobs are defined for their efficient use. Service organizations are governed by time as the key element, so their jobs are set in time modules.


A Job is a trade, skill or schedule specific work-module. It allows individualised attention and effective use of the available resources. Its efficiency of execution or operation can be examined and upgraded independently of other jobs. Jobs are handled on continuous as well as batch bases.


Organizations that repeatedly handle very large and complex assignments develop specific departments. Such specific job handling capacities are universal across that class of organizations. So spare capacities are offered to others, and excess work is outsourced. Jobs of routine nature are handled productively within the organization, but novel needs are better outsourced.


Other activities of the organizations

Prime activity of any organization is to earn a gain, but simultaneously many Conventional activities also occur within the organization.


● Conventional activities that sustain the organization as a functional entity.

1.1 Determination and Evaluation of aims, policies, goals

1.2 Planning and deployment of financial resources

1.3 Planning and Acquisition of other facilities

1.4 Procurement and Upkeep of assets

1.5 Personnel Management.


● Peripheral activities that add to the advantages for the organization.

2.1 Public relations

2.2 Client relations

2.3 Other relations (contractors, suppliers, co-professionals, associates, consultants, free lancers, etc.)

2.4 Facilitating the execution of assignments (raw material procurement, materials handling, erection, execution, manufacturing processes, testing)

2.5 Tasks’ evaluation (quality controls, testing, certification)

2.6 Marketing (goods, services), billing, money collection

2.7 Servicing (post execution or delivery, servicing, maintenance).


● Efficiency and productivity of the organization.

3.1 Determination and definition of procedures

3.2 Standardization of inputs, outputs and procedures

3.3 Information collection, Inquisitions, investigations and surveys,

3.4 Installation and management of information storage, manipulation and retrieval devices

3.5 Publications and dissemination of organization’s output (data, concepts, ideas) material.


Elements of Jobs or Projects in Organizations


Design organizations operate with assignments, which have Six basic elements:

1 Person/ s who: assign the task, determine roles, perform the tasks, oversee or supervise the task performers.

2 Task body: physical things like: parts, objects, raw materials, etc., and non physical things like: concepts, ideas, themes, etc.

3 Information, data: external inputs: from clients, organization’s own search, and internal inputs: from archived data, evaluations, judgments, from employees’ knowhow, site reports, feedback, by manipulation of various inputs.

4 Tools, plants, equipments Space, location facilities, methodology, formulations, processes, schedules, acquisition, replacement.

5 Services conveyance, communication, storage, data management, welfare, resources management, public relations, goodwill creation, information dissemination.

6 Time Schedules of delivery, servicing, rate of operation, rate of returns.